Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, in short, often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city, in the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography and Herzegovina is a region that traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and socially, the country has a rich history, the Ottomans brought Islam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I.
In the interwar period, Bosnia was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. The country is home to three ethnic groups or, constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats third, a native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. The terms Herzegovinian and Bosnian are maintained as a rather than ethnic distinction. Moreover, the country was simply called Bosnia until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the 19th century and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 cantons, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment in July 2008.
The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could be derived from Illyrian Bass-an-as which would be a diversion of the Proto-Indo-European root bos or bogh, meaning the running water. According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna, the name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stephen Vukčić Kosačas title, Herceg of Hum and the Coast. Hum, formerly Zahumlje, was a medieval principality that was conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century. Bosnia is located in the western Balkans, bordering Croatia to the north and west, Serbia to the east and it has a coastline about 20 kilometres long surrounding the city of Neum. It lies between latitudes 42° and 46° N, and longitudes 15° and 20° E, the countrys name comes from the two regions Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have a very vaguely defined border between them
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earths surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Within a long-term ice age, individual pulses of cold climate are termed glacial periods, in the terminology of glaciology, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres. In 1742 Pierre Martel, an engineer and geographer living in Geneva, two years he published an account of his journey. He reported that the inhabitants of that valley attributed the dispersal of erratic boulders to the glaciers, similar explanations were reported from other regions of the Alps. In 1815 the carpenter and chamois hunter Jean-Pierre Perraudin explained erratic boulders in the Val de Bagnes in the Swiss canton of Valais as being due to glaciers previously extending further. An unknown woodcutter from Meiringen in the Bernese Oberland advocated a similar idea in a discussion with the Swiss-German geologist Jean de Charpentier in 1834, comparable explanations are known from the Val de Ferret in the Valais and the Seeland in western Switzerland and in Goethes scientific work.
Such explanations could be found in parts of the world. When the Bavarian naturalist Ernst von Bibra visited the Chilean Andes in 1849–1850, European scholars had begun to wonder what had caused the dispersal of erratic material. From the middle of the 18th century, some discussed ice as a means of transport, the Swedish mining expert Daniel Tilas was, in 1742, the first person to suggest drifting sea ice in order to explain the presence of erratic boulders in the Scandinavian and Baltic regions. In 1795, the Scottish philosopher and gentleman naturalist, James Hutton, two decades later, in 1818, the Swedish botanist Göran Wahlenberg published his theory of a glaciation of the Scandinavian peninsula. He regarded glaciation as a regional phenomenon, only a few years later, the Danish-Norwegian geologist Jens Esmark argued a sequence of worldwide ice ages. In a paper published in 1824, Esmark proposed changes in climate as the cause of those glaciations and he attempted to show that they originated from changes in Earths orbit.
During the following years, Esmarks ideas were discussed and taken over in parts by Swedish, Scottish, at the University of Edinburgh Robert Jameson seemed to be relatively open to Esmarks ideas, as reviewed by Norwegian professor of glaciology Bjørn G. Andersen. Jamesons remarks about ancient glaciers in Scotland were most probably prompted by Esmark, in Germany, Albrecht Reinhard Bernhardi, a geologist and professor of forestry at an academy in Dreissigacker, since incorporated in the southern Thuringian city of Meiningen, adopted Esmarks theory. In a paper published in 1832, Bernhardi speculated about former polar ice caps reaching as far as the zones of the globe. When he read his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, most scientists remained sceptical, Venetz convinced his friend Jean de Charpentier. De Charpentier transformed Venetzs idea into a theory with a limited to the Alps. In fact, both men shared the same volcanistic, or in de Charpentiers case rather plutonistic assumptions, about the Earths history, in 1834, de Charpentier presented his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence and other forms of luminescence, many materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have properties that make them ideal for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors and it must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, pigments are used for coloring paint, plastic, cosmetics and other materials. Most pigments used in manufacturing and the arts are dry colorants. This powder is added to a binder, a neutral or colorless material that suspends the pigment. A distinction is made between a pigment, which is insoluble in its vehicle, and a dye, which either is itself a liquid or is soluble in its vehicle. A colorant can act as either a pigment or a dye depending on the vehicle involved, in some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt.
The resulting pigment is called a lake pigment, the term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of their solubility. In 2006, around 7.4 million tons of inorganic, asia has the highest rate on a quantity basis followed by Europe and North America. By 2020, revenues will have risen to approx, the global demand on pigments was roughly US$20.5 billion in 2009, around 1. 5-2% up from the previous year. It is predicted to increase in a growth rate in the coming years. The worldwide sales are said to increase up to US$24.5 billion in 2015, pigments appear the colors they are because they selectively reflect and absorb certain wavelengths of visible light. White light is an equal mixture of the entire spectrum of visible light with a wavelength in a range from about 375 or 400 nanometers to about 760 or 780 nm. When this light encounters a pigment, parts of the spectrum are absorbed by the molecules or ions of the pigment, in organic pigments such as diazo or phthalocyanine compounds the light is absorbed by the conjugated systems of double bonds in the molecule.
Some of the inorganic pigments such as vermilion or cadmium yellow absorb light by transferring an electron from the ion to the positive ion
Ochre (/ˈoʊkər/ OH-kər, from Greek, ὠχρός, ōkhrós, or ocher, is a natural earth pigment containing hydrated iron oxide, which ranges in color from yellow to deep orange or brown. It is the name of the produced by this pigment. A variant of ochre containing an amount of hematite, or dehydrated iron oxide, has a reddish tint known as red ochre. Ochre is a family of pigments, which includes yellow ochre, red ochre, purple ochre, sienna. The major ingredient of all the ochres is iron oxide-hydroxide, known as limonite, which gives them a yellow color. Yellow ochre, FeO·nH 2O, is a hydrated iron hydroxide called gold ochre Red ochre, Fe 2O3, takes its color from the mineral hematite. Purple ochre, is identical to red ochre chemically but of a different hue caused by different light diffraction properties associated with an average particle size. Brown ochre, FeO, is a hydrated iron oxide. Sienna contains both limonite and an amount of manganese oxide, which makes it darker than ochre. Umber pigments contain a proportion of manganese which make them a dark brown.
When natural sienna and umber pigments are heated, they are dehydrated and some of the limonite is transformed into hematite, giving them more reddish colors, called burnt sienna and burnt umber. Ochres are non-toxic, and can be used to make an oil paint that dries quickly, modern ochre pigments often are made using synthetic iron oxide. Pigments which use natural ochre pigments indicate it with the name PY-43 on the label, pieces of ochre engraved with abstract designs have been found at the site of the Blombos Cave in South Africa, dated to around 75,000 years ago. In Wales, the paleolithic burial called the Red Lady of Paviland from its coating of red ochre has been dated to around 33,000 years before present. Paintings of animals made with red and yellow ochre pigments have been found in sites at Pech Merle in France. The cave of Lascaux has an image of a horse colored with yellow estimated to be 17,300 years old. In Ancient Egypt, yellow was associated with gold, which was considered to be eternal, the skin and bones of the gods were believed to be made of gold.
The Egyptians used yellow extensively in tomb painting, though occasionally they used orpiment
University of Cape Town
The University of Cape Town is a public research university located in Cape Town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The language of instruction is English, the roots of UCT lie in the establishment of the South African College in 1829 as a school for boys. In 1874 the South African College Schools, teaching up to level, were separated from the College. In 1887 the first male residence in Southern Africa was established, known as College House Residence, in 1918 the South African College was elevated to full university status with the power to award degrees, and renamed the University of Cape Town. UCT moved to the Groote Schuur Estate campus in 1928, during the apartheid era, roughly 1960-1990, many UCT students consistently opposed apartheid, and the university was a bastion of liberalism. However, the demographics of the university did not begin to change meaningfully until the 1980s,1987 saw frequent clashes between protesting students and police, with reporting of police presence on the campus being censored by the government.
On 24 April 1987 the police entered the campus and this marked the first time since 1972 that South Africas police services had suppressed a demonstration at a white university, the UCT crest was designed in 1859 by Charles Davidson Bell, Surveyor-General of the Cape Colony at the time. Bell was an accomplished artist who designed medals and the triangular Cape stamp, the main teaching campus, known as Upper Campus, is located on the Rhodes Estate on the slopes of Devils Peak. This campus contains, in a compact site, the faculties of Science, Commerce. Upper Campus is centered on Jameson Hall, the location for graduation and other ceremonial events, the original buildings and layout of Upper Campus were designed by JM Solomon and built between 1928 and 1930. Since that time, many buildings have been added as the university has grown. Upper Campus is home to the library, The Chancellor Oppenheimer library which holds the majority of the Universitys 1.3 million volume collection. Contiguous with Upper Campus, but separated from it by university sports fields, the state of the art artificial grass soccer field has been approved by FIFA for training for World Cup teams.
The Upper and Lower Campuses together are referred to as the main campus. The Faculty of Health Sciences is located on the Medical School campus next to the Groote Schuur Hospital in Observatory, the Fine Arts and Drama departments are located on the Hiddingh Campus in central Cape Town. The Universitys original building, now known as the Egyptian Building, the only other campus built in this style was the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond, Virginia in the United States. The UCT Graduate School of Business is located on the Breakwater Lodge Campus at the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront. For his contribution of the tract of land which the campus was founded on, the statue was removed in April 2015 following pressure from student groups due to its perceived representation of South Africas racist past and the universitys inadequate representation of blacks
Blombos Cave is an archaeological site located in Blombosfontein Nature Reserve, about 300 km east of Cape Town on the Southern Cape coastline, South Africa. The cave contains Middle Stone Age deposits currently dated at between c.100,000 and 70,000 years before present, and a Late Stone Age sequence dated at between 2000 and 300 years BP. The cave site was first excavated in 1991 and field work has been conducted there on a basis since 1997 – and is ongoing. The excavations at Blombos Cave have yielded important new information on the evolution of modern humans. Archaeological material and faunal remains recovered from the Middle Stone Age phase in Blombos Cave – dated to ca, on 29 May 2015 Heritage Western Cape formally protected the site as a provincial heritage site. Blombos Cave was first excavated in 1991–1992 as a part of Professor Christopher S. Henshilwood’s doctoral thesis, at the University of Cambridge, Holocene archaeology of the coastal Garcia State Forest, southern Cape, South Africa.
Blombos Cave was originally one of nine Holocene Later Stone Age sites that Henshilwood excavated, in 1997 GSF8 was renamed Blombos Cave and given its current acronym, BBC. From 1999 to 2011 in total ten seasons, each six weeks long, have been carried out at the cave site. From the initial excavations conducted in the early 1990s, the Blombos Cave project has adopted and established new, while Henshilwood’s initial, doctoral research was directed towards the more recent Later Stone Age occupation levels, the focus since 1997 has been on the Middle Stone Age sequence. In 2010–2015 the cave site is the focus of the multi-disciplinary, the TRACSYMBOLS project is led by Professor Christopher S. The cave is situated in a cliff face 34.5 meter above sea level. The cave formation is set in calcretes of the Wankoe Formation, the interior of Blombos Cave comprises a single main chamber, and the entire interior cave floor is about 39m² behind the drip line. West of the main chamber, anthropogenic deposit extends inwardly 3-5 meter.
In this area, the ceiling lowers to a point where it falls in level with the surface. In the area north-east of the chamber, deposit expands into a low laying ante-chamber of unknown extent due to the sand filling it. By the end of the 2011 field season about 19. 5m² of interior cave has been dug during the Blombos Cave excavations. The talus, which consists of Middle Stone Age deposit, rock fall and unconsolidated sediments, is stabilised by an area of large. Calcium carbonate rich ground water seeps in from the roof and percolates through the interior sediments
Diepkloof Rock Shelter
These date around 60,000 years ago. The symbolic patterns consist of lines crossed at right angles or oblique angles by hatching and it has been suggested that by the repetition of this motif, early humans were trying to communicate something. Perhaps they were trying to express the identity of the individual or the group, the cave is about 17 kilometres from the shoreline of the Atlantic in a semi-arid area, near Elands Bay about 150 kilometres north of Cape Town. It occurs in sandstone in a butte that overlooks in an east direction 100 metres above the Verlorenvlei River. It is about 25 metres wide and 15 metres deep, research is based upon finds discovered in a trench excavated within it that is 16 metres across and 3.6 metres in depth. The deposits consist of burnt and nonburnt organic residues and ash that came from hearths, ash dumps and it was first excavated in 1973 by John Parkington and Cedric Poggenpoel. Quartz and quartzite predominate the earliest unit with few occurrences of silcrete, during 70-74 ka unit, silcrete has replaced quartz while quartzite is still fairly dominant.
From 65-70 ka quartz becomes dominant again with quartzite being present,270 fragments of ostrich eggshell containers have been found covered with engraved geometric patterns. The fragments have a size of 20–30 mm, though a number have been fitted into larger 80 ×40 mm fragments. It is estimated that fragments from 25 containers have been found, eggshell fragments have been found throughout the period of occupation of the cave but those with engraving are found only in several layers within the Howiesons Poort period. These occur across 18 stratigraphic units, particularly those with the stratigraphic names Frank and this suggests the tradition of engraving lasted for several thousand years. The engraving consists of abstract linear patterns, including a hatched band motif. One fragment has two lines that might have been circular around the container. Moreover, they show the development of a tradition and the complex use of symbols to mediate social interactions. The large number of marked pieces shows that there were rules for composing designs, earlier finds exist of symbolism, such as the 75, 000-year-old engraved ochre chunks found in the Blombos cave, but these are isolated and difficult to tell apart from meaningless doodles.
The engravings are found on ostrich eggshells that were used as water containers, Ostrich eggshells have an average volume of 1 litre. They may have had drinking spouts, holes to enable them to be strung as a canteen for easier carrying and they involved skill to make, with one of the researchers involved noting Ostrich egg shells are quite hard. Doing such engravings is not so easy, the preservation of organic matter such as wood, grass and fruits at the site has been described as exceptional
Heritage Western Cape
Heritage Western Cape is a provincial heritage resources authority established by the Minister of Cultural Affairs and Sport of the government of the Western Cape province in South Africa. It is an entity set up under the terms of the National Heritage Resources Act. It is mandated to care for part of South Africas national estate that is of provincial and local significance in the Western Cape. It may delegate responsibility for heritage resources of local significance to competent municipal governments, Heritage Western Cape is the successor body to the former National Monuments Council in the Western Cape. Under the 1996 Constitution of South Africa, cultural matters are a competency shared between national and provincial government and this necessitated the creation of a system whereby many of the responsibilities of the former National Monuments Council were devolved to provincial level via the National Heritage Resources Act. Heritage Western Cape was hence established by regulation on 25 October 2002, in 2003 a Council was appointed by the province’s Minister for Cultural Affairs and Sport and has since met on a quarterly basis.
The Council has established a number of sub-committees which meet regularly to carry out the legal responsibilities of the organisation, for the most part this concerns the processing of almost 3300 applications per annum for work on sites protected under the terms of the National Heritage Resources Act. Heritage Western Cape inherited responsibility for approximately 2,500 former national monuments, the National Heritage Resources Act provides for a greater variety of protection than did its predecessor and the organisation has continued to institute protections of various forms under its terms. A large part of work is dedicated to transforming the heritage landscape of the Western Cape to ensure that the heritage of all its people enjoys equal recognition. The logo of the organisation was launched by the provincial Minister for Cultural Affairs, to clarify areas of uncertainty regarding mandate, representatives of Heritage Western Cape meet quarterly with SAHRA. It consists of up to 14 members appointed for a term of office.
The Council meets quarterly and has established an Executive Committee to manage its business between its meetings, the Executive is chaired by the chairperson of the Council and is otherwise made up of the chairpersons of standing sub-committees. The terms of office of the present Council and its sub-committees expire on 31 August 2016, there are five standing sub-committees which oversee aspects of the day-to-day business of the organisation. They are made up of specialists who are recognised for their expertise, applications to work on such sites are assessed by the committee to consider whether or not they should be approved. Applications to work on archaeological and palaeontological sites and meteorite permit applications in the province are considered by the APM Committee, the Committee advises the IACom regarding impact assessments on archaeological and meteorite resources. Established in 2003 this Committee deals with appeals made against decisions taken by the committees and this committee was established in 2012 via amalgamation of three sub-committees.
It has the following Sections, Administrative Support, Professional Services and Policy and Planning responsible for development, research. The latter two are made up of professional archaeologists, architects and planners, the staff provides support to and makes recommendations to the Council and its sub-committees
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
The Tischofer Cave is a cave in the Kaisertal valley in the Kaisergebirge mountains in Austria. It was important locally as a place and weapons cache for local rebels during the Napoleonic Wars. The roughly 40 m long cave, which is about 8.5 m high at the entrance, was used during the Stone Age by bears and other predators as shelter and that makes the Tischofer Cave the oldest proven site of human occupation in Tyrol. Discoveries of human skeletons and tools indicate that the cave acted as a copper smithy, the Tischofer Cave may be reached on foot via the Kaiser Path in the Kaisertal valley, a pathway secured with cable railings. It is recorded in the Tyrolean Cave Register as number 1312/001, article from Hofmann, Wege im Inntal with comprehensive description Die Tischofer Höhle im Kaisertal bei Kufstein at www. tirol-infos. at. Tischofer Höhle im Kaisertal at www. kaisergebirge-online. de