Paweł Łukasz Brożek is a Polish footballer who plays for Wisła Kraków and the Poland national football team as a striker. Brozek represented various youth squads for Poland, he make his senior team debut in 2005, scored over 30 international appearances and representing his country for Fifa World Cup 2006 and Euro 2012. Paweł Brożek was born in Kielce. In 1992 he began his career at Polonia Białogon Kielce, together with his twin brother Piotr. In 1998, he moved to Zabrze to play for SMS Zabrze team. A half a year he joined Wisła Kraków, together with his brother, he made his debut for Wisła Kraków in Ekstraklasa on 8 April 2001 in a match against Górnik Zabrze. On 21 April 2001, he scored his first goal in the Ekstraklasa in a match against Odra Wodzisław. In May 2001 Brożek signed a new 10-year contract with Wisła Kraków, he won the Ekstraklasa championship in 2000–01 season with Wisła Kraków. In 2002, he was loaned to ŁKS Łódź to play in the Polish First League. A half year he returned to Wisła Kraków and won with his second club Ekstraklasa title, in 2002–03 season.
In 2004, he was loaned to GKS Katowice for a half. He was a stand out player at GKS Katowice. In December 2004 he was invited for a trial together with his twin brother Piotr by West Ham United. In January 2005 Paweł Brożek returned to Wisła Kraków, because the Wisła manager Werner Lička wanted him to come back from loan. Brożek won the Ekstraklasa title in 2004–05 season with Wisła Kraków. In 2005–06 season he began to play for his side, Wisła Kraków first squad. Subsequently, he scored. In 2006–07 season Brożek played well in UEFA Cup, where he scored 4 goals in group stage matches against AS Nancy, FC Basel and Feyenoord Rotterdam. In 2007–08 season Brożek scored 23 goals in 27 matches and led Wisła Kraków to achieve the Ekstraklasa title, he was the Ekstraklasa Top Goalscorer in 2007–08 season. In 2008–09 season he won his sixth Ekstraklasa title with Wisła and was the Ekstraklasa Top Goalscorer for the second time in a row. In the following 2009–10 season, Brożek led his team in goals and assists while Wisła finished second in the league.
In January 2011, Paweł together with his twin brother Piotr, joined Turkish Süper Lig side Trabzonspor on a two-and-a-half year deal for an undisclosed fee from Wisła Kraków. Brożek made his debut for Trabzonspor in a Turkish Cup match against Beşiktaş on 26 January 2011, assisting Alanzinho's goal with a back-heel pass. In the 2010–11 Süper Lig season, he contributed with two goals and two assists for the eventual runners-up. In the following campaign, Brożek could not establish himself in the Trabzonspor starting line-up, blocked by Turkish international Burak Yılmaz, who played as the sole striker in the system preferred by coach Şenol Güneş. On 29 January 2012, Brożek agreed terms to join Scottish Premier League outfit Celtic on loan from Trabzonspor until the end of the season, subject to a medical; the following day, he signed a contract with Celtic after passing the medical exams. He was given the number 17 shirt. On 8 February 2012, he made his debut in the 4–0 win over Heart of Midlothian in a Scottish Premier League match, coming on as a second-half substitute for Scott Brown.
He made three appearances in total for the eventual league champions, failing to score in any of them. At the end of his loan spell at Celtic, Brożek criticised Neil Lennon, stating that the Celtic manager "...promised me something and another thing happened afterwards. I did not get many opportunities from him and I was left dry of games." In August 2012, Brożek joined Spanish second-tier club Recreativo de Huelva. Brożek did not play and the team were nowhere near achieving promotion finishing in thirteenth place with Brożek scoring only twice in 18 league appearances. In June 2013, it was reported. On 23 July 2013, it was reported that Brożek was undergoing medical tests with Wisła Kraków with a view to rejoining his previous club. Contract negotiations involved the player agreeing to lower his wages, but receive increased bonuses for wins and goals. A week Brożek's signing was confirmed. On 3 May 2014, he scored a hat-trick against Pogoń Szczecin and his 100th goal in Ekstraklasa, it took 227 appearances to achieve that.
In 1999, he played at the FIFA U-17 World Championship tournament. In 2000 Brożek played at the UEFA European Under-16 Football Championship tournament. With Poland national under-17 football team Brożek won Vaclav Jezek Tournament in 2000 and was Top Goalscorer of the tournament with 6 goals. In 2001, he won UEFA European Under-18 Football Championship with Poland national under-18 football team, he played in first squad. He was the youngest member of the team. All other u-18 team members were born in 1982, while Brożek was born in 1983, he showed a great performance in UEFA European Under-21 Championship 2004–2006 qualifying round where he scored 9 goals in 8 matches he played. Brożek made his first appearance for the Poland national football team against Mexico in 2005, scoring in the process, he was selected to the 23-man national squad for the 2006 FIFA World Cup finals held in Germany, coming on as a substitute he nearly scored a goal against Ecuador in their 2–0 defeat, with a left foot shot that hit the post.
In May 2012, he was called up to the 23-man Poland national football team squad for UEFA Euro 2012. At the tournament, Brożek played in two group stage matches. Although he has not retired from international football, he has not appeared for the side since 2014. Scores and results list Poland's goal tally first, his twin brother, Piotr, is a footballer. As of 1 June 2018.1 All appearances in Ekstraklasa Cup.2 All appearance
In sport, a cap is a metaphorical term for a player's appearance in a game at international level. The term dates from the practice in the United Kingdom of awarding a cap to every player in an international match of association football. In the early days of football, the concept of each team wearing a set of matching shirts had not been universally adopted, so each side would distinguish itself from the other by wearing a specific sort of cap. An early illustration of the first international football match between Scotland and England in 1872 shows the Scottish players wearing cowls, the English wearing a variety of school caps; the practice was first approved on 10 May 1886 for association football after a proposal made by N. Lane Jackson, founder of the Corinthians: That all players taking part for England in future international matches be presented with a white silk cap with red rose embroidered on the front; these to be termed International Caps. The act of awarding a cap is applied to other sports.
Although in some sports physical caps may not now always be given the term "cap" for an international or other appearance has been retained as an indicator of the number of occasions on which a sportsperson has represented a team in a particular sport. Thus, a "cap" is awarded for each game played and so a player who has played x games, for the team, is said to have been capped x times or have won x caps; the practice of awarding a physical cap varies from sport to sport. It may be awarded prior to a player's debut or for national teams, a commemorative cap may be awarded after a player reaches the 100th cap; as an example, the England men's association football teams still awards physical caps. Players are awarded one cap for every match they play — unless they play in a World Cup or European Championship finals tournament, they are given a single cap for the competition — with the names of all their opponents stitched into the fabric of the cap itself. For example, when David Beckham made his one hundredth appearance for England, because a number of his appearances had been at World Cup and European Championship final tournaments for which he received only one cap, he received only his 85th physical cap.
The world record holder for the highest number of international caps as of 5 November 2010 is retired American player Kristine Lilly, who has 354 caps. In men's association football, the record belongs to former player Ahmed Hassan of Egypt; the first footballer to win 100 international caps was Billy Wright of England's Wolverhampton Wanderers. Wright went on to appear 105 times for England, 90 of them. FIFA rules state that any club that refuses to release a player for national team duty is barred from using the player for two matches, a rule, intended to discourage clubs from pretending that the player is injured. However, it is a player's choice to refuse to retire from his or her national team; some current leading holders of association football caps are: 184 – Ahmed Hassan, Egypt 178 – Hossam Hassan, Egypt 178 – Mohamed Al-Deayea, Saudi Arabia 177 – Claudio Suárez, Mexico 178 in Mexican records 169 – Gianluigi Buffon, Italy 168 – Iván Hurtado, Ecuador 167 – Iker Casillas, Spain 166 – Vitālijs Astafjevs, Latvia 164 – Cobi Jones, United States 163 - Sergio Ramos, Spain 163 – Mohammed Al-Khilaiwi, Saudi Arabia 161 – Adnan Al-Talyani, United Arab Emirates 158 – Bader Al-Mutawa, Kuwait 157 – Landon Donovan, United States 354 – Kristine Lilly, United States World record holder 311 – Christie Rampone, United States 275 – Mia Hamm, United States 272 – Julie Foudy, United States 259 - Christine Sinclair, Canada 256 – Abby Wambach, United States 239 – Joy Fawcett, United States 231 – Heather O'Reilly, United States 214 – Birgit Prinz, Germany 214 – Therese Sjögran, SwedenBold denotes players active in international football.
In cricket, there are two types of caps. Firstly, there is the international type; some countries award a domestic type known as a "county cap". The latter system is most applied in English county cricket. Most counties do not automatically award caps to players on their first appearance. Indeed, one can play at the highest domestic level for several years, have a quite significant career in first-class cricket, without winning a cap; the world record for the number of caps in Test cricket is held by Sachin Tendulkar of India, who has, over the course of a 22-year career, collected 200. Tendulkar holds the record for One Day Internationals, with 463 caps. In rugby union, 35 players have reached 100 international caps as of 5 June 2012. Players from England, Scotland and Ireland are eligible for selection to the British and Irish Lions touring squad. Lions matches are classed as full international tests, caps are awarded; the Pacific Islanders team, composed of players from Fiji, Tonga and Cook Islands have a similar arrangement, although no players involved have so far reached 100 caps.
Players still active at Test level are in bold type. Richie McCaw, New Zealand — 148 Brian O'Driscoll, Ireland — 141 George Gregan, Australia — 139 Gethin Jenkins, Wales, 131 — Ronan O'Gara, Ireland — 130 Keven Mealamu, New Zealand — 125 Victor
Maciej Żurawski is a retired Polish footballer who played as a striker. Żurawski appeared 72 times and scored 17 goals for Poland, representing them at two World Cups and Euro 2008. He scored 121 goals in the Polish Ekstraklasa and was the top league goalscorer twice, he played in Scotland and Cyprus. Born in Poznań, Poland, Żurawski made his debut for Wisła Kraków in Ekstraklasa on 2 November 1999 in a match against ŁKS Łódź. On 4 March 2000 he scored his first goal for Wisla in the Ekstraklasa in a match against Odra Wodzisław, he won the Ekstraklasa championship in 2000–01 season with Wisła Kraków. In 2001 -- 02 season, Żurawski scored 21 goals in 27 was the Ekstraklasa Top Goalscorer. In 2002–03 season Żurawski played well in UEFA Cup, where he scored 10 goals in 10 matches, including 7 goals in matches against Parma F. C. FC Schalke 04 and S. S. Lazio; when Kamil Kosowski left Wisła Kraków, Żurawski has been chosen new Wisła Kraków captain. In 2003–04 season Żurawski scored 20 goals in 26 matches and led Wisła Kraków to achieve the Ekstraklasa title.
He was the Ekstraklasa Top Goalscorer in 2003–04 season. In 2004–05 he won his fourth Ekstraklasa title with Wisła Kraków. In this season he scored, he joined Scottish Premier League side Celtic from Wisła Kraków in July 2005 and signed a three-year contract. He inherited the number 7 shirt from Juninho Paulista, was nicknamed "Magic Żurawski" by the fans. On 19 February 2006, Żurawski scored four goals as Celtic set a new SPL record by beating Dunfermline Athletic 8–1 at East End Park. Żurawski was subsequently voted the SPL Player of the Month for February. Zurawski finished Celtic's joint top scorer in the 2005–06 season along with John Hartson with 20 goals each. For the 2006–07 season, Celtic signed strikers Kenny Miller and Jan Vennegoor of Hesselink as replacements for Hartson and Dion Dublin. Żurawski formed decent strike partnerships with both players. Having made a good start to the season, notching up 10 goals by January 2007, Żurawski suffered an injury that kept him out for most of the season and scored no further goals during the campaign.
Chris Killen and Scott McDonald were signed before the start of season 2007–08. Żurawski started Celtic's opening day clash with Kilmarnock at Celtic Park, but fell down the pecking order after McDonald returned from suspension and Killen came back from injury. The only other impact Żurawski made during the season was scoring the winning penalty in a Champions League penalty shootout against FC Spartak Moskow, his time at Celtic was over after the signing of Georgios Samaras. On the deadline day of the 2008 winter transfer window he was signed by the Greek side A. E. Larissa for £500,000, he scored a goal in his Greek league debut, the only goal of the game to defeat AEK Athens F. C. 1–0. Żurawski was Larissa's top scorer for 2008–09 season with 9 goals. On 2 June 2009, it was announced that Żurawski had signed for Cypriot League runners-up Omonia Nicosia, he helped the team to return to titles after five years. He was released in May 2010. On 30 June 2010, Żurawski returned to Wisła Kraków on a one-year deal.
In the 2010–11 season he won his fifth Ekstraklasa title with Wisła. Żurawski was selected in the 23-man Polish squad for the 2002 FIFA World Cup finals in South Korea & Japan. He played in all three of the team's games and missed a penalty in the match against the United States, although Poland won 3–1, he was selected in the 23-man Polish squad for the 2006 FIFA World Cup finals in Germany. His side finished third in the group and were eliminated at the first hurdle, losing to hosts Germany and a determined Ecuador before defeating Costa Rica. Zurawski did. Zurawski was named as Captain in Poland's Euro 2008 squad, starting their first game against Germany on 8 June but got injured and was substituted at half time; this injury meant that he would miss the rest of the tournament and the captaincy was given to Jacek Bąk and Michał Żewłakow for the second and third group stage matches. Club Wisła KrakówEkstraklasa: 2000-01, 2002–03, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2010–11 Polish Cup: 2001–02, 2002–03 Ekstraklasa Cup: 2000–01 Polish SuperCup: 2001CelticScottish Premier League: 2005–06, 2006–07, 2007–08 Scottish Cup: 2006–07 Scottish League Cup: 2005–06OmoniaCypriot Championship: 2009–10 Ekstraklasa Top Goalscorer: 2001–02, 2003–04 Polish Footballer of the Year: 2002 Football Oscar "Footballer of the Year": 2002 Ekstraklasa Footballer of the Year: 2001, 2002 Ekstraklasa Striker of the Year: 2003 SPL Player of the Month: February 2006 Maciej Żurawski at Soccerbase Maciej Żurawski at 90minut.pl National team stats on pzpn.pl
Radosław Sobolewski is a retired Polish footballer who played as a defensive midfielder. He represented the Poland national team. Born in Białystok, Sobolewski started his career playing for Jagiellonia Białystok. In 1998, he was transferred to Wisła Płock, he debuted in the top division on 7 March 1998 playing for Wisła Płock against Raków Częstochowa. On January 2003 he joined Dyskobolia Grodzisk Wielkopolski, where he stayed until December 2004. Since he has played for Wisła Kraków, helping the team to achieve the Ekstraklasa titles in 2004–05, 2007–08, 2008–09 and 2010–11 seasons. During the 2005–06 winter transfer period, he was approached by Southampton FC. However, the offer made by the English club was turned down by Wisła Kraków's board. Sobolewski was selected to the 23-men national squad for the 2006 FIFA World Cup finals in Germany. At this tournament, he received a red card for two bookable offences in his team's second group-stage match against Germany, he was the fourth player to see red in the tournament and the first Polish player to be sent off in the World Cup.
Radosław Sobolewski retired from international football on Tuesday 20 November 2007, shocking Polish football fans by doing so as it was just three days after Poland's 2–0 win over Belgium which ensured their passage to Euro 2008. As of 22 May 2016. I Liga: 1998–99 Polish Cup: 2004–05 Ekstraklasa: 2004–05, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2010–11 Ekstraklasa Midfielder of the Year: 2005 Ekstraklasa Player of the Month: March 2009 Radosław Sobolewski at 90minut.pl National team stats on pzpn.pl Player profile on FIFA.com
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Jacek Waldemar Bąk is a retired Polish footballer who played as a central defender. Other than his country, he competed professionally in France and Austria, notably appearing in more than 150 competitive games for Lyon and contributing to win the 2002 national championship. Bąk represented Poland for 15 years, appearing for the nation in two World Cups and Euro 2008. Born in Lublin, Bąk made his senior debuts with local Motor Lublin aged just 16, moving to Lech Poznań two years later. In the 1992–93 season, he contributed with 28 games to help the latter club win its third national championship in four years. Bąk signed for Olympique Lyonnais in the 1995 summer, going on to spend one full decade in the French Ligue 1 with that team and RC Lens, joining the latter in January 2002; the sides he played for during that campaign finished in second position. Bąk retired in June 2010 at the age of 37, after two years in the Qatar Stars League with Al Rayyan SC and three with Austrian Football Bundesliga's FK Austria Wien.
Bąk gained his first cap for Poland on 1 February 1993, in a 0–0 away friendly draw with Cyprus. He was picked for the squads that competed in the 2002 and the 2006 FIFA World Cups, with both tournaments ending in elimination after three matches. In November 2006, Bąk claimed he was offered €10,000 to concede a penalty in a UEFA Euro 2008 qualifier between Belgium and Poland in the former's favour, UEFA opened an investigation. Selected for the finals by manager Leo Beenhakker, he was left out of the final group phase clash against Croatia, retired with 96 appearances, fourth-most at the time. Jacek Bąk at 90minut.pl Jacek Bąk at L'Équipe Football Archived 7 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine Jacek Bąk – French league stats at LFP National team data Jacek Bąk at National-Football-Teams.com Jacek Bąk – FIFA competition record Jacek Bąk at Soccerway
Kraków spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was being reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre; the city has a population of about 770,000, with 8 million additional people living within a 100 km radius of its main square. After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau became the capital of Germany's General Government.
The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów. In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first Slavic pope and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years; that year, UNESCO approved the first sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Old Town in inscribing Kraków's Historic Centre. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of high sufficiency by GaWC, its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.
In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013 Kraków was approved as a UNESCO City of Literature; the city hosted the World Youth Day in July 2016. The name of Kraków is traditionally derived from Krakus, the legendary founder of Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of Lechitians. In Polish, Kraków is an archaic possessive form of Krak and means "Krak's". Krakus's name may derive from "krakula", a Proto-Slavic word meaning a judge's staff, or a Proto-Slavic word "krak" meaning an oak, once a sacred tree most associated with the concept of genealogy; the first mention of Prince Krakus dates back to 1190, although the town existed as early as the 7th century, inhabited by the tribe of Vistulans. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, which can be translated as "Royal Capital City of Kraków". In English, a person born or living in Kraków is a Cracovian. While in the 1990s the English version of the name was written Cracow, the most widespread modern English version is Krakow.
Kraków's early history begins with evidence of a Stone Age settlement on the present site of the Wawel Hill. A legend attributes Kraków's founding to the mythical ruler Krakus, who built it above a cave occupied by a dragon, Smok Wawelski; the first written record of the city's name dates back to 965, when Kraków was described as a notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia, but captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took Kraków from the Bohemians and incorporated it into the holdings of the Piast dynasty towards the end of his reign. In 1038, Kraków became the seat of the Polish government. By the end of the 10th century, the city was a leading centre of trade. Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, a basilica; the city was sacked and burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt identical, based on new location act and incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Bolesław V the Chaste who following the example of Wrocław, introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens.
In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the new built fortifications. In 1335, King Casimir III of Poland declared the two western suburbs to be a new city named after him, Kazimierz; the defensive walls were erected around the central section of Kazimierz in 1362, a plot was set aside for the Augustinian order next to Skałka. The city rose to prominence in 1364, when Casimir III of Poland founded the University of Kraków, the second oldest university in central Europe after the Charles University in Prague. King Casimir began work on a campus for the Academy in Kazimierz, but he died in 1370 and the campus was never completed; the city continued to grow under the joint Lithuanian-Polish Jagiellon dynasty. As the capital of the Kingdom of Poland and a member of the Hanseatic League, the city attracted many craftsmen and guilds as science and the arts began to flourish; the royal chancery and the University ensured a first flourishing of Polish literary culture in the city.
The 15th and 16th centuries were known as Poland's Złoty Golden Age. Many works of Pol