Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
Szczecin is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city; as of June 2018, the population was 403,274. Szczecin is located on the Bay of Pomerania; the city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; the city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized.
After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement, resulting in expulsion of the pre-war German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016; the names "Szczecin" and "Stettin" are of Slavic origin, though the exact etymology is the subject of ongoing research. In Etymological dictionary of geographical names of Poland, Maria Malec lists eleven theories regarding the origin of the name, including derivations from either: a Slavic word for hill peak, or the plant fuller's teasel, or the personal name Szczota.
Other medieval names for the town are Burstenburgh. These names, which mean "brush burgh", are derived from the translation of the city's Slavic name; the recorded history of Szczecin began in the eighth century, as Vikings and West Slavs settled Pomerania. The Slavs erected a new stronghold on the site of the modern castle. Since the 9th century, the stronghold was expanded toward the Oder bank. Mieszko I of Poland took control of Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages and the region became part of Poland in the 10th century. Subsequent Polish rulers, the Holy Roman Empire, the Liutician federation all aimed to control the territory. After the decline of the neighbouring regional centre Wolin in the 12th century, the city became one of the more important and powerful seaports of the Baltic Sea. In a campaign in the winter of 1121–1122, Bolesław III Wrymouth, the Duke of Poland, gained control of the region, including the city of Szczecin and its stronghold; the inhabitants were Christianized by two missions of Bishop Otto of Bamberg in 1124 and 1128.
At this time, the first Christian church of Saints Peter and Paul was erected. Polish minted coins were used in trade in this period; the population of the city at that time is estimated to be at around 5,000–9,000 people. Polish rule ended with Boleslaw's death in 1138. During the Wendish Crusade in 1147, a contingent led by the German margrave Albert the Bear, an enemy of Slavic presence in the region, papal legate, bishop Anselm of Havelberg and Konrad of Meissen besieged the town. There, a Polish contingent supplied by Mieszko III the Old joined the crusaders. However, the citizens had placed crosses around the fortifications, indicating they had been Christianised. Duke Ratibor I of Pomerania, negotiated the disbanding of the crusading forces. After the Battle of Verchen in 1164, Szczecin duke Bogusław I, Duke of Pomerania became a vassal of the Duchy of Saxony's Henry the Lion. In 1173 Szczecin castellan Wartislaw II, could not resist a Danish attack and became vassal of Denmark. In 1181, Bogusław became a vassal of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1185 Bogusław again became a Danish vassal. Following a conflict between his heirs and Canute VI of Denmark, the settlement was destroyed in 1189, but the fortress was reconstructed and manned with a Danish force in 1190. While the empire restored its superiority over the Duchy of Pomerania in the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227, Szczecin was one of two bridgeheads remaining under Danish control. In the second half of the 12th century, a group of German tradesmen settled in the city around St. Jacob's Church, donated in 1180 by Beringer, a trader from Bamberg, consecrated in 1187. Hohenkrug was the first village in the Duchy of Pomerania, recorded as German in 1173. Ostsiedlung accelerated in Pomerania during the 13th century. Duke Barnim I of Pomerania granted Szczecin a local government charter in 1237, separating the German settlement from the Slavic community settled around the St. Nicholas Church in the neighbourhood of Kessin. In the charte
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
The 2015–16 Ekstraklasa was the 82nd season of the highest level of football leagues in Poland since its establishment in 1927. A total of 16 teams were participating, 14 of which competed in the league during the 2014–15 season, while the remaining two were promoted from the I Liga; each team played a total of 37 matches, half away. Lech Poznań were the defending champions. Promotion and relegation as usual was determined by the position in the table from prior season; the bottom two teams were directly relegated to the I Liga, while the top two teams are promoted to the Ekstraklasa. Zawisza Bydgoszcz and GKS Bełchatów finished in 15th and 16th place and were relegated to the I Liga as a result. Zagłębie Lubin, the 2014–15 I Liga champion, returns to the top level just one year after their relegation. Runners-up Termalica Bruk-Bet Nieciecza was promoted to the Ekstraklasa for the first time. ^ Termalica played 7 first home games at Stadion Stali Mielec in Mielec. Official website Ekstraklasa at uefa.com
FC Dinamo București
Fotbal Club Dinamo București known as Dinamo București, or as Dinamo within Romania, is a Romanian professional football club based in Bucharest. Founded in 1948, it has spent its entire history in Liga I, the top tier of the Romanian football league system. Domestically, Dinamo București is one of the two most successful teams in Romania, having won 18 Liga I titles, 13 Cupa României, two Supercupa României, one Cupa Ligii. In the 1983–84 season, they became the first Romanian club to reach the semi-finals of the European Cup. Dinamo's traditional home colours are white red, while the current crest is a modified version of the one adopted in the 1998. Dinamo is playing its home matches on Stadionul Dinamo and the important matches on the Arena Națională; the club holds a strong rivalry with neighboring FCSB, with matches between the two being referred to as "the Eternal Derby". Dinamo was founded on 14 May 1948, when "Unirea Tricolor MAI" – newly entered, in January 1948, under the umbrella of the Communist regime's Internal Affairs Ministry – merged with "Ciocanul București".
The sporting club represented the above-mentioned institution. The "Dinamo" name was used for the first time on 1 May 1948; the real debut of Dinamo was in the 1947-48 Divizia A edition. Some of the team's players were Ambru, Angelo Niculescu, Siclovan, Sârbu. In 1955, Dinamo won their first championship. With Angelo Niculescu as head coach, Dinamo impressed in the offensive, with an attack formed by Ene I, Neaga and Suru; the defense, with players like Băcuț I, Băcuț II, Szoko, Călinoiu, was the best in the championship – only 19 goals against. In the fall of 1956, the team made its debut in the European Champion Clubs' Cup. Dinamo was the first Romanian team to play in the European competitions; the debut game was played on 26 August 1956, in front of 32,000 spectators. Dinamo defeated Galatasaray, 3–1. In the second leg, Dinamo lost in Istanbul 1–2, moved forward. In following years, Dinamo met famous teams in Europe, such as Real Madrid, Inter Milan and Feyenoord: 0–3 and 0–2. In 1973, in the European Cup, Dinamo surpassed Northern Ireland's Crusaders Belfast.
The 11–0 home game against Northern Ireland's team is still the biggest margin of victory in the history of the European Cup. The autumn of 1983–84 was going to represent a valuable step into the international arena; the "European Champions Cup campaign" started with Kuusysi Lahti. The second round pushed Dinamo against the current champion, Hamburger SV – team of Stein and Magath. At Bucharest, Augustin and Orac scored for 3–0; the thrilling second leg finished 3–2. In order to accede to the semi-finals of CCE, Dinamo had to defeat another top team: Dinamo Minsk, with Aleinikov and Gurinovich; the first leg was 1–1, it was followed by a 1–0 victory at Bucharest. Dinamo was the first Romanian team to reach the European Champions Cup semi-finals, where it met Liverpool F. C.. Dinamo lost 1–0 at Anfield and 2–1 in Bucharest, as Liverpool progressed to the 1984 European Cup Final. In 1986 Dinamo won the Cup against Steaua, the team that only a few days before won the European Cup. In the summer of 1990, Dinamo – with Mircea Lucescu as coach – conquered a new national title, the 13th.
The team won the Cup final, against Steaua: 6–4. But the Romanian Revolution from 1989 opened the doors for the Romanian footballers to leave and play abroad and Dinamo lost its entire team, thus a downfall regarding the results came the following years. Dinamo managed to win the title in 1992, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2007, but failed to reach the final phases of the European competitions. In 2013, the team changed ownership. Businessman Ionuț Negoiță promised to revive the golden years. On May 6, 2016, player Patrick Ekeng was diagnosed with a heart attack, he was declared dead at the hospital 2 hours later. Since the beginning, Dinamo's colours were white; the current team's badge includes two red dogs, a nickname given to the club when the Nunweiller brothers played here and Ion, in the 1960s and 1970s. Dinamo plays its home games at Stadionul Dinamo; the arena was built in 1951, for the official inauguration Dinamo played a game against Locomotiva Timișoara. The stadium capacity was 16,000, but following the installation of seats, it decreased to 15,032 places.
The stadium is part of a larger complex which contains another smaller stadium, Stadionul Florea Dumitrache, where the second team, Dinamo II, used to play its matches. It is used by CS Dinamo București rugby team. There is a sports hall and a swimming pool; the stadium is nicknamed "Groapa", because it was built by digging a hole, rather than by raising its stands. Dinamo's fans use the North stand, named Peluza Cătălin Hîldan, after a former Dinamo player who died in 2000 at the age of 24. Dinamo plays home and away matches against their biggest rivals, Steaua, as well as other major fixtures at Arena Națională. Dinamo has an estimated 11% support in Romania, making them the second most supported Romanian club, after Steaua; the largest concentration of fans is in Bucharest in the northeast and central areas of the city. The club has important fan bases inside and outside the country; the roots of the Dinamo ultras movement can be found in 1995 when groups like Dracula and Rams Pantelimon
The 2014–15 Ekstraklasa, is the 81st season of the highest level of football leagues in the Polish football league system since its establishment in 1927. It began on 18 July 2014. A total of 16 teams are participating, 14 of which competed in the league during the 2013–14 season, while the remaining two were promoted from the I Liga; each team played a total of 30 matches, half away. Legia Warsaw were the defending champions, having won their 10th title last season, but Lech Poznań won their 7th title. Promotion and relegation as usual was determined by the position in the table from prior season; the bottom two teams were directly relegated to the I Liga, while the top two teams are promoted to the Ekstraklasa. Widzew Łódź and Zagłębie Lubin finished in 15th and 16th place and were relegated to the Polish First League as a result. GKS Bełchatów and Górnik Łęczna finished 1st and 2nd in the I Liga gained promotion. Official website Ekstraklasa at uefa.com
The 2016–17 Ekstraklasa was the 83rd season of the Ekstraklasa, the top Polish professional league for association football clubs, since its establishment in 1927. The league is operated by the Ekstraklasa SA; the season started on 15 July 2016, running to 4 June 2017. After the 20th matchday the league was on winter break between 20 December 2016 and 9 February 2017; the regular season was played in a round-robin tournament. A total of 16 teams participated, 14 of which competed in the league during the 2015–16 season, while the remaining two were promoted from the I liga; the fixtures were announced on 1 June 2016. Each team played a total of 30 matches, half away. After 30th round, league was split into two groups: championship relegation round; each team was play 7 more games, starting with half the points achieved during the first phase of 30 matches. So each team played a total of 37 matches; this is the fourth season to take place. The defending champions were Legia Warsaw. Sixteen teams competed in the league – the top fourteen teams from the previous season, as well as two teams promoted from the I liga.
Arka Gdynia became the first team to be promoted. They return to the league after a five-season absence. Wisła Płock returns to the top level nine years after their relegation. Termalica Bruk-Bet Nieciecza changed its name to Bruk-Bet Termalica Nieciecza. Note: Table lists in alphabetical order. 2016–17 I liga Official website Ekstraklasa at uefa.com