Ana de Mendoza, Princess of Eboli
Ana, Countess of Melito and Duchess of Pastrana, married Rui Gomes da Silva, 1st Prince of Éboli when she was 13 years old, by recommendation of the regent of Spain, the future King Philip II. Her husband was a councillor and favourite with Philip. Although she may have been blind in one eye, the Princess of Éboli was considered very attractive and she was an energetic person, and prominent in court life. One of her friends was the queen, Isabel de Valois and they were accused of betraying state secrets which led to her arrest in 1579. Ana died 13 years in prison on 2 February 1592, there was a character called Princess Eboli based on Ana in Schillers play Don Carlos, Infant von Spanien, and Verdis opera Don Carlos. She is the subject of Kate OBriens novel That Lady, La Tuerta, a stage play charting the life of Ana de Mendoza was performed at Bedlam Theatre as part of The Edinburgh Fringe Festival in August 2008. Julia Ormond played her in La Conjura de El Escorial and Belén Rueda in the TV film La Princesa de Éboli
Peter of Castile
Peter, called the Cruel or the Just, was the king of Castile and León from 1350 to 1369. Peter was the last ruler of the branch of the House of Ivrea. Peter was born in the tower of the Monasterio de Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos. His parents were Alfonso XI of Castile and Maria of Portugal, according to chancellor and chronicler Pero López de Ayala, he had a pale complexion, blue eyes and very light blonde hair, he was tall and muscular. He was accustomed to long, strenuous hours of work, lisped a little and he was well read and a patron of the arts, and in his formative years he enjoyed entertainment and poetry. Peter began his reign when almost sixteen years old and subjected to the control of his mother and her favourites, joan soon contracted the disease and died. Though at first controlled by his mother, Peter emancipated himself with the encouragement of the minister Alburquerque, becoming attached to María de Padilla, he married her in secret in 1353. María turned him against Alburquerque, who fled to Portugal, in the summer of 1353, the young king was practically coerced by his mother and the nobles into marrying Blanche of Bourbon, he deserted her at once.
This marriage necessitated Peters denying that he had married María, but his relationship with her continued and he apparently went through the form of marriage with Juana de Castro, widow of Don Diego de Haro, convincing her that his previous marriage to Queen Blanche was a nullity. The bishops of Avila and Salamanca were asked to concur, and were afraid to say otherwise and Juana were married in Cuellar, and Juana was proclaimed Queen of Castile. After two nights he deserted her, a period of turmoil followed in which the king was for a time overpowered and in effect imprisoned. The dissension within the party striving to coerce him enabled him to escape from Toro, in 1361, Queen Blanche died at Medina Sidonia. Legend claims that Peter murdered her, one version of the story says she was poisoned, that year Maria de Padilla died in Seville, possibly of the plague. The king of Aragon supported Peters bastard brothers against him and it was during this period that Peter perpetrated the series of murders which made him notorious.
In 1366 began the calamitous Castilian Civil War, which would see him dethroned, Peters rival Henry of Trastámara continuously depicted Peter as King of the Jews, and had some success in taking advantage of popular Castilian resentment towards the Jews. Henry of Trastámara instigated pogroms beginning a period of anti-Jewish riots, Peter took forceful measures against this, including the execution of at least five anti-Jewish leaders of a riot. In the summer of 1366, Peter took refuge with Edward, the Black Prince, but he disgusted his ally with his faithlessness and ferocity, as well as his failure to repay the costs of the campaign, as he had promised to do. The health of the Black Prince broke down, and he left the Iberian Peninsula, Henry of Trastámara returned to Castile in September,1368
Podemos (Spanish political party)
Podemos is a left-wing political party in Spain. The party was founded in March 2014 in the aftermath of the 15-M Movement protests against inequality, Podemos is a left wing populist party, which seeks to address the problems of inequality and economic malaise that followed in the wake of the European debt crisis. Podemos has called for a renegotiation of austerity measures and seeks to curtail the Treaty of Lisbon, the term populist is sometimes used by political opponents to refer to the party in a pejorative way. In the 2014 European Parliament elections on 25 May 2014, Podemos received 7. 98% of the vote, with 1,200,000 votes cast. At the elections for the parliament on December 20,2015, Podemos received 21% of the vote and became the third largest party in the parliament. On 9 May 2016, Podemos formed the electoral alliance Unidos Podemos with United Left, Podemos came from the aftermath of the Indignados movement against inequality and corruption in 2011. This manifesto argued that it was necessary to create a party list for the European Parliament elections that year, with the goal of opposing the dominant policies of the EU from the left.
One of the highlighted by Iglesias was the derogation of the 135th article of the Constitution, full application of the 128th article of the constitution. They demanded Spain exit from NATO, and support self-determination rights, the Podemos movement was officially launched on 16 January 2014 in the Teatro del Barrio, in the Lavapiés neighbourhood of Madrid. Its fundamental goal was to oppose the austerity policies which were being applied, the 50,000 signatures were obtained in less than 24 hours and the Podemos website crashed due to the high traffic. On 25 May 2014 Podemos entered candidates for the 2014 European Parliament election, polling with 7. 98% of the national vote, the partys MEPs join the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group. Regarding the election Pablo Iglesias was described as pessimistic by El País and they have been won by the Peoples Party. We cannot be happy about this and he stated that his objective is to move forward until we throw the PP and the PSOE out of power.
We will now work with parties from the south of Europe to make it clear that we don’t want to be a German colony. On 5 June 2014, Pablo Iglesias announced that the Asamblea Ciudadana Sí se puede would take place in the autumn, the vote took place over the Internet on 12 and 13 June. Two lists were presented, one of them headed by Pablo Iglesias, the technical details of the election and the deadlines generated discussion within Podemos. In a meeting of Podemos circles which took place on June 8 in Madrid, the electoral process, in which 55,000 people participated, gave the victory to Pablo Iglesias list, with a 86. 8% of the vote. A major part of the assembly consisted in the writing of documents defining the political and organizational principles of the party
Alcobendas is a city located in the Community of Madrid, central Spain. It is located roughly 13 kilometres north of Madrid and 7 kilometres from Barajas International Airport, a huge business park called Valdelacasa for high-tech firms is being built. It is the location of a basketball museum organised by the Pedro Ferrándiz Foundation where the FIBA Hall of Fame is located, Alcobendas is in the B1 zone for Madrids transport network. Both Alcobendas and its city, San Sebastián de los Reyes are connected with Madrid with buses operated by the Interbús bus company. There are currently eight bus lines go to and from different districts of Alcobendas to Plaza de Castilla. Alcobendas has eight bus lines connect the different zones of Alcobendas between themselves. Metro, Alcobendas presently has four Metro stations which are all on line 10 of the Madrid Metro network and these stations were recently opened by Esperanza Aguirre, President of the Autonomous Community of Madrid. Buses Buses going to and from Plaza de Castilla are,151 Madrid - Alcobendas 153 Madrid - Alcobendas 153B a. k.
a, b53 Madrid - Alcobendas 155 Madrid - Alcobendas 155B a. k. a. B55 Madrid - Alcobendas 157 Madrid - Alcobendas 157C a. k. a, both form part of the C-4a Cercanías line and can get to Sol and Atocha in half an hour. Private Transport Alobendas is easily reached by car as well, there are a number of motorways going round Alcobendas and through it. In the Casco district it is challenging to find a parking space, however this problem is not posed in the newer areas where ample parking facilities are available. Air Madrid used to have its office in Alcobendas, until the company folded in 2006. During the 2008 Oscar Ceremony, after receiving the prize for best Supporting Actress, marcos Pérez Jiménez, former Venezuelan dictator. Residence after being exiled from Venezuela where he lived until his death in 2001, bing Crosby died of a heart attack while on a golf course in Alcobendas. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Csa
Infanta Cristina of Spain
Infanta Cristina of Spain is the younger daughter of King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofía of Spain. As of 2015 she is sixth in the line of succession to the Spanish throne, after her brother King Felipe VIs children, her sister Elena, and Elenas children. From 2013 she was under investigation and tried for fraud relating to accusations of corruption involving a company owned by Cristina and her husband. Cristina de Borbón was born at Our Lady of Loreto Clinic in Madrid and was baptized into the Church at the Palacio de La Zarzuela by the Archbishop of Madrid and her godparents were Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz, and Infanta Maria Cristina of Spain. She received her education at Santa María del Camino School before graduating from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in 1989 with a degree in political science. She pursued postgraduate studies at New York University, obtaining an MA in international relations in 1990, in 1991, she gained practical experience working at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris.
She speaks fluent Spanish, Catalan and Greek, Cristina married team handball player Iñaki Urdangarín in Barcelona on 4 October 1997. On this occasion, she was created Duchess of Palma de Mallorca for life, the couple have four children, all born in Barcelona, Pablo and Irene. They lived in Washington, D. C. from 2009 to 2012 and her husband was investigated from early 2012 on suspicion of fraudulently obtaining millions in public funds in the Nóos case. In April 2013, Infanta Cristina was formally named as a suspect in the case by the judge in charge, in the light of the forthcoming trial and her children moved to Geneva, Switzerland, in summer 2013. On 7 January 2014, a Spanish judge charged her with tax fraud and money laundering, the Infanta made her first appearance in the Majorca Court on 8 February 2014, where she denied any knowledge of her husbands dealings. Spanish judge Jose Castro formalised charges against Infanta Cristina on 25 June 2014, in November 2014 the High Court of Palma de Mallorca upheld tax fraud charges against the princess, paving the way for her to face trial, however, it decided to drop money-laundering charges.
Her lawyers maintained that they remained completely convinced of her innocence, on December 22,2014, the High Court of the Balearic Islands announced that Infanta Cristina, her husband, and 15 others would stand trial on tax fraud charges as soon as next year. On 12 June 2015, King Felipe VI officially deprived his sister of her dukedom, pursuant to their meeting in person on 12 June Infanta Cristina wrote to the king requesting the forfeiture of her noble title, immediately following which a royal decree to that effect was issued. According to newspaper El País, between 1995 and 2013 the Spanish monarchys approval rating dropped from 7.5 to 3.68 out of 10 amongst Spaniards, the Spanish media attributed, in no small part, King Juan Carlos abdication to these ongoing proceedings. Her right of succession to the throne and to the title of infanta were unaffected. Cristinas trial began on 11 January 2016, presided over by three judges in Palma, with a potential sentence of eight years if found guilty.
She took the stand in March 2016, denying being an accessory to tax evasion and she insisted on her right to answer only questions from her own lawyer
Parla is a municipality of the Madrid Metropolitan Area, Spain. It is located in the part of the autonomous community, approximately 20 km from the capital. As of 2013, it has a population of 164,182, earliest evidence of human occupation includes stone tools made of Paleolithic chert, of the kind utilized by Stone Age people. Starting in approximately 200 CE, nomadic people from the coast began to settle the area, bringing their knowledge of metalworking, ranching and these early settlers lived primarily along the Humanejos stream. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the ranks of the local populations swelled to include newly arrived Celtic tribes from central Europe, the Celts brought with them various advanced technologies that included ironworking and fired ceramics. The local population was sustained mostly by ranching and agriculture, independent local development was interrupted by the arrival of the Carthagineans and Romans, the latter of whom recorded the history of the pre-Roman villages of the area.
Local Roman artifacts include a number of markers and coins. After the Battle of Guadalete, which signified the beginning of the Islamic conquest of Hispania, Parla once again appeared as an independent township during the Reconquista. The territory was part of the Alfoz of Madrid, a Spanish medieval territorial designation for the surrounding a village during the Reconquista. At the time, there were two villages in the area, Parla, to the north, and Humanejos to the south. Humanejos disappeared around the year 1650 and this document was affirmed by King Peter of Castile on 7 December 1351. After the Peninsular War, Parla became home to a number of poor refugees from other localities. Around this time it achieves the status of township, the current mayor is José María Fraile, who was elected in 2008. The previous mayor, Tomás Gómez Franco, resigned from his post in October 2008 to accept the position of general of the PSOE. The majority of local politics involves three of the political parties, the Spanish Socialist Workers Party, the Popular Party.
During the 2007 Spanish regional elections, the PSOE carried 74. 43% of the vote, in comparison, the Peoples Party carried only 16. 61% of the vote, while the IU carried 6. 15%. The other political parties were unable to obtain sufficient votes to gain representation on the town council, local elections take place every four years, and are held in conjunction with the autonomous elections of the Community of Madrid. The next elections will take place in the year 2011, the local government is divided into the following departments, The municipality of Parla covers an area of 24.43 km²
Anthony the Great
Saint Anthony or Antony was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony by various epithets, Anthony the Great, Anthony of Egypt, Anthony the Abbot, Anthony of the Desert, Anthony the Anchorite, and Anthony of Thebes. For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all Christian monasticism and his feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church. The biography of Anthonys life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism and he is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, the first to go into the wilderness, Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas. Anthony was born in Coma in Lower Egypt in AD251 to wealthy landowner parents, when he was about 18 years old, his parents died and left him with the care of his unmarried sister.
Shortly thereafter, he decided to follow the Evangelical counsel of Jesus which reads, If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasures in heaven. Anthony gave away some of his familys lands to his neighbors, sold the remaining property and he left to live an ascetic life, placing his sister with a group of Christian virgins, a sort of proto-convent. For the next fifteen years, Anthony remained in the area, there are various legends associating Anthony with pigs, one is that he worked as a swineherd during this period. Anthony is sometimes considered the first monk, and the first to initiate solitary desertification, philo opined that this class of persons may be met with in many places, for both Greece and barbarian countries want to enjoy whatever is perfectly good. Christian ascetics such as Thecla had likewise retreated to isolated locations at the outskirts of cities, Anthony is notable for having decided to surpass this tradition and headed out into the desert proper.
He left for the alkaline Nitrian Desert on the edge of the Western Desert about 95 km west of Alexandria and he remained there for 13 years. According to Athanasius, the devil fought Anthony by afflicting him with boredom and the phantoms of women, after that, he moved to a tomb, where he resided and closed the door on himself, depending on some local villagers who brought him food. When the devil perceived his ascetic life and his worship, he was envious and beat him mercilessly. When his friends from the village came to visit him and found him in this condition. After he recovered, he made an effort and went back into the desert to a farther mountain by the Nile called Pispir. There he lived strictly enclosed in an old abandoned Roman fort for some 20 years, according to Athanasius, the devil again resumed his war against Anthony, only this time the phantoms were in the form of wild beasts, lions and scorpions
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth