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Pinwheel (toy)

A pinwheel is a simple child's toy made of a wheel of paper or plastic curls attached at its axle to a stick by a pin. It is designed to spin when blown by the wind, it is a predecessor to more complex whirligigs. During the nineteenth century in the United States, any wind-driven toy held aloft by a running child was characterized as a whirligig, including pinwheels. Pinwheels provided many children with numerous hours of amusement. An Armenian immigrant toy manufacturer, Tegran M. Samour, invented the modern version of the pinwheel titled "wind wheel," in 1919 in Boston, Massachusetts. Samour, owned a toy store in Stoneham and sold the wind wheel along with two other toys which he invented. List of toys Pioneering Data How to Make a Pinwheel at wikiHow

America's Toughest Jobs

America's Toughest Jobs is a reality television show that lasted one season and aired on the American television network NBC. It pitted contestants against each other as they attempted a series of dangerous jobs; the prize was the sum of the salaries that would be earned by people doing these jobs in their first year. The show's creator and executive producer was Thom Beers, notable for creating shows such as Deadliest Catch and Monster Garage; some of the jobs he chose to be featured on America's Toughest Jobs were featured on shows he created. The host was Josh Temple, a character actor who had minor roles in shows such as Will & Grace and Curb Your Enthusiasm. In each episode, contestants took part in tasks associated with a job, were supervised and evaluated by workers or employers in that business. After spending time on the job, the supervisors selected one or more top employees for praise, selected the employees who had the worst performances; those employees were required to compete head-to-head in an additional challenge to determine who would be eliminated.

For example, in the gold digging episode, the bottom four contestants were required to spend additional time digging for gold with the contestant who found the least amount eliminated. Once there were four contestants remaining, timed challenges were held for three of the season's toughest jobs with the contestant who had the slowest time at each eliminated until a winner was determined. At the end of each episode, an information screen was shown that detailed what the eliminated contestant decided to do after the show. Ben Coleman was named the winner of season one on October 25, 2008; the results were accidentally posted on NBC's website several hours. On March 13, 2009, it was confirmed that the series had been canceled and would not be returning for a second season. 1 In the first episode, the contestants were divided into two teams. A winner was selected from each team 2 In the fifth episode, there were two winners selected 3 In the sixth episode, it was announced that from on there would only be two worst performers announced instead of four The contestant won the competition The contestant won the challenge The contestant was called out as one of the worst performers, but was not eliminated The contestant was eliminated 101 "Crab Fishing"1 – The show began from Dutch Harbor, Alaska in the Bering Sea with the contestants tackling crab fishing.

102 "Trucking in Alaska"2 – The contestants learned how to navigate the icy and frozen roads as truck drivers in Alaska. The boss supervising the rookies said that he would be willing to hire the winner, full-time. 103 "Gold Digging" – The contestants searched for gold in the Chugach Mountains in southern Alaska. 104 "Monster Trucks" – The contestants took on monster trucking at a site in Salinas, California with Dennis Anderson and Grave Digger. 105 "Oil Drilling "3 -- The contestants took on oil drilling in Texas. 106 "Bullfighting" – The contestants learned professional bullfighting in San Angelo, Texas. 107 "Bridge Crew" – The contestants worked on the Vincent Thomas Bridge in San Pedro, California. 108 "Logging"4 – The contestants worked as loggers in Port Angeles, Washington. 109 "Mountain Rescue" – The contestants completed a mountain rescue on Mount McKinley in Alaska. 110 "Season Finale" – The final four contestants revisited the season's toughest jobs to determine the winner: bullfighting, oil drilling, logging.1 Job featured in Deadliest Catch, a show created by Thom Beers2 Job featured in Ice Road Truckers, a show produced and narrated by Beers3 Job featured in Black Gold, a show created and narrated by Beers4 Job featured in Ax Men, a show created and narrated by Beers The prize for the contest winner was the combined amount of the salaries of what a first-year worker would earn on each job.

Below is a table that details the breakdown: 1 $2,000 was subtracted from salary because contestants broke one of Dennis Anderson's jacks 2 The initial salary for bridge crewman was listed at $48,592.15, but was lowered to $47,592.15 in subsequent episodes with no explanation givenIn addition, each of the contestants in the final four was awarded a 2009 Dodge Ram. 101 – Senta quit her previous job and moved to Alaska to work at Denali National Park. 102 – Amy quit her previous job and went back home to Boston to explore new opportunities. 103 – Phil accepted the previous offer of trucking in Alaska. 104 – Rick quit his previous job in the software industry and built his own gym for mixed martial arts. 105 – Eric invented a wildfire water protection system for the home. 106 – Rie landed another modeling contract. 107 – Chris quit his previous job and became a police officer in Pasadena, California. 108 – Bryce quit his previous job and opened a gym for celebrities and executives. 109 – Rommel continued to pursue his passion of teaching karate and opened a new martial arts school.

110 – Michaela began working with biologists in the Bahamas. 110 – Sandy went back to her job as a teacher with hopes of landing a job as a basketball coach. 110 – Steven began a career working in the film industry. 110 – Ben, the contest winner, started training to be a Monster Jam driver and used the prize money to buy a house. Official website America's Toughest Jobs on IMDb America's Toughest Jobs at

Darboy, Wisconsin

Darboy is an unincorporated community in Outagamie County in the Fox Cities area of the U. S. state of Wisconsin. Located in the town of Buchanan, Darboy extends from the Calumet County line on the south, Highway CE on the north, State Park Road on the east, Highway 441 on the west. Prior to 2013, Darboy extended south in Calumet County to Manitowoc Road in the town of Harrison. In the pioneer age of Wisconsin, French fur traders and Native Americans traveled through the area now known as Darboy; the first wave of German settlers arrived in the area around 1842 and settled near Old Plank Road the only road in the area, running from Lake Winnebago to Kaukauna. A wave of Dutch settlers arrived in 1848, the same year, they were associated with a group. The community was named after Catholic Archbishop Georges Darboy, martyred during the Franco-Prussian War. A post office was established in 1877, but was discontinued in 1901. In the early 1900s, many businesses sprouted up in Darboy: Van Vorst's Hall, Darboy Butter and Cheese Company, Les Stumpf Ford, Lamers Dairy, Darboy Refrigeration Sales and Service, a cobbler shop, a blacksmith shop, George Mader Hall.

The History of Holy Angels and the Darboy Community, a book published for the 150th anniversary of Holy Angels Church, says "Our ancestors worked hard, but they always enjoyed a good time." Several bands and singing groups are part of Darboy's history, as well as baseball teams. Music is a rich part of Darboy's history. Several singing groups and bands have formed over the years, including the Darboy Orchestra, the Ken Schmalz Band, the Mader singing group, Building Permit, various groups that sang at Holy Angels Church throughout the years; the most historic building in Darboy is Holy Angels Catholic Church called St. Martin's of Manhattan Church; the first Mass held there was in 1839. The Orth family donated a 5-acre parcel of land to the parish in 1850, on which a church was built in 1855; the parish was renamed to honor the Guardian Angels in 1857. The present church was built in 1874 on County KK. A Catholic school was built in 1883. Both the church and school are still operational today. Holy Angels Catholic Parish, however merged with Holy Name of Jesus Parish of Kimberly, is now called Holy Spirit Parish.

The Catholic school was renovated in 1996. The area was stagnant for most of the twentieth century until the 1970s, when a group of farmers, concerned about the area's future, petitioned for a sanitary district. Construction began in the early 1980s, was completed in 1984. New houses began to sprout up. "This little crossroads has always been a good place to raise cows and eat chicken, but in recent years hundreds of people have decided that it is a fine place to build a house," noted an Appleton Post-Crescent article on Sunday, July 1, 1990. Farmers in the Darboy area, which traditionally had been a farming community, turned into developers and sold land to families who could hook up their houses to the new sanitary district. With the completion of State Trunk Highway 441 in 1993, the area gained easier access to the rest of the Fox Cities; this accelerated housing development in Darboy. The Kimberly School District, which encompasses most of Darboy, erected Sunrise Elementary School on the south side of Darboy off of County Highway N in 1996.

This fueled more growth, as the sanitary district continued to expand. Another public school, Woodland School, was built on the south side of Darboy in the Town of Harrison in 2006. More subdivisions were developed near the school, as a Post-Crescent article says, "Rows of houses began to replace rows of corn" in this traditional farming community. Commercial business began to move in after the increase in population; the first commercial development took place on the corner of County Highways N and KK in the center of Darboy, when the Darboy Plaza was developed. Larger stores and businesses began to move in on the west side of Darboy as well, on the edge of Appleton; this growth was fueled by the completion of Wisconsin Highway 441 in September 1993. Running along the western border of the Towns of Harrison and Buchanan, the highway provided an easy link from west Appleton, Menasha and Grand Chute, turning the area close to the highway into valuable commercial land. However, soon after the growth of these new businesses Appleton annexed a large portion of the Town of Harrison.

Darboy now has a thriving commercial district, which includes seven large stores, eight banks, convenience stores, other small businesses. Two of Darboy's signature events are Chickenfest; the Holy Angels Church Picnic is an annual event, a Darboy staple since 1885. Every summer on the third Sunday of August, the community gathers to celebrate its town and parish's heritage with a day of fun and raising money for their parish. There is live music, bingo, an auction, many other activities. Though Holy Angels has now merged with Holy Name Parish of Kimberly, the picnic continues to be an annual event because of its immense popularity with the community. Chickenfest takes place every summer at the Darboy Community Park in the town of Harrison, behind Sunrise Elementary School. Chicken and fireworks help celebrate the history of Darboy; this festival was introduced in 2003 to celebrate the Town of Harrison's sesquicentennial, is sponsored and operated by the Darb

Battle of PoznaƄ (1945)

The Battle of Poznań during World War II in 1945 was a massive assault by the Soviet Union's Red Army that had as its objective the elimination of the Nazi German garrison in the stronghold city of Poznań in occupied Poland. The defeat of the German garrison required an entire month of painstaking reduction of fortified positions, intense urban combat, a final assault on the city's citadel by the Red Army, complete with medieval touches; the city of Poznań lay in the western part of Poland, annexed by Nazi Germany following their invasion of Poland in 1939, was the chief city of Reichsgau Wartheland. By 1945, the Red Army advances on the Eastern Front had driven the Germans out of eastern Poland as far as the Vistula River; the Red Army launched the Vistula-Oder Offensive on 12 January 1945, inflicted a huge defeat on the defending German forces, advanced into western Poland and eastern Germany. Certain cities which lay on the path of the Soviet advance were declared by Hitler to be Festungen, where the garrisons were ordered to mount last-ditch stands.

Hitler hoped the Festung cities could hold out behind Soviet lines and interfere with the movement of supplies and lines of communication. Poznań was declared a Festung in January 1945; the city was defended by 40,000 German troops from a great variety of units including Volkssturm, Luftwaffe ground forces and motivated officer candidates. Facing them were the experienced Guards Rifle troops of General V. I Chuikov's 8th Guards Army – the victors of Stalingrad; the defenders made use of some of the surviving Festung Posen fortifications, built during Prussian rule in the 19th century. The Fort Winiary citadel stood on a hill to the north of the city centre. Around the perimeter of the city were 18 massively-built forts, spaced at intervals of about 2 kilometres in a ring with a radius of about 5 kilometres. General Chuikov described the forts as... underground structures each with several storeys, the whole projecting above the surrounding terrain. Only a mound was visible above ground -- the layer of earth covering the rest.

Each fort was ringed by a ditch ten metres wide and eight metres deep, with walls revetted with brickwork. Across the ditch was a bridge, leading to one of the upper storeys. Among the forts, to the rear, there were one-storey brick bunkers; these were clad in concrete a full metre thick, were used as stores. The upper works of the forts were sufficiently strong to provide reliable protection against heavy artillery fire.... The enemy would be able to direct fire of all kinds against us both on the approaches to the forts and within them, on the rampart; the embrasures were such that flanking fire from rifles and machine-guns could be directed from them. Poznań lay on the main route between Warsaw and Berlin, in German hands, it was a serious obstacle to any Soviet operation against the German capital. Thus, the Red Army had to clear the city of German troops before the final assaults designed to capture Berlin and end the war could begin. On 21 January 1945 the Soviet 1st Guards Tank Army forced a crossing of the Warta River north of the city, but by 24 January these bridgeheads had been abandoned in favor of better bridgeheads south of Poznań.

Meanwhile, Red Army tank units had swept north and south of the city, capturing hundreds of German aircraft in the process. Moving further west, the Soviet tank units left the capture of the city to other Red Army forces. By 25 January, the Soviet 8th Guards Army had arrived and began a systematic reduction of the fortress; the following day, two of Poznań's forts in the south fell to a hasty assault conducted by the 27th and 74th Guards Rifle Divisions. This initial success allowed Chuikov's troops to penetrate the ring of forts and attack other forts from inside the city. On 28 January, the German high command relieved Generalmajor Ernst Mattern as the fortress commander and replaced him with a dedicated Nazi, Generalmajor Ernst Gonell. Gonell imposed draconian discipline on the German garrison. In some instances, German troops attempting to surrender were shot by their own side; the reduction of Festung Posen consumed the efforts of four divisions from Chuikov's army and two divisions of Colonel-General V. Ia.

Kolpakchi's 69th Army. The 117th and 312th Rifle Divisions of the 91st Rifle Corps of 69th Army were deployed on the east side of the city. To the north, the 39th Guards Rifle Division of Chuikov's 28th Guards Rifle Corps, to the south, Chuikov's 29th Guards Rifle Corps composed of the 27th, 74th, 82nd Guards Rifle Divisions were arrayed against the Festung. By the southwestern suburb of Junikowo, the 11th Guards Tank Corps took up positions to block any German attempt at retreat. In bitter combat that saw the outlying forts reduced and city blocks seized, the Soviets succeeded in pushing the German defenders towards the city center and the citadel. By the beginning of February 1945, most of the city had been captured, by 12 February, the Germans held only the imposing citadel. Generalmajor Gonell had believed that other German forces would attack and relieve his besieged forces, but by 15 February came to the realization that this was not going to happen. Incensed, he ordered his troops that were east of the Warta River to attempt to break out, some 2,000 German soldiers managed to infiltrate the Red Army lines and head west on the following night.

Arrayed against the citadel was the 29th Guards Rifle Corps, with the 27th Guards Rifle Division on the north, the 82nd Guards Rifle Division on the southwest, the 74th Guards Rifle Division on the southeast. The final Soviet assault on the citadel started on 18 February. Before the Red Army troops lay a deep ditch matched by


Geotourism deals with the natural and built environments. Geotourism was first defined in England. Key definitions in the geological sense include: “…part of the tourist’s activity in which they have the geological patrimony as their main attraction, their objective is to search for the protected patrimony through the conservation of their resources and of the tourist’s Environmental Awareness. For that, the use of the interpretation of the patrimony makes it accessible to the lay public, promoting its popularization and the development of the Earth sciences”. “Geotourism is a knowledge -based tourism, an interdisciplinary integration of the tourism industry with conservation and interpretation of abiotic nature attributes, besides considering related cultural issues, within the geosites for the general public”. "A form of natural area tourism that focuses on landscape and geology. It promotes tourism to geosites and the conservation of geo-diversity and an understanding of Earth sciences through appreciation and learning.

This is achieved through independent visits to geological features, use of geo-trails and view points, guided tours, geo-activities and patronage of geosite visitor centers". “The provision of interpretative and service facilities for geosites and geomorphosites and their encompassing topography, together with their associated in-situ and ex-situ artefacts, to constituency-build for their conservation by generating appreciation and research by and for current and future generations”. Geotourism adds to ecotourism's principal focus on plants and animals by adding a third dimension of the abiotic environment, thus it is growing around the world through the growth of geoparks as well as independently in many natural and urban areas where tourism's focus in on the geological environment. Most of the world defines geotourism as purely the study of geological and geomorphological features. "Looking at the environment in a simplistic manner, we see that it is made up of Abiotic and Cultural attributes.

Starting with the'C' or cultural component first, we note that of three features it is this one, the most known and interpreted, that is, through information about the built or cultural environment either in the past or present. The'B' or biotic features of fauna and flora has seen a large focus of interpretation and understanding through ecotourism, but it is the first attribute of the'A' or abiotic features including rocks and processes that has received the least attention in tourism, is the least known and understood. This is the real power of geotourism, in that it puts the tourist spotlight on geology, brings it to the forefront of our understanding through tourism". What is a GEOSITE? A geosite is a location that has a particular geomorphological significance; as well as its inherent geological characteristics it may have cultural or heritage significance. Media related to Geotourism at Wikimedia Commons Fundamentals of Geotourism [ Geotourism’s Global Growth - About Geological Tourism


Reitnau is a municipality in the district of Zofingen in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. On 1 January 2019 the former municipality of Attelwil merged into the municipality of Reitnau. Reitnau is first mentioned in 1045 as Reitinouwa; the village was owned by the Count of Lenzburg, though in 1045 it and the village church were granted to the convent in Schänis. The property was administered by a representative of the convent. Following the conquest of the Aargau in 1415, the village belonged to Bern and was part of the bailiwick of Lenzburg. However, the low court for Reitnau continued to be held in Schänis, it remained part of Bern in 1803 became a municipality in the new canton of Aargau. In 1873 the municipality opened its first schoolhouse, in 1905, it received a district school; the church's administration was transferred in 1807 from the convent in Schänis into private hands, was taken over in 1850 by the District. A church existed in the village before 900, though the present building dates from about 1522.

Until the 19th Century the village was dominated by agriculture. In the 18th Century home cloth weaving brought another source of income. Between 1900-33 there was a Bally Shoe factory. Around 1990 it became part of the agglomerations of Aarau. In 2005, the manufacturing sector provided 35% of the jobs, while the services sector provided 41%. Reitnau has an area, as of 2009, of 5.81 square kilometers. Of this area, 3.01 km2 or 51.8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 2.08 km2 or 35.8% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.68 km2 or 11.7 % is settled, 0.02 km2 or 0.3 % is either lakes. Of the built up area and buildings made up 7.6% and transportation infrastructure made up 3.1%. Out of the forested land, 33.7% of the total land area is forested and 2.1% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 32.7% is used for growing crops and 15.0% is pastures, while 4.1% is used for orchards or vine crops. All the water in the municipality is flowing water; the municipality is located on the western edge of the Suhre river valley.

Its southern border is shared with the Canton of Lucerne. It consists of the village of Reitnau; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Azure a Heron Argent beaked and membered Gules statant on Coupeaux Vert. This may be an example of canting with the heron representing the municipality's name." Reitnau has a population of 1,243 As of June 2009, 7.0% of the population are foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 3%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Italian being third; the age distribution, as of 2008, in Reitnau is. Of the adult population, 142 people or 12.0 % of the population are between 29 years old. 154 people or 13.0% are between 30 and 39, 227 people or 19.2% are between 40 and 49, 129 people or 10.9% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 101 people or 8.5% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 78 people or 6.6% are between 70 and 79, there are 34 people or 2.9% who are between 80 and 89,and there are 6 people or 0.5% who are 90 and older.

As of 2000, there were 33 homes with 1 or 2 persons in the household, 164 homes with 3 or 4 persons in the household, 192 homes with 5 or more persons in the household. As of 2000, there were 431 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.6 persons per household. In 2008 there were 180 single family homes out of a total of 457 apartments. There were a total of 0 empty apartments for a 0.0% vacancy rate. As of 2007, the construction rate of new housing units was 0.9 new units per 1000 residents. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the EVP Party, the Green Party and the SP. In the federal election, a total of 421 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 49.0%. The historical population is given in the following table: As of 2007, Reitnau had an unemployment rate of 1.43%. As of 2005, there were 84 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 31 businesses involved in this sector. 125 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 17 businesses in this sector.

144 people are employed with 32 businesses in this sector. In 2000 there were 585 workers. Of these, 428 or about 73.2% of the residents worked outside Reitnau while 133 people commuted into the municipality for work. There were a total of 290 jobs in the municipality. Of the working population, 6.4% used public transportation to get to work, 58.9% used a private car. From the 2000 census, 196 or 17.1% were Roman Catholic, while 830 or 72.6% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there was 1 individual. In Reitnau about 72.3% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Of the school age population, there are 134 students attending primary school, there are 62 students attending secondary school in the municipality