National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Corriere della Sera
The Corriere della Sera is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015. First published on 5 March 1876, Corriere della Sera is one of Italy's oldest newspapers and is Italy's most read newspaper, its masthead has remained unchanged since its first edition in 1876. It reached a circulation of over 1 million under editor and co-owner Luigi Albertini, 1900-1925, he was a strong opponent of Socialism, of clericalism, of Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti, willing to compromise with those forces. Albertini's opposition to the Fascist regime forced the other co-owners to oust him 1925. Today its main competitors are Turin's La Stampa. Corriere della Sera was first published on Sunday 5 March 1876 by Eugenio Torelli Viollier. In 1899 the paper began to offer Domenica del Corriere. In the 1910s and 1920s, under the direction of Luigi Albertini, Corriere della Sera became the most read newspaper in Italy, maintaining its importance and influence into the present century.
It was Corriere della Sera which introduced comics in Italy in 1908 through a supplement for children, namely Corriere dei Piccoli. The newspaper's headquarters has been in the same buildings since the beginning of the 20th century, therefore it is popularly known as "the Via Solferino newspaper" after the street where it is still located; as the name indicates, it was an evening paper. During the fascist regime in Italy Corriere della Sera funded the Mussolini Prize, awarded to the writers Ada Negri and Emilio Cecchi among the others. Mario Borsa, a militant anti-fascist, was appointed the editor-in-chief of Corriere della Sera in May 1945, he was fired because of his political leanings in August 1946 and was replaced by Guglielmo Emanuel, a right-wing journalist. Emanuel served in the post until 1952. In the 1950s Corriere della Sera was the organ of the conservative establishment in Italy and was anti-communist and pro-NATO; the paper was functional in shaping the views of the Italian upper and middle classes during this period.
The owners of the Corriere della Sera, the Crespi family, sold a share to RCS Media in the 1960s and was listed in the Italian stock exchange. Its main shareholders were Mediobanca, the Fiat group and some of the biggest industrial and financial groups in Italy. In 1974 the RCS Media moved on to control the majority of the paper. Alberto Cavallari was the editor-in-chief of the paper during the early 1980s. In 1981 the newspaper was laterally involved in the P2 scandal when it was discovered that the secret Freemason lodge had the newspaper's editor Franco Di Bella and the former owner Angelo Rizzoli on its member lists. In September 1987 the paper launched a weekly magazine supplement, the first in its category in Italy. From 1987 to 1992 the editor-in-chief of Corriere della Sera was Ugo Stille; the 1988 circulation of Corriere della Sera was 715,000 copies, making it the second most read newspaper in Italy. The paper started its Saturday supplement, IO Donna, in 1996. In 1997 Corriere della Sera was the best-selling Italian newspaper with a circulation of 687,000 copies.
Corriere della Sera had a circulation of 715,000 copies in 2001. In 2002 it fell to 681,000 copies. In 2003, its editor Ferruccio de Bortoli resigned from the post; the journalists and opposition politicians claimed the resignation was due to the paper's criticism of Silvio Berlusconi. In 2004, Corriere della Sera launched an online English section focusing on Italian current affairs and culture; the same year it was the best-selling newspaper in Italy with a circulation of 677,542 copies. Its circulation in December 2007 was 662,253 copies, it is one of the most visited Italian-language news websites, attracting over 1.6 million readers every day. The online version of the paper was the thirteenth most visited website in the country. On 24 September 2014 Corriere della Sera changed its broadsheet format to the Berliner format; the "Third Page" used to feature a main article named Elzeviro, which over the years has published contributions from all the editors as well as major novelists and journalists.
On Monday, Corriere is published along with a weekly finance and business magazine. On Thursday, it is published with a current events magazine. On Sunday, it is published along with a weekly literary supplement; the Italian novelist Dino Buzzati was a journalist at the Corriere della Sera. Other notable contributors include Eugenio Montale, Curzio Malaparte, Gabriele D'Annunzio, Enzo Bettiza, Italo Calvino, Alberto Moravia, Amos Oz, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Guido Piovene, Giovanni Spadolini, Oriana Fallaci, Alessandra Farkas, Lando Ferretti, Brunella Gasperini, Enzo Biagi, Indro Montanelli, Giovanni Sartori, Paolo Brera, Francesco Alberoni, Tracy Chevalier, Goffredo Parise, Sergio Romano, Sandro Paternostro, Alan Friedman, Tommaso Landolfi, Alberto Ronchey and Paolo Mieli. Editors Columnist & Journalists Corriere dei Piccoli a children's supplement of the Corriere della Sera. List of non-English newspapers with English language subsections Media of Italy Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers.
Pp. 104–110. Corriere Canadese - the defunct Canadian newspaper where the infamous Vincent C. Torrieri worked. Wwwenglishtraining.it Official website
La Repubblica is an Italian daily general-interest newspaper. It was founded in 1976 in Rome by Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso and led by Eugenio Scalfari, Carlo Caracciolo and Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. Born as a radical leftist newspaper, it has since moderated to a milder centre-left political stance. La Repubblica was founded by Eugenio Scalfari director of the weekly magazine L'Espresso, Italian politician Barbara Spinelli in January 1976; the publisher Carlo Caracciolo and Mondadori had invested 2.3 billion lire and a break-even point was calculated at 150,000 copies. Scalfari invited a few trusted colleagues: Gianni Rocca Giorgio Bocca, Sandro Viola, Mario Pirani, Miriam Mafai, Barbara Spinelli, Natalia Aspesi and Giuseppe Turani; the cartoons were the prerogative of Giorgio Forattini until 1999. The newspaper first went on sale on 14 January 1976, it was presented as the first Italian tabloid with some sections such as sports and business intentionally left out. When it was founded, it was intended to be a "second newspaper", with only major news at the national level, to an audience that has read a local newspaper.
It was published from Tuesday to Sunday. The paper defined itself as a “giornale-partito” in its initial stage. During the first two years, it built up a core-audience identified as members of the centre-left and the Italian Communist Party. In 1977, Scalfari decided to cater to the university student movement, so la Repubblica began its expansion; the strength of the newspaper lay in the editorial comments section, always incisive and thought-provoking. In the meantime, Giampaolo Pansa from Corriere della Sera became Deputy Director, alongside Rocca and Pirani. In early 1978, average sales amounted to 114,000 copies. During the 55 days of the Moro kidnapping, la Repubblica backed the policy of hardline non-negotiation while reporting on the pro-negotiation approach led by Bettino Craxi of the Italian Socialist Party; the paper's stance proved popular and, by the end of the year, daily sales reached 140,000 copies. In 1979, with an average print run of 180,000 copies, it achieved a break-even point.
The size of the newspaper increased with page count growing from 20 to 24. The newspaper decided to cover sports for the first time and veteran reporter Gianni Brera was added. In 1981, the Corriere della Sera was hit by a scandal when chief editor Franco Di Bella was outed as a member of the secret masonic lodge Propaganda Due, or P2; this allowed La Repubblica to win extra readers and recruit a number of prestigious commentators such as Enzo Biagi and Alberto Ronchey from Corriere. Aiming to gain top circulation in Italy, chief editor Scalfari launched new reader-friendly initiatives. There were now 40 pages, including news sections and sport; the newspaper was pitched as an "omnibus newspaper". Politically, while the paper kept backing the progressive left, its approach to governmental parties changed: its traditional opposition to Bettino Craxi's line was coupled with overtures to Ciriaco De Mita, one of the leading figures of the left wing of the Christian Democrats; this seemed to pay off as in 1985 la Repubblica sold an average of 372,940 copies, about 150,000 more than in 1981.
1986 marked the newspaper's tenth birthday. A special issue was released in celebration, Ten years 1976/1985 consisting of 10 files in coated paper, one per each year, with the re-issuing of many original articles; the launch was backed by a successful advertising campaign featuring a young university student seen purchasing la Repubblica. Ten years the same student is pictured as an adult. He's holding the same newspaper, but in the meantime he's worked his way up to an important managerial position in a large company; the same year saw the launch of weekly financial supplement, Affari & finanza, edited by Giuseppe Turani. La Repubblica continued the game of catch up with Corriere della Sera and on they managed to overtake their rivals. In 1987, la Repubblica launched a prize competition called Portfolio, a type of stock market-based lottery. Readers were encouraged to buy the newspaper daily; the prize turned out to cost more than the supplements earned, the latter increasing sales for one or two days a week only.
La Repubblica expanded by 200,000 copies within three months, stretching to a total daily average of nearly 700,000. At that point, "la Repubblica became the best-selling Italian newspaper; the 1988 circulation of the paper was 730,000 copies. At the end of the 1980s the paper reached a circulation of 800,000 copies; the Corriere della Sera hit back with a free Saturday magazine and la Repubblica reciprocated with their own magazine, Venerdì, launched on 16 October 1987, the same day as Affari & Finanza. The via Solferino publishing group did not reclaim the top spot for two years. At the end of the Eighties, believing that a stronger financial support was needed for the growth of the group, Carlo Caracciolo and Eugenio Scalfari sold all their shares to Carlo De Benedetti. A major shareholder of Mondadori, Benedetti took the Espresso group together with the Milan publisher, with the goal of becoming the main shareholder, buying the stock of Arnoldo Mondadori’s heirs. Silvio Berlusconi prevented it, starting the so called “Segrate War”.
In 1991, after more than two years of legal and financial battles, the struggle was ended by the entrepreneur Giu
San Sperate, Santu Sparau in Sardinian language, is a comune in the Province of South Sardinia in the Italian region Sardinia, located about 20 kilometres northwest of Cagliari. It has an area of 26.2 square kilometres. San Sperate borders the following municipalities: Assemini, Monastir, Villasor. Www.sansperate.net
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website