Pinkerton, founded as the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, is a private security guard and detective agency established in the United States by Scotsman Allan Pinkerton in 1850 and a subsidiary of Securitas AB. Pinkerton became famous when he claimed to have foiled a plot to assassinate president-elect Abraham Lincoln, who hired Pinkerton agents for his personal security during the Civil War. Pinkerton's agents performed services ranging from security guarding to private military contracting work. Notably, the Pinkerton National Detective Agency hired women and minorities from its founding, a practice uncommon at the time. Pinkerton was the largest private law enforcement organization in the world at the height of its power. During the labor strikes of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, businessmen hired the Pinkerton Agency to infiltrate unions, supply guards, keep strikers and suspected unionists out of factories, recruit goon squads to intimidate workers. One such confrontation was the Homestead Strike of 1892, in which Pinkerton agents were called in to reinforce the strikebreaking measures of industrialist Henry Clay Frick, acting on behalf of Andrew Carnegie.
The ensuing battle between Pinkerton agents and striking workers led to the deaths of seven Pinkerton agents and nine steelworkers. The Pinkertons were used as guards in coal and lumber disputes in Illinois, New York and West Virginia as well as the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and the Battle of Blair Mountain in 1921; the company now operates as "Pinkerton Consulting & Investigations, Inc. d.b.a. Pinkerton Corporate Risk Management", a division of the Swedish security company Securitas AB; the former Government Services division, PGS, now operates as Securitas Critical Infrastructure Services, Inc. In the 1850s, Allan Pinkerton, Scottish detective and spy, met Chicago attorney Edward Rucker in a local Masonic Hall and formed the North-Western Police Agency known as the Pinkerton Agency. Historian Frank Morn writes: "By the mid-1850s a few businessmen saw the need for greater control over their employees. In February 1855, Allan Pinkerton, after consulting with six midwestern railroads, created such an agency in Chicago."
In 1871, Congress appropriated $50,000 to the new Department of Justice to form a sub-organization devoted to "the detection and prosecution of those guilty of violating federal law." The amount was insufficient for the new DOJ to fashion an internal investigating unit, so they contracted out the services to the Pinkerton National Detective Agency. However, since passage of the Anti-Pinkerton Act in 1893, federal law has stated that an "individual employed by the Pinkerton Detective Agency, or similar organization, may not be employed by the Government of the United States or the government of the District of Columbia." July 27, 1877: J. J. White, hired as a "Special Officer" during a strike, was shot and killed. July 19, 1919: Hans Rassmuson, Special Officer, was shot and killed. March 12, 1924: Frank Miller, Pinkerton Watchman, was shot and killed. In the 1870s, Franklin B. Gowen president of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, hired the agency to "investigate" the labor unions in the company's mines.
A Pinkerton agent, James McParland, using the alias "James McKenna", infiltrated the Molly Maguires, a 19th-century secret society of Irish-American coal miners, leading to the downfall of the labor organization. The incident inspired Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes novel The Valley of Fear. A Pinkerton agent appears in a small role in "The Adventure of the Red Circle", a 1911 Holmes story. A 1970 film, The Molly Maguires, was loosely based upon the incident as well. On July 6, 1892, during the Homestead Strike, 300 Pinkerton detectives from New York and Chicago were called in by Carnegie Steel's Henry Clay Frick to protect the Pittsburgh-area mill and strikebreakers; this resulted in a firefight and siege in which 16 men were killed, 23 others were wounded. To restore order, two brigades of the Pennsylvania militia were called out by the Governor; as a legacy of the Pinkertons' involvement, a bridge connecting the nearby Pittsburgh suburbs of Munhall and Rankin was named Pinkerton's Landing Bridge.
Harry Orchard was arrested by the Idaho police and confessed to Pinkerton agent James McParland that he assassinated former Governor Frank Steunenberg of Idaho in 1905. Orchard testified, under threat of hanging, against Western Federation of Miners president Big Bill Haywood, naming him as having hired the hit. With a stirring defense by Clarence Darrow and the other defendants of the WFM were acquitted in a nationally publicized trial. Orchard received a death sentence. In 1890, Indiana University hired the Pinkerton Agency to investigate the authorship of a student "bogus", an underground newsletter, distributed throughout town. While boguses were not uncommon, this particular one attacked IU faculty and students with such graphic language that Bloomington residents complained; the detective arrived in Bloomington on April 26 and spent nearly two weeks conducting interviews and dispatching regular reports back to the home office. In the end, it was town talk; the seven Beta Theta Pi fraternity brothers were from locally prominent families, including the son of a Trustee, but all were expelled.
In 1892, the Trustees granted five of the men their degrees and all seven were reinstated in good standing. Pinkerton agents were hired to track western outlaws Jesse James, the Reno Gang, the Wild Bunch. On March 1
CJSQ-FM is a French-language Canadian radio station located in Quebec City, broadcasting on 92.7 MHz using an omnidirectional antenna with an effective radiated power of 2,840 watts. The station broadcasts a French language classical music format branded as Radio-Classique Québec, is owned by Groupe Musique Greg as a sister station to CJPX-FM, a classical music station serving Montreal; the station was founded and owned by Radio-Classique Québec, Inc. a company, 90% owned by Jean-Pierre Coallier. While it was controlled by the same principal owners, the two companies are separate. In December 2014, it was announced that both CJSQ and CJPX would be sold to Groupe Musique Greg, a company founded by Montreal musician and radio personality Gregory Charles. Charles' offer to buy the two stations came in response to rumours that Coallier was looking to retire and sell them. Under Charles' ownership, the station broadcasts a selection of orchestral music and chanson. Most of the programming is simulcast with CJPX-FM, with Béatrice Zacharie and Jasmin Hains originating from CJSQ-FM and simulcast in Montreal on CJPX-FM.
Official website CJSQ-FM history – Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC Canadian station database for CJSQ-FM
Our Teachings is an Urdu book published in 1902 by the founder of the Ahmadiyya movement, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, India. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, a Messiah and Mahdi claimant, attempted to revive the purported original and pristine teachings of Islam, he entitled the book "Noah's Ark", implying that those who wanted to be saved from the deluge of irreligion and materialism should join the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. Published in many languages, this English edition has been published by ‘Islam International Publications Limited’. U. K. ISBN 1-85372-394-0]