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In particle physics, a pion is any of three subatomic particles: π0, π+, π−. Each pion is therefore a meson. Pions are the lightest mesons and, more the lightest hadrons, they are unstable, with the charged pions π+ and π− decaying with a mean lifetime of 26.033 nanoseconds, the neutral pion π0 decaying with a much shorter lifetime of 84 attoseconds. Charged pions most decay into muons and muon neutrinos, while neutral pions decay into gamma rays; the exchange of virtual pions, along with vector and omega mesons, provides an explanation for the residual strong force between nucleons. Pions are not produced in radioactive decay, but are in high energy collisions between hadrons. Pions result from some matter-antimatter annihilation events. All types of pions are produced in natural processes when high energy cosmic ray protons and other hadronic cosmic ray components interact with matter in Earth's atmosphere. In 2013, the detection of characteristic gamma rays originating from the decay of neutral pions in two supernova remnants has shown that pions are produced copiously after supernovas, most in conjunction with production of high energy protons that are detected on Earth as cosmic rays.

The concept of mesons as the carrier particles of the nuclear force was first proposed in 1935 by Hideki Yukawa. While the muon was first proposed to be this particle after its discovery in 1936 work found that it did not participate in the strong nuclear interaction; the pions, which turned out to be examples of Yukawa's proposed mesons, were discovered later: the charged pions in 1947, the neutral pion in 1950. Theoretical work by Hideki Yukawa in 1935 had predicted the existence of mesons as the carrier particles of the strong nuclear force. From the range of the strong nuclear force, Yukawa predicted the existence of a particle having a mass of about 100 MeV/c^2. After its discovery in 1936, the muon was thought to be this particle, since it has a mass of 106 MeV/c^2; however experiments showed that the muon did not participate in the strong nuclear interaction. In modern terminology, this makes the muon a lepton, not a meson. However, some communities of astrophysicists continue to call the muon a "mu-meson".

In 1947, the first true mesons, the charged pions, were found by the collaboration of Cecil Powell, César Lattes, Giuseppe Occhialini, et al. at the University of Bristol, in England. Since the advent of particle accelerators had not yet come, high-energy subatomic particles were only obtainable from atmospheric cosmic rays. Photographic emulsions based on the gelatin-silver process were placed for long periods of time in sites located at high altitude mountains, first at Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the Pyrenees, at Chacaltaya in the Andes Mountains, where the plates were struck by cosmic rays. After the development of the photographic plates, microscopic inspection of the emulsions revealed the tracks of charged subatomic particles. Pions were first identified by their unusual "double meson" tracks, which were left by their decay into a putative meson; the particle was identified as a muon, not classified as a meson in modern particle physics. In 1948, Eugene Gardner, their team first artificially produced pions at the University of California's cyclotron in Berkeley, California, by bombarding carbon atoms with high-speed alpha particles.

Further advanced theoretical work was carried out by Riazuddin, who in 1959, used the dispersion relation for Compton scattering of virtual photons on pions to analyze their charge radius. Nobel Prizes in Physics were awarded to Yukawa in 1949 for his theoretical prediction of the existence of mesons, to Cecil Powell in 1950 for developing and applying the technique of particle detection using photographic emulsions. Since the neutral pion is not electrically charged, it is more difficult to detect and observe than the charged pions are. Neutral pions do not leave tracks in Wilson cloud chambers; the existence of the neutral pion was inferred from observing its decay products from cosmic rays, a so-called "soft component" of slow electrons with photons. The π0 was identified definitively at the University of California's cyclotron in 1950 by observing its decay into two photons. In the same year, they were observed in cosmic-ray balloon experiments at Bristol University; the pion plays a crucial role in cosmology, by imposing an upper limit on the energies of cosmic rays surviving collisions with the cosmic microwave background, through the Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit.

In the standard understanding of the strong force interaction as defined by quantum chromodynamics, pions are loosely portrayed as Goldstone bosons of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. That explains why the masses of the three kinds of pions are less than that of the other mesons, such as the scalar or vector mesons. If their current quarks were massless particles, it could make the chiral symmetry exact and thus the Goldstone theorem would dictate that all pions have a zero mass. Empirically, since the light quarks have minuscule nonzero masses, the pions have nonzero rest masses. However, those weights are an order of magnitude smaller than that of the nucleons mπ ≈ √v mq / fπ ≈ √mq 45 MeV, where m are the relevant current quark masses in MeV, 5−10 MeVs; the use of pions in medical radiation therapy, such as for cancer, was explored at a number of research institutions, including the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Meson Physics Facility, which t

Steve Ripley

Paul Steven Ripley was an American recording artist, record producer, studio engineer and inventor. He entered the music industry in 1977, he was the leader/producer of country rock band The Tractors. Ripley was born in Boise, but grew up in Oklahoma: he attended Glencoe High School in Glencoe and graduated from Oklahoma State University; the first usage of Red Dirt was by Ripley’s band Moses when the group chose the label name Red Dirt Records for their 1972 self-published live album. Ripley was inducted into the Oklahoma Music Awards Red Dirt Hall of Fame along with Bob Childers and Tom Skinner at the ceremony for the First Annual Red Dirt Music Awards held on Sunday, November 9, 2003 at Cain's Ballroom in Tulsa; as a producer, recording engineer, studio musician, he has worked with Bob Dylan, playing guitar and on the "Shot of Love" tour, with J. J. Cale, he produced Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown and Roy Clark and Johnnie Lee Wills. Bob Dylan listed Ripley as one of his favorite guitarists. Ripley started Ripley Guitars in 1982 in California.

He created guitars for Steve Lukather, J. J. Cale, John Hiatt, Ry Cooder, Jimmy Buffett and Eddie Van Halen, before moving to Tulsa in 1987 to buy Leon Russell's former recording studio called The Church Studio. In 1994 he formed The Tractors, he is the co-writer of the country hit "Baby Likes to Rock It". In 2002, he created his own record label to produce artists including The Tractors, Leon Russell and The Red Dirt Rangers. In 2009, he produced and hosted a 20 part radio series on the history of Oklahoma rock and roll, that aired on Oklahoma public radio stations, it was entitled "Oklahoma Rock and Roll with Steve Ripley." In 2013 Ripley produced the album Lone Chimney by the Red Dirt Rangers. In 2016 Ripley produced and curated a concert at Cain’s Ballroom to celebrate the music and legacy of Bob Dylan. Ripley died from cancer on January 3, 2019, two days after his 69th birthday, at his home in Pawnee, Oklahoma. 1994: The Tractors 1995: Have Yourself a Tractors Christmas 1998: Farmers in a Changing World 2001: Fast Girl 2002: The Big Night 2005: The Kids Record 2009: Trade Union 2002: Ripley with The Jordanaires 1976: "Flying Upside Down in My Plane" The Tractors official website AllMusic Credits Voices of Oklahoma interview.

First person interview conducted in 2018 with Steve Ripley

Murray A. Straus

Murray A. Straus was an American professor of sociology at the University of New Hampshire. Straus was born to Samuel and Kathleen Straus in New York City on June 18, 1926. Straus' research focused on families, corporal punishment, intimate partner violence with an emphasis on cross-national comparisons, he founded the Family Research Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire. Straus served as president of the Society for the Study of Social Problems and the Eastern Sociological Society, he was a founding editor of the peer-review academic journals Teaching Sociology and Journal of Family Issues. Award for Distinguished Lifetime Contributions to Research on Aggression - 2008 Ernest W. Burgess Award - 1977

Everything About Mustafa

Everything About Mustafa is a 2004 Turkish drama thriller film written and directed by Çağan Irmak about a man forced to confront his past after he loses everything in an accident. Mustafa is a successful business man living a great life with his family when an accident takes it all away from him and leaves him with many questions and a cab driver, who can answer it all. Mustafa is due to get a lot more than what he bargained for, however, as his interrogations take him to long-forgotten childhood memories and force him to see his perfect life from a different perspective. Fikret Kuşkan - Mustafa Nejat İşler - Fikret Başak Köklükaya - Ceren Şerif Sezer - Mukadder Zeynep Eronat - Selda Borgahan Gümüşsoy - Young Mustafa Everything About Mustafa on IMDb

Council for a Democratic Germany

The Council for a Democratic Germany was founded on 3 May 1944 in New York City. Its founding was a reaction to the founding of the National Committee for a Free Germany in Moscow in July 1943; some of the founding members brought experiences of previous similar organizations with them, such as the Lutetia-Kreis. The Council saw itself as representing all German people, its membership included socialists, social democrats, middle-class democrats, former members of the Centre Party, writers and scientists. This gathering of exiles was to serve as a platform for opinion-shaping and exerting political influence; the chairman was Paul Tillich, a Protestant theologian at the Union Theological Seminary in New York. He gave the Council its specific political-theological shape. No other exile organization brought together a wide spectrum of figures in politics and the arts; the CDG commented on current events of political developments. One example is the "Declaration of the Council for a Democratic Germany after the Allied invasion in Normandy on 6 June 1944".

In different committees, detailed plans for the reconstruction of society after the war were discussed. On the whole, it must be said that international developments did not conform to the CDG's declaration, it called for: A right of national self-determination for Germany Cooperation between the Western powers and Russia, for which the intellectual groundwork had been prepared through the cooperation in the CDG between bourgeois and communist figuresThe international developments that went against the CDG's plans were: The Allied demand for German unconditional surrender meant that, for the foreseeable future, national self-determination would not apply to Germany The increasing distance and hostility between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, which developed into the Cold WarUnresolvable differences between bourgeois and left-wing members over the Potsdam Agreement and its political and economic consequences signalled the end of the CDG in autumn 1945. It was never formally dissolved.

The 19 members of the founding committee were: Paul Tillich, Siegfried Aufhäuser Horst W. Baerensprung Friedrich Baerwald Felix Boenheim Bertolt Brecht Hermann Budzislawski Frederik J. Forell Kurt Gläser Albert Grzesinski Karl Frank Paul Hertz Hans Emil Hirschfeld Joseph Kaskell Julius Lips Alfons A. Nehring Otto Pfeiffenberger Albert Schreiner Jacob Walcher Elisabeth Hauptmann functioned as "Executive secretary". Thomas Mann did not become a member. Although he agreed with large parts of the declaration, he felt, he felt that the CDG should adopt a more critical approach to their home country, to the crimes committed by Germans

Allegheny Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania

Allegheny Township is a township in Westmoreland County, United States. The population was 8,002 at the 2000 census, it is the northern most municipality of Westmoreland County. The municipality borders the townships of Buffalo, Upper Burrell, Washington, it is served by the Kiski Area School District. Although there are many who believe Allegheny Township was formed in 1796, it appears, according to available records, that the Township was formed from Washington Township in 1820. At its formation, Allegheny Township included what is now Lower Burrell, Hyde Park, West Leechburg and New Kensington. There had been an earlier Allegheny Township formed by the Westmoreland County Court of Quarter Sessions in December 1795, north of the Kiskiminetas River in what is now known as Armstrong County; the area was a hunting ground for Seneca, Delaware Indians. The Allegheny Township Community Building, the municipality's government center, was constructed in 1976 and completed the following year at the intersection of the PA Route 356 by-pass and Junior High School Road, after state and federal funds became available from legislators to finance the project.

The project happened in conjunction with the completion of the 356 bypass that same year. The building consisted of a large double door auditorium with a separation curtain to divide the room in half if needed, a zoning office, supervisor's office, tax office, municipal authority office, conference room, storage room, a kitchen and a police station. Prior to the building's completion, the township conducted business from a rented basement office at Kiski Park Plaza shopping center on Route 56 at the intersection of the 356 by-pass. A new police station was built on the Community Building grounds in 2006. Louise Majocha became the township's first woman supervisor in 1983, she was appointed to fill the unexpired term of Milton L. Rimmel, 46, who died July 2 of that year due to a heart attack. Majocha was appointed by the two surviving board members, Fred Hoculock and Ron Sheetz prior to the end of July. However, she chose not to run for election in November, left office in January 1984, being succeeded by Dennis Francart.

In 1983, the Township increased its full-time police force from two to three officers, in addition to putting a third patrol car on the road. Ralphaela J. Stoner became the township's first woman elected as supervisor in the late 80's. Allegheny Township is governed by an elected body under the second class Township Code of the state of Pennsylvania; the Board is called the Board of Supervisors and consists of three elected officials each serving a six-year term. The Board of Supervisors is responsible, as a governmental unit, to strive to improve the health and welfare of the residents of Allegheny Township. In order to accomplish that task the Board adopts laws, known as ordinances, that governs various activities within the Township; the Board appoints a Township Manager, charged by the Board to implement the ordinances it passes, to manage the annual budget of the Township, adopted by the Board in December for the following calendar year. The Board of Supervisors meets on a monthly basis at 7:00 p.m. in the Community Building, to conduct business on behalf of the Township.

All meetings of the Board are open to the public with an opportunity at each meeting for public comment. If a resident has a concern he or she feels needs to be addressed by the Township, the individual is encouraged to contact the Township Manager's Office which may be able to address the manner promptly and/or schedule an appropriate time for that individual to present concerns to the Board of Supervisors. Residents are encouraged to present their views on Township matters at this time. Allegheny Township is the governing municipality of the following villages: Bagdad, BellVue, Braeburn Heights, Markle, Riverforest and White Cloud. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 31.6 square miles, of which, 30.8 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,002 people, 3,053 households, 2,399 families residing in the township; the population density was 259.5 people per square mile. There were 3,196 housing units at an average density of 103.7/sq mi.

The racial makeup of the township was 98.36% White, 0.65% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.17% of the population. There were 3,053 households out of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.5% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.4% were non-families. 18.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 2.97. In the township the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.8 males. The median income for a household in the township was $43,168, the median income for a family was $49,347.

Males had a median income of $40,745 versus $25,208 for females. The per capita income for the township was $20,910. About 5.8% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the pove