Prehistory means literally before history, from the Latin word for before, præ, and Greek ιστορία. Neighbouring civilisations were the first to follow, most other civilisations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron Age. The period when a culture is written about by others, but has not developed its own writing is known as the protohistory of the culture. By definition, there are no records from human prehistory. Clear techniques for dating were not well-developed until the 19th century and this article is concerned with human prehistory as defined here above. There are separate articles for the history of the Earth. However, for the race as a whole, prehistory ends when recorded history begins with the accounts of the ancient world around the 4th millennium BC. For example, in Egypt it is accepted that prehistory ended around 3200 BC, whereas in New Guinea the end of the prehistoric era is set much more recently. The three-age system is the periodization of prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies, Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age.
The notion of prehistory began to surface during the Enlightenment in the work of antiquarians who used the word primitive to describe societies that existed before written records, the first use of the word prehistory in English, occurred in the Foreign Quarterly Review in 1836. The main source for prehistory is archaeology, but some scholars are beginning to more use of evidence from the natural and social sciences. This view has been articulated by advocates of deep history, human population geneticists and historical linguists are providing valuable insight for these questions. Human prehistory differs from history not only in terms of its chronology, restricted to material processes and artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous. Because of this, reference terms that use, such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate. Palaeolithic means Old Stone Age, and begins with the first use of stone tools, the Paleolithic is the earliest period of the Stone Age.
The early part of the Palaeolithic is called the Lower Palaeolithic, evidence of control of fire by early humans during the Lower Palaeolithic Era is uncertain and has at best limited scholarly support. The most widely accepted claim is that H. erectus or H. ergaster made fires between 790,000 and 690,000 BP in a site at Bnot Yaakov Bridge, Israel. The use of fire enabled early humans to cook food, provide warmth, Early Homo sapiens originated some 200,000 years ago, ushering in the Middle Palaeolithic
Java Man is the popular name given to early human fossils discovered on the island of Java in 1891 and 1892. Led by Eugène Dubois, the team uncovered a tooth, a skullcap. Arguing that the fossils represented the missing link between apes and humans, Dubois gave the species the scientific name Anthropopithecus erectus, renamed it Pithecanthropus erectus. Less than ten years after 1891, almost eighty books or articles had been published on Duboiss finds, despite Dubois argument, few accepted that Java Man was a transitional form between apes and humans. Some dismissed the fossils as apes and others as modern humans, in the 1930s Dubois made the claim that Pithecanthropus was built like a giant gibbon, a much misinterpreted attempt by Dubois to prove that it was the missing link. Eventually, similarities between Pithecanthropus erectus and Sinanthropus pekinensis led Ernst Mayr to rename both Homo erectus in 1950, placing them directly in the evolutionary tree. To distinguish Java Man from other Homo erectus populations, some began to regard it as a subspecies, Homo erectus erectus.
Other fossils found in the first half of the century in Java at Sangiran and Mojokerto. Estimated to be between 700,000 and 1,000,000 years old, at the time of their discovery the fossils of Java Man were the oldest hominin fossils ever found, the fossils of Java Man have been housed at the Naturalis in the Netherlands since 1900. Charles Darwin had argued that humanity evolved in Africa, because this is where great apes like gorillas, though Darwins claims have since been vindicated by the fossil record, they were proposed without any fossil evidence. Other scientific authorities disagreed with him, like Charles Lyell, a geologist, and Alfred Russel Wallace, Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois favored the latter theory, and sought to confirm it. In October 1887, Dubois abandoned his career and left for the Dutch East Indies to look for the fossilized ancestor of modern man. Because of his duties, it was only in July 1888 that he began to excavate caves in Sumatra. After he failed to find the fossils he was looking for on Sumatra, again assisted by convict laborers and two army sergeants, Dubois began searching along the Solo River near Trinil in August 1891.
His team soon excavated a molar and a skullcap and its characteristics were a long cranium with a sagittal keel and heavy browridge. Dubois first gave them the name Anthropopithecus, or man-ape, as the chimpanzee was known at the time, in August 1892, Duboiss team found a long femur shaped like a human one, suggesting that its owner had stood upright. Believing that the three belonged to a single individual, probably a very aged female, Dubois renamed the specimen Anthropopithecus erectus. Only in late 1892, when he determined that the cranium measured about 900 cubic centimetres and this specimen has been known as Pithecanthropus 1
The Minatogawa people are a prehistoric people of Okinawa, represented by four skeletons, two male and two female, and some isolated bones dated between 16,000 and 14,000 years BCE. They are among the oldest skeletons of hominids yet discovered in Japan, the skeletons were found at the Minatogawa limestone quarry, located 10 km south of Naha, near the southern tip of the island. In 1968 Oyama reported the finding of a bone at the quarry to Hisashi Suzuki. A team led by Suzuki excavated the site during three seasons and their finds were described in 1982. The skeletons are now in the Anthropology Museum, Tokyo University, suzukis excavation was limited to the part of the fissure that was exposed on the quarrys face,5 m high and 20 m above the present sea level, and extended about 6 m into the cliff behind. The bones recovered from that fissure belonged to between 5 and 9 distinct individuals, mixed with over 200 fragments of deer and boar bones, the finds lay on a diagonal band extending down and forward by about 6 meters within the fissure.
The lowest-placed skeleton was standing upside-down, but his bones were mostly in their anatomical positions, the other skeletons were found with their bones all mixed up and scattered over several meters. Suzuki conjectures that the individuals were killed with spears or arrows by enemies who cannibalized their victims and threw the remains into the fissure, which had been used as a trash dump. The individuals were rather short and their capacity was close to the lower end of the range of the latter prehistoric Jōmon. The teeth were worn out, suggesting an abrasive diet. In one of the mandibles, the two median incisors had been knocked out at the time, well before death—a custom that is known to have been practiced by the Jomon people. Geologists have estimated that the fissure was created by an uplifting that bent and fractured the rock layers. Charcoal fragments in the fissure have been carbon-14-dated to about 16,000 and 18,000 years ago, yamashita Cave Man Pinza-Abu Cave Man History of the Ryukyu Islands
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface. The period lasted roughly 3.4 million years, and ended between 8700 BCE and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking, bone tools were used during this period as well but are rarely preserved in the archaeological record. The Stone Age is further subdivided by the types of tools in use. According to the age and location of the current evidence, the cradle of the genus is the East African Rift System, especially toward the north in Ethiopia, where it is bordered by grasslands. The closest relative among the living primates, the genus Pan, represents a branch that continued on in the deep forest. The rift served as a conduit for movement into southern Africa and north down the Nile into North Africa and through the continuation of the rift in the Levant to the vast grasslands of Asia. The oldest indirect evidence found of stone tool use is fossilised animal bones with tool marks, the oldest stone tools were excavated from the site of Lomekwi 3 in West Turkana, northwestern Kenya, and date to 3.3 million years old.
Prior to the discovery of these Lomekwian tools, the oldest known stone tools had been found at sites at Gona, Ethiopia, on the sediments of the paleo-Awash River. All the tools come from the Busidama Formation, which lies above a disconformity, or missing layer, the oldest sites containing tools are dated to 2. 6–2.55 mya. One of the most striking circumstances about these sites is that they are from the Late Pliocene, excavators at the locality point out that. the earliest stone tool makers were skilled flintknappers. The possible reasons behind this seeming abrupt transition from the absence of tools to the presence thereof include. The species who made the Pliocene tools remains unknown, fragments of Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus aethiopicus and Homo, possibly Homo habilis, have been found in sites near the age of the Gona tools. Innovation of the technique of smelting ore ended the Stone Age, the first most significant metal manufactured was bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, each of which was smelted separately.
The Chalcolithic by convention is the period of the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age, the transition out of the Stone Age occurred between 6000 BCE and 2500 BCE for much of humanity living in North Africa and Eurasia. Note the Rudna Glava mine in Serbia, Ötzi the Iceman, a mummy from about 3300 BCE carried with him a copper axe and a flint knife. In regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa, the Stone Age was followed directly by the Iron Age, the Middle East and southeastern Asian regions progressed past Stone Age technology around 6000 BCE. Europe, and the rest of Asia became post–Stone Age societies by about 4000 BCE, the proto-Inca cultures of South America continued at a Stone Age level until around 2000 BCE, when gold and silver made their entrance
The occipital bone, is a cranial dermal bone, and is the main bone of the occiput. It is trapezoidal in shape and curved on itself like a shallow dish, the occipital bone overlies the occipital lobes of the cerebrum. At the base of the skull in the occipital there is a large oval opening called the foramen magnum. Like the other cranial bones it is classed as a flat bone, due to its many attachments and features the occipital bone is described in terms of separate parts. From its front to the back is the part, at the sides of the foramen magnum are the lateral parts. The basilar part is a thick, somewhat quadrilateral piece in front of the foramen magnum and this is called the basioccipital. The lateral parts of the bone are on either side of the foramen magnum. The squamous part is the curved, expanded plate behind the foramen magnum and is the largest part of the occipital bone, near the middle of the outer surface of the squamous part of the occipital there is a prominence – the external occipital protuberance.
The highest point of this is called the inion, from the inion, along the midline of the squamous part until the foramen magnum, runs a ridge – the external occipital crest and this gives attachment to the nuchal ligament. Running across the outside of the bone are three curved lines and one line that runs down to the foramen magnum. These are known as the lines which give attachment to various ligaments. They are named as the highest and inferior nuchal lines, the inferior nuchal line runs across the mid-point of the medial nuchal line. The area above the highest nuchal line is termed the occipital plane, the inner surface of the occipital bone forms the base of the posterior cranial fossa. The foramen magnum is a hole situated in the middle, with the clivus. The median internal occipital crest travels behind it to the occipital protuberance. To the sides of the sitting at the junction between the lateral and base of the occipital bone are the hypoglossal canals. Further out, at each junction between the occipital and petrous part of the temporal bone lies a jugular foramen, the inner surface of the occipital bone is marked by dividing lines as shallow ridges, that form four fossae or depressions.
The lines are called the cruciform eminence, at the mid-point where the lines intersect a raised part is formed called the internal occipital protuberance
Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
History of the Ryukyu Islands
This article is about the history of the Ryukyu Islands southwest of the main islands of Japan. The name Ryūkyū originates from Chinese writings, the earliest references to Ryūkyū write the name as 琉虬 and 流求 in the Chinese history Book of Sui in 607. It is a name, meaning glazed horn-dragon. The origin of the term Okinawa remains unclear, although Okinawa as a term was used in Okinawa, there was a divine woman named Uchinaa in the book Omoro Sōshi, a compilation of ancient poems and songs from Okinawa Island. This suggests the presence of a place named Okinawa. The Chinese monk Jianzhen, who traveled to Japan in the mid-8th century CE to promote Buddhism, the Japanese map series Ryukyu Kuniezu labeled the island as 悪鬼納 in 1644. The current Chinese characters for Okinawa were first written in the 1702 version of Ryukyu Kuniezu, the ancestry of the modern-day Ryukyuan people is disputed. The time when human beings appeared in Okinawa remains unknown, the earliest human bones were those of Yamashita Cave Man, about 32 000 years ago, followed by Pinza-Abu Cave Man, about 26 000 years ago and Minatogawa Man, about 18 000 years ago.
Of them, perfect bodies were excavated of the Minatogawa man and they probably came through China and were once considered to be the direct ancestors of those living in Okinawa. No stone tools were discovered with them, for the following 12 000 years, no trace of archaeological sites was discovered after the Minatogawa man site. However, the use of Jōmon and Yayoi of Japan is questionable in Okinawa, in the former, it was a hunter-gatherer society, with wave-like opening Jōmon pottery. In the latter part of Jomon period, archaeological sites moved near the seashore, in Okinawa, rice was not cultivated during the Yayoi period but began during the latter period of shell-heap age. Shell rings for arms made of shells obtained in the Sakishima Islands, in these islands, the presence of shell axes,2500 years ago, suggests the influence of a southeastern-Pacific culture. The first history of Ryukyu was written in Chūzan Seikan, which was compiled by Shō Shōken, the Ryukyuan creation myth is told, which includes the establishment of Tenson as the first king of the islands and the creation of the Noro, female priestesses of the Ryukyuan religion.
The throne was usurped from one of Tensons descendants by a man named Riyu, Chūzan Seikan tells the story of a Japanese samurai, Minamoto no Tametomo, who fought in the Hogen Rebellion of 1156 and fled first to Izu Island and to Okinawa. He had relations with the sister of the Aji of Ōzato and sired Shunten, most historians, discount the Tametomo story as a revisionist history that is intended to legitimize Japanese domination over Okinawa. Shuntens dynasty ended in the third generation when his grandson, abdicated, went into exile, and was succeeded by Eiso, the Eiso dynasty continued for five generations. Gusuku is the used for the distinctive Okinawan form of castles or fortresses
The larger are mostly high islands and the smaller ones are mostly coral islands. The largest of the islands is Okinawa, the climate of the islands ranges from humid subtropical climate in the north to tropical rainforest climate in the south. Precipitation is very high, and is affected by the rainy season, the islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs. The Amami, Okinawa and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively called the Ryukyuan people, the varied Ryukyuan languages are traditionally spoken on these islands, and the major islands have their own distinct languages. In modern times, the Japanese language is the language of the islands. The northern islands are called the Satsunan Islands, while the southern part of the chain are called the Ryukyu Islands in Japanese. Following are the grouping and names used by the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of the Japan Coast Guard, the islands are listed from north to south where possible. Nansei Islands Satsunan Islands Ōsumi Islands with, Yaku, Mageshima in the North-Eastern Group and they agreed on February 15,2010, to use Amami-guntō for the Amami Islands, prior to that, Amami-shotō had been used.
The English and Japanese uses of the term Ryukyu differ, in English, the term Ryukyu may apply to the entire chain of islands, while in Japanese Ryukyu usually refers only to the islands that were previously part of the Ryūkyū Kingdom after 1624. Nansei-shotō is the name for the whole island chain in Japanese. Japan has used the name on nautical charts since 1907, based on the Japanese charts, the international chart series uses Nansei Shoto. Nansei literally means southwest, the direction of the chain from mainland Japan. Some humanities scholars prefer the uncommon term Ryūkyū-ko for the island chain. In geology, the Ryukyu Arc includes subsurface structures such as the Okinawa Trough, the name of Ryūkyū is strongly associated with the Ryūkyū Kingdom, a kingdom that originated from the Okinawa Islands and subjected the Sakishima and Amami Islands. The name is considered outdated in Japanese although some entities of Okinawa still bear the name. In Japanese, the Ryukyu Islands cover only the Okinawa, the northern half of the island chain is referred to as the Satsunan Islands in Japanese, as opposed to Northern Ryukyu Islands in English.
Humanities scholars generally agree that the Amami, Miyako, there is, however, no good name for the group. The native population do not have their own name, since they do not recognize themselves as a group this size, Ryukyu is the principal candidate because it roughly corresponds to the maximum extent of the Ryūkyū Kingdom
Squamous part of occipital bone
The squamous part of occipital bone, is situated above and behind the foramen magnum, and is curved from above downward and from side to side. The external surface is convex and presents midway between the summit of the bone and the foramen magnum a prominence, the occipital protuberance. Extending lateralward from this on either side are two curved lines, one a little above the other, the upper, often faintly marked, is named the highest nuchal line, and to it the epicranial aponeurosis is attached. The lower is termed the superior nuchal line and that area of the squamous part, which lies above the highest nuchal lines is named the occipital plane and is covered by the occipitalis muscle. That below, termed the nuchal plane, is rough and irregular for the attachment of several muscles, from the external occipital protuberance, an often faintly marked ridge or crest, the median nuchal line, descends to the foramen magnum and affords attachment to the nuchal ligament. Running from the middle of line across either half of the nuchal plane is the inferior nuchal line.
The posterior atlantooccipital membrane is attached around the part of the foramen magnum. The internal surface is concave and divided into four fossae by a cruciate eminence. The upper two fossae are triangular and lodge the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, the two are quadrilateral and accommodate the hemispheres of the cerebellum. At the point of intersection of the four divisions of the cruciform eminence is the occipital protuberance. To the margins of this sulcus the falx cerebri is attached, the lower division of the cruciform eminence is prominent and is named the internal occipital crest, it bifurcates near the foramen magnum and gives attachment to the falx cerebelli. In the attached margin of this falx is the occipital sinus, in the upper part of the internal occipital crest, a small depression is sometimes distinguishable, it is termed the vermian fossa since it is occupied by part of the vermis of the cerebellum. The groove on the side is usually larger than that on the left and is continuous with that for the superior sagittal sinus.
Exceptions to this condition are, not infrequent, the left may be larger than the right or the two may be almost equal in size and this article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Grays Anatomy