Edward Everett Hale
Edward Everett Hale was an American author and Unitarian minister, best known for his writings such as "The Man Without a Country", published in Atlantic Monthly, in support of the Union during the Civil War. He was the grand-nephew of the American spy during the Revolutionary War. Hale was born on April 3, 1822, in Boston, the son of Nathan Hale and editor of the Boston Daily Advertiser, Sarah Preston Everett. Edward Hale was a nephew of Edward Everett, the orator and statesman, grand-nephew of Nathan Hale, the Revolutionary War hero executed by the British for espionage. Edward Everett Hale was a descendant of Richard Everett and related to Helen Keller. Hale was a child prodigy, he graduated from Boston Latin School at age 13 and enrolled at Harvard College after. There, he settled in with the literary set, was elected the Class Poet, he graduated second in his class in 1839 and studied at Harvard Divinity School. Decades he reflected on the new liberal theology there: The group of leaders who surrounded Dr. Channing had, with him, broken forever from the fetters of Calvinistic theology.
These young people were trained to know that human nature is not depraved. They were taught that there is nothing of which it is not capable... For such reasons, many more, the young New Englanders of liberal training rushed into life, certain that the next half century was to see a complete moral revolution in the world. Hale was licensed to preach as a Unitarian minister in 1842 by the Boston Association of Ministers. In 1846 he became pastor of the Church of the Unity in Massachusetts. Hale married Emily Baldwin Perkins in 1852. S. Senator Roger Sherman Baldwin and Emily Pitkin Perkins Baldwin on her father's side and Lyman Beecher, Harriet Beecher Stowe and Henry Ward Beecher on her mother's side, they had nine children: Alexander, b & d 1853. Hale left the Unity Church in 1856 to become pastor at the South Congregational Church, where he served until 1899. In 1847 Hale was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society, he would be involved with the society for the rest of his life, taking up various positions in the service of the society.
He served two non-consecutive terms on its board of councilors, from 1852 to 1854, a lengthy term from 1858 to 1891, as recording secretary from 1854 to 1858. He served as vice-president of the society from 1891 to 1906, served a shorter term as president from 1906 to 1907 again took up the position of vice-president from 1907 to 1909. Hale first came to notice as a writer in 1859, when he contributed the short story "My Double and How He Undid Me" to the Atlantic Monthly, he soon published other stories in the same periodical. His best known work was "The Man Without a Country", published in the Atlantic in 1863 and intended to strengthen support for the Union cause in the North; as in some of his other non-romantic tales, he employed a minute realism which led his readers to suppose the narrative a record of fact. These two stories and such others as "The Rag-Man and the Rag-Woman" and "The Skeleton in the Closet", gave him a prominent position among short-story writers of 19th century America.
His short story "The Brick Moon", serialized in the Atlantic Monthly, is the first known fictional description of an artificial satellite. It was an influence on the novel The Begum's Fortune by Jules Verne, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1865. In recognition of his support for the Union during the American Civil War, Hale was elected as a Third Class Companion of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. Hale assisted in founding the Christian Examiner and New in 1869 and became its editor; the story "Ten Times One is Ten", with its hero Harry Wadsworth, contained the motto, first enunciated in 1869 in his Lowell Institute lectures: "Look up and not down, look forward and not back, look out and not in, lend a hand." This motto was the basis for the formation of Lend-a-Hand Clubs, Look-up Legions and Harry Wadsworth Clubs for young people. Out of the romantic Waldensian story "In His Name" there grew several other organizations for religious work, such as King's Daughters, King's Sons.
In 1875, the Christian Examiner merged with Scribner's Magazine. In 1881, Hale published the story "Hands Off" in Harper's New Monthly Magazine. In the tale, a narrator goes through time to alter events in the past, thereby creating an alternate timeline. Paul J. Nahin writes that this story makes Hale a pioneer in emerging science fiction, time travel, stories about changing the past. In the early 1880s Harriet E. "Hattie" Freeman became one of Hale's volunteer secretaries. Her family had been connected with Hale's church since 1861; as Hattie and Hale worked together they grew closer. According to historian Sara Day, their relationship became intimate. Day came to this conclusion after studying 3,000 Hale-Freeman love letters held by the Library of Congress; the letters, donated to the library in 1969, had held their secrets until 2006 when Day realized that the intimate passages were written in Towndrow's shorthand. In 1886, Hale founded Lend a Hand, which merged with the Charities Review in 1897, the Lend a Hand Record.
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coasts of Northern Europe. Hansa territories stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages, diminished after 1450. Hanse spelled as Hansa, was the Old High German word for a convoy, this word was applied to bands of merchants traveling between the Hanseatic cities - whether by land or by sea. Merchant circles established the league to protect the guilds' economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes which the merchants used; the Hanseatic cities had their own legal system and operated their own armies for mutual protection and aid. Despite this, the organization was not a state, nor could it be called a confederation of city-states.
Historians trace the origins of the Hanseatic League to the rebuilding of the north German town of Lübeck in 1159 by the powerful Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, after he had captured the area from Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein. Exploratory trading adventures and piracy had occurred earlier throughout the Baltic region—the sailors of Gotland sailed up rivers as far away as Novgorod, for example—but the scale of international trade in the Baltic area remained insignificant before the growth of the Hanseatic League. German cities achieved domination of trade in the Baltic with striking speed during the 13th century, Lübeck became a central node in the seaborne trade that linked the areas around the North and Baltic seas; the hegemony of Lübeck peaked during the 15th century. Lübeck became a base for merchants from Westphalia trading eastward and northward. Well before the term Hanse appeared in a document in 1267, merchants in different cities began to form guilds, or Hansa, with the intention of trading with towns overseas in the economically less-developed eastern Baltic.
This area was a source of timber, amber and furs, along with rye and wheat brought down on barges from the hinterland to port markets. The towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies; the Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, commercial ships had to be used to carry soldiers and their arms. Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa. Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard in 1080. Merchants from northern Germany stayed in the early period of the Gotlander settlement, they established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof, further up river, in the first half of the 13th century. In 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges that made their positions more secure. Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members. Before the official foundation of the league in 1356, the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic language. Gotlanders used the word varjag.
The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation is from London in 1157. That year, the merchants of the Hansa in Cologne convinced Henry II, King of England, to free them from all tolls in London and allow them to trade at fairs throughout England; the "Queen of the Hansa", Lübeck, where traders were required to trans-ship goods between the North Sea and the Baltic, gained imperial privileges to become a free imperial city in 1226, as its potential trading partner Hamburg had in 1189. In 1241, Lübeck, which had access to the Baltic and North seas' fishing grounds, formed an alliance—a precursor to the league—with Hamburg, another trading city, that controlled access to salt-trade routes from Lüneburg; the allied cities gained control over most of the salt-fish trade the Scania Market. In 1266, Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, the Cologne Hansa joined them in 1282 to form the most powerful Hanseatic colony in London.
Much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial governments, which failed to provide security for trade. Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes; the principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck. Lübeck's location on the Baltic provided access for trade with Scandinavia and Kievan Rus' with its sea trade center Veliky Novgorod, putting it in direct competition with the Scandinavians who had controlled most of the Baltic trade routes. A treaty with the Visby Hansa put an end to this competition: through this treaty the Lübeck merchants gained access to the inland Russian port of Novgorod, where they built a trading post or Kontor. Although such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire, the league never became a managed formal organisation. Assemblies of the Hanseatic towns met irregularly in Lübeck for a Hansetag, from 1356 onwards, but many towns chose not to attend nor to send representatives and decisions were not binding on individual cities.
Over the p
La Niña was one of the three Spanish ships used by Italian explorer Christopher Columbus in his first voyage to the West Indies in 1492. As was tradition for Spanish ships of the day, she bore Santa Clara. However, she was referred to by her nickname, La Niña, a pun on the name of her owner, Juan Niño of Moguer, she was a standard caravel-type vessel. The other ships of the Columbus expedition were the caravel-type Pinta and the carrack-type Santa María. Niña was by far Columbus' favorite, she was lateen sail rigged caravela latina, but she was re-rigged as caravela redonda at Las Palmas, in the Canary Islands, with square sails for better ocean performance. There is no authentic documentation on the specifics of Niña's design, although Michele de Cuneo, who accompanied Columbus on his second voyage, mentioned that Niña was "about 60 toneladas", which may indicate a medium-sized caravel of around 50 feet in length on deck. Said to have had three masts, there is some evidence she may have had four masts.
Niña, like Pinta and Santa María, was a smaller trade ship built to sail the Mediterranean sea, not the open ocean. It was surpassed in size by ships like Peter von Danzig of the Hanseatic League, built in 1462, 51 m in length, the English carrack Grace Dieu, built during the period 1420–1439, weighing between 1,400 and 2,750 tons, 66.4 m long, in both weight and length. On Columbus' first expedition, Niña carried 26 men, captained by Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, they left Palos de la Frontera on 3 August 1492, stopping at the Canary Islands on 12 August 1492, continued westward. Landfall was made in the Bahamas at dawn on 12 October 1492. On 14 February 1493, in the east of the Azores, a storm threatened to capsize Niña, at Columbus' instigation, he and the crew took a series of vows to perform certain acts including religious pilgrimages upon their return to Spain. Niña reached Lisbon, Portugal, on 4 March 1493, arrived in Palos de la Frontera on 15 March 1493. On the first voyage to America, the crew of Niña slept on the deck but adopted the use of hammocks after seeing Native Americans utilizing them.
In September 1493, Niña joined a grand fleet of 17 ships for the second voyage to Hispaniola, becoming the flagship for an exploration of Cuba. She was the only ship to survive the 1495 hurricane, returning to Spain in 1496. Niña was chartered for an unauthorized voyage to Rome, she was captured by a pirate corsair when leaving the port of Cagliari and brought to Cape Pula, Sardinia. The Captain, Alonso Medel, escaped with a few men, he stole a boat, rowed back to Niña, made sail, returning to Cádiz. In 1498, she returned to Hispaniola as advance guard of Columbus' Third Voyage, she was lying in wait at Santo Domingo in 1500. In 1501, she made a trading voyage to the Pearl Coast on the island of Cubagua, no further log of her is found in historic archives. Niña logged at least 25,000 nautical miles under Columbus' command. A replica of Niña was built by the Spanish government for the Columbian Naval Review of 1893. Along with replicas of Santa María and Pinta she participated in the review. A replica of Niña now sails around the world.
The 4-masted replica Niña was built 1988-1991 by engineer and naval researcher John Patrick Sarsfield, British naval historian Jonathan Morton Nance, a group of master shipbuilders in Bahia, Brazil who were still using design and construction techniques dating back to the 15th century. They built it from heavy, teredo-resistant Brazilian hardwoods using only adzes, hand saws, chisels; the sails were designed by Nance using square main sails and two aft lateen sails as were used by ships of this size at the end of the 15th century. The crew of Niña say that it can make about 5–7 knots, quicker than older designs of the era; the replica weighs 75 tons. In 1991, the replica sailed to Costa Rica to take part in the filming of 1492: Conquest of Paradise, Niña has visited hundreds of North America ports to give the public a chance to see and tour the ship; the vessel continues to visit ports across the Eastern to mid-United States along with its sister replica ship, Pinta. The replicas of Niña and Pinta were built in Valença, Brazil using the same methods as the 15th century Portuguese.
Other replicas are located in Corpus Christi, United States and in Andalusia, Spain. The historic San Francisco restaurant Bernstein's Fish Grotto was designed to look like Niña. Columbian Exchange Nina The Grand Exchange The Pinzón Brothers Voyages of Christopher Columbus Wharf of the Caravels TheNina.com – Official site of one of the replica ships
Wharf of the Caravels
The Wharf of the Caravels is a museum in Palos de la Frontera, in the province of Huelva, autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Its most prominent exhibits are replicas of Christopher Columbus's boats for his first voyage to the Americas, the Niña, the Pinta, the Santa María; these were built in 1992 for the Celebration of the Fifth Centenary of the Discovery of the Americas. The replica caravels were built between 1990 and 1992, put through shakedown voyages and in 1992, sailed the route of Columbus's voyage; the museum is operated by the province of Huelva, has an area of 11,500 square metres. Throughout 1992 there were many celebrations of the fifth centenary of the Discovery of the Americas. Among these, in Spain, was the launching of replicas of the ships in which Columbus and a crew that included the Pinzón Brothers of Palos de la Frontera, the Niño Brothers of Moguer, other mariners from the region made the voyage, accounted as the discovery of the Americas by Europeans; these three boats formed part of the Seville Expo'92, were part of numerous expositions throughout Europe and the Americas.
After they had been used in all manner of activities—including being used in filming 1492: Conquest of Paradise—the Andalusian Autonomous Government acquired the replicas as part of the project Andalucía 92. The key to this project was the construction of the Wharf of the Caravels near La Rábida Monastery in Palos de la Frontera, one of the key Lugares colombinos, sites associated with the preparation and launching of Columbus's first voyage; the resulting museum, inaugurated in 1994, is managed by the Diputación de Huelva, the government of Huelva province. Since the Wharf of the Caravels has been open to the public, with the number of visitors increasing each year. In 2007, nearly 200,000 people visited 550 people a day, it is the third most visited tourist site in Andalusia. August is the busiest month in terms of visitors; the interpretive center contains an exhibit about 15th century society and exhibits related to Columbus's voyage of discovery including replicas of maps and treaties such as the Tratado de Tordesillas and the Treaty of Alcáçovas.
The upper part of the building holds an exhibit of Pre-Columbian art. One of the featured exhibits is an Audio-visual production about half an hour in length, told from the point of view of the sailors who made the voyage; the main item of interest at the museum is the trio of replica ships: the Pinta, Niña, Santa María. The replicas were fashioned in the fishing port of Isla Cristina in western Huelva province as part of the celebrations of the fifth centenary of the Discovery of the Americas, were the principle motive to create the Wharf of the Caravels, they are now moored at a semicircular dock. Visitors can tour each ship for a firsthand view of their holds and cabins. Although the historical reproductions were rigorous in terms of the general lines of the ships, to facilitate visitor access the Pinta has one small, deliberate deviation from what was indicated in the sources: a staircase to the ship's hold; the hold of the Niña cannot be visited, because its design, more faithful to history, would not allow a means to reach the hold that would be safe enough to open to the general public.
The larger Santa María features Columbus's cabin, with a man impersonating a scribe, as well as access to the bowels of the ship. Situated near the dock is the Barrio Medieval, a reproduction of a medieval port neighborhood, reconstructing the environment in which common people lived around the time of the voyage of discovery, by means of such elements of daily life as a market, a pottery factory, numerous carts, a recreated tavern where museum-goers can buy food and drink; this area is a loose recreation of the medieval port of Palos de la Frontera. Many objects in the market—ceramics, objects made from espartofiber—are there to give the outlines of what would have been carried in the holds of ships; the Isla del Encuentro attempts to recreate the world the crew of Columbus's first voyage encountered on their arrival at the island of Guanahani, where they first made landfall in the Americas. An effort has been made to represent the indigenous culture. On the one side is a cottage with wood reed walls.
The Wharf of the Caravels, the three replica ships, has been used for its ambience or details in several films related to Columbus's voyage. Vicente Aranda has used the museum as a set in two if Mad Love and Tirant lo Blanc. In 2003, the Spanish folk metal band Mägo de Oz used the museum for the photo session of their album Gaia, in which they appear dressed as pirates. Various other events have been held at the museum commemorations related to the voyage of discovery; because the museum is open year-round, events can be held there on August 3, March 15 and October 12, among others. The museum is used as a location for other events that have little to do with the voyage of discovery
Michael, popularly known as Great Michael, was a carrack or great ship of the Royal Scottish Navy. She was the largest ship built by King James IV of Scotland as part of his policy of building a strong Scottish navy, she was ordered around 1505 and laid down in 1507 under the direction of Captain Sir Andrew Wood of Largo and the master shipwright Jacques Terrell, launched on 12 October 1511 and completed on 18 February 1512. She was too large to be built at any existing Scottish dockyard, so was built at the new dock at Newhaven; when Michael was launched she was the largest ship afloat, with twice the original displacement of her English contemporary Mary Rose, launched in 1509 and completed in 1510. The poet William Dunbar wrote of her construction: Translation: The chronicler Lindsay of Pitscottie wrote of the building of Michael that "all the woods of Fife" went into her construction. Account books add that timbers were purchased from other parts of Scotland, as well as from France and the Baltic Sea.
Lindsay gives her dimensions as 240 feet long and 35 ft in beam. Russell notes, she displaced about 1,000 tons, had four masts, carried 24 guns on the broadside, 1 basilisk forward and 2 aft, 30 smaller guns, had a crew of 300 sailors, 120 gunners, up to 1,000 soldiers. Henry VIII of England was unwilling to be outdone, ordered the building of the 1000-ton Henry Grace à Dieu, launched in 1512 known as Great Harry, larger; these ships were the first great ships, the precursors of the ship of the line. Michael was named after the archangel Michael and built to support a Scottish crusade against the Ottoman Empire to reclaim Palestine for Christendom; this grandiose plan had to be changed when the commitments of the Auld Alliance with France required Scotland to go to war with England, to divert England from her war with Louis XII of France. In August 1513 a Scottish invasion force was assembled to attack English possessions in France. Commanded by James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran, the chief ships were Michael and James.
Instead of attacking the English, Arran raided Carrickfergus in Ireland and returned with loot before proceeding to France. A warship of this size was costly to maintain for a small country like Scotland. After James IV and many of the nobility of Scotland were killed at the Battle of Flodden in September 1513, Michael was sold to Louis XII of France on 2 April 1514 for the bargain price of 40,000 livres and became known as "La Grande Nef d'Ecosse". In March 1514 Michael was reported to be docked at Honfleur because she was too big for the harbour at Dieppe. Most historians have accepted the account of the Scottish historian George Buchanan that after this, the French allowed her to rot at Brest. Norman MacDougall in 1991 suggested that under her new French name, she may have been used in the French attack on England in 1545 that led to the sinking of the English warship Mary Rose in the Battle of the Solent on 19 July 1545. Russell, John; the Story of Leith. Electric Scotland
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. He led the first European expeditions to the Caribbean, Central America, South America, initiating the permanent European colonization of the Americas. Columbus discovered the viable sailing route to the Americas, a continent, not known to the Old World. While what he thought he had discovered was a route to the Far East, he is credited with the opening of the Americas for conquest and settlement by Europeans. Columbus's early life is somewhat obscure, but scholars agree that he was born in the Republic of Genoa and spoke a dialect of Ligurian as his first language, he went to sea at a young age and travelled as far north as the British Isles and as far south as what is now Ghana. He married Portuguese noblewoman Filipa Moniz Perestrelo and was based in Lisbon for several years, but took a Spanish mistress. Though self-educated, Columbus was read in geography and history.
He formulated a plan to seek a western sea passage to the East Indies, hoping to profit from the lucrative spice trade. After years of lobbying, the Catholic Monarchs of Spain agreed to sponsor a journey west, in the name of the Crown of Castile. Columbus left Spain in August 1492 with three ships, after a stopover in the Canary Islands made landfall in the Americas on 12 October, his landing place was an island in the Bahamas, known by its native inhabitants as Guanahani. Columbus subsequently visited Cuba and Hispaniola, establishing a colony in what is now Haiti—the first European settlement in the Americas since the Norse colonies 500 years earlier, he arrived back in Spain in early 1493. Word of his discoveries soon spread throughout Europe. Columbus would make three further voyages to the New World, exploring the Lesser Antilles in 1493, Trinidad and the northern coast of South America in 1498, the eastern coast of Central America in 1502. Many of the names he gave to geographical features—particularly islands—are still in use.
He continued to seek a passage to the East Indies, the extent to which he was aware that the Americas were a wholly separate landmass is uncertain. Columbus's strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and removal from Hispaniola in 1500, to protracted litigation over the benefits that he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown. Columbus's expeditions inaugurated a period of exploration and colonization that lasted for centuries, helping create the modern Western world; the transfers between the Old World and New World that followed his first voyage are known as the Columbian exchange, the period of human habitation in the Americas prior to his arrival is known as the Pre-Columbian era. Columbus's legacy continues to be debated, he was venerated in the centuries after his death, but public perceptions have changed as recent scholars have given attention to negative aspects of his life, such as his role in the extinction of the Taíno people, his promotion of slavery, allegations of tyranny towards Spanish colonists.
Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia. The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus, his name in Ligurian is Cristoffa Corombo, in Italian Cristoforo Colombo, in Spanish is Cristóbal Colón, in Portuguese is Cristóvão Colombo. He was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed, his father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood, he had a sister named Bianchinetta. Columbus never wrote in his native language, presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian: his name in the 16th-century Genoese language would have been Cristoffa Corombo.
In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of 10. In 1470, the Columbus family moved to Savona. In the same year, Christopher was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples; some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but, from the Aragon region of Spain or from Portugal. These competing hypotheses have been discounted by mainstream scholars. In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro and Spinola families of Genoa, he made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island ruled by Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in an armed convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern Europe, he docked in Bristol and Galway, Ireland. In 1477, he was in Iceland. In the autumn of 1477, he sailed on a Portuguese ship from Galway to Lisbon, where he found his brother Bartolomeo, they continued trading for the Centurione family. Columbus based himself in Lisbon from 1477 to 1485.
He married Filipa Moniz Perestrelo, daughter of the Porto Santo governor and Portuguese nobleman of