Franciszek Ksawery Lampi
Franciszek Ksawery Lampi known as Franz Xaver Lampi, was a Polish Romantic painter born in Austria of ethnic Italian background. He was associated with the aristocratic circle of the late Stanisław II Augustus, the last Polish king before the foreign partitions of Poland. Lampi settled in Warsaw around 1815 at the age of 33, established himself as the leading landscape and portrait artist in Congress Poland soon after Napoleon's defeat in Russia. Lampi was the son of renowned Italian historical painter Johann Baptist von Lampi the Elder from Romeno known as Jan Chrzciciel Lampi in Poland, invited to Warsaw by King Stanisław II August in 1786 when Franz was 4 years old, he was born in Klagenfurt. He was the younger brother of Johann Baptist von Lampi a portrait painter in the Lampi family; when he was 15 years old, the Lampi family relocated to St. Petersburg in 1797 during the third and final partition of Poland, enticed by an generous offer from the Tsar. Estranged from his father, disinherited, Franciszek Lampi left St. Petersburg at the age of 32 after the Napoleonic Wars, settled in Warsaw a year in 1815.
The well-established reputation of his father in Poland as well as his own Polish childhood helped him blend into society. He exhibited at Warsaw Salons in 1828, 1838, 1841 and 1845. Lampi painted aristocratic portraits and specialized in the Romantic depictions of attractive women. What's more, he produced fantastic landscapes and seascapes inspired by the new intellectual forces of the Age of Enlightenment and the philosophical evolution of Romanticism in Poland, his art style was similar to the work of Italian Salvator Claude Joseph Vernet of France. He gave art classes in his studio, but traveled. In 1817–1819 he was teaching in Kraków. Among his most notable students were Piotr Michałowski. In 1823 he went to Lublin in 1830 to Vilna. After the November Uprising against the Russian Empire he spent a few years in Wrocław before returning to Warsaw in 1836. In 1840 he visited Dresden and Munich – known as Franz Xaver Ferdinand von Lampi in German. In 1850 Lampi returned to Warsaw where he died in 1852 at the age of 70, said to have been a possible victim of the cholera outbreak.
His work can be found at the National Museum of Poland and its branches including Warsaw, Kraków, Poznań as well as in the Mykolas Žilinskas Art Gallery. Media related to Franciszek Ksawery Lampi at Wikimedia Commons Representative works at Zascianek.pl Franciszek Ksawery Lampi. Biography, at Artyzm.com
Jan Nepomucen Głowacki
Jan Nepomucen Głowacki was a Polish realist painter of the Romantic era, regarded as the most outstanding landscape painter of the early 19th century in Poland under the foreign partitions. Głowacki studied painting at the Kraków School of Fine Arts and at the academies of Prague and Vienna, as well as Rome and Munich, he returned to Kraków in 1828, became a teacher of painting and drawing. From 1842 he served as a professor in the Faculty of Landscape Painting at the School of Fine Arts, his work can be found at the National Museum of its branches. Some of his work has never been recovered. Głowacki was born in Kraków, he took his first art lessons with the painter Antoni Giziński, between 1819 and 1825 attended the workshops of Józef Brodowski and Józef Peszka at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków. He continued his studies in Prague and at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna under Franz Steinfeld until 1828, he finished his studies in Munich. While abroad, he went by the name Jean Nepomuk Glowacki.
Upon his return from Vienna, Głowacki became a teacher of art in his hometown and a prolific artist. He painted landscapes and city scapes, as well as portraits, religious or mythological scenes, he was influenced by the Viennese school of realism, apparent in his portrait studies. Polish art critics and historians consider him the father of Polish school of landscape painting. Głowacki was the first Polish artist to devote an entire series of works to the Tatra Mountains, he was the first, to produce studies for his oil paintings on strenuous outdoor trips. Landscapes such as "Widok z Poronina" and "Morskie Oko" are said to mark the beginning of realist Polish mountain painting, his Romantic city scapes of Kraków and its environs became popular during his lifetime thanks to an album of 24 prints that he published in 1836. He was married and had a son, Justyn Jan Głowacki, born in 1838, a daughter Emilia. Little else is known about his personal life. Media related to Jan Nepomucen Głowacki at Wikimedia Commons
Ossian is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poems published by the Scottish poet James Macpherson from 1760. Macpherson claimed to have collected word-of-mouth material in Scottish Gaelic, said to be from ancient sources, that the work was his translation of that material. Ossian is based on Oisín, son of Finn or Fionn mac Cumhaill, anglicised to Finn McCool, a legendary bard, a character in Irish mythology. Contemporary critics were divided in their view of the work's authenticity, but the consensus since is that Macpherson framed the poems himself, based on old folk tales he had collected; the work was internationally popular, translated into all the literary languages of Europe and was influential both in the development of the Romantic movement and the Gaelic revival. "The contest over the authenticity of Macpherson's pseudo-Gaelic productions," Curley asserts, "became a seismograph of the fragile unity within restive diversity of imperial Great Britain in the age of Johnson."
Macpherson's fame was crowned by his burial among the literary giants in Westminster Abbey. W. P. Ker, in the Cambridge History of English Literature, observes that "all Macpherson's craft as a philological impostor would have been nothing without his literary skill." In 1760 Macpherson published the English-language text Fragments of ancient poetry, collected in the Highlands of Scotland, translated from the Gaelic or Erse language. That year, he claimed to have obtained further manuscripts and in 1761 he claimed to have found an epic on the subject of the hero Fingal, written by Ossian. According to Macpherson's prefatory material, his publisher, claiming that there was no market for these works except in English, required that they be translated. Macpherson published these translations during the next few years, culminating in a collected edition, The Works of Ossian, in 1765; the most famous of these Ossianic poems was Fingal, written in 1762. The supposed original poems are translated with short and simple sentences.
The mood is epic. The main characters are Ossian himself, relating the stories when old and blind, his father Fingal, his dead son Oscar, Oscar's lover Malvina, who looks after Ossian in his old age. Though the stories "are of endless battles and unhappy loves", the enemies and causes of strife are given little explanation and context. Characters are given to killing loved ones by mistake, dying of grief, or of joy. There is little information given on the religion, culture or society of the characters, buildings are hardly mentioned; the landscape "is more real than the people. Drowned in eternal mist, illuminated by a decrepit sun or by ephemeral meteors, it is a world of greyness." Fingal is king of a region of south-west Scotland similar to the historical kingdom of Dál Riata and the poems appear to be set around the 3rd century, with the "king of the world" mentioned being the Roman Emperor. The poems achieved international success. Napoleon and Diderot were prominent admirers and Voltaire was known to have written parodies of them.
Thomas Jefferson thought Ossian "the greatest poet that has existed", planned to learn Gaelic so as to read his poems in the original. They were proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical writers such as Homer. Many writers were influenced by the works, including Walter Scott, painters and composers chose Ossianic subjects. One poem was translated into French in 1762, by 1777 the whole corpus. In the German-speaking states Michael Denis made the first full translation in 1768–69, inspiring the proto-nationalist poets Klopstock and Goethe, whose own German translation of a portion of Macpherson's work figures prominently in a climactic scene of The Sorrows of Young Werther. Goethe's associate Johann Gottfried Herder wrote an essay titled Extract from a correspondence about Ossian and the Songs of Ancient Peoples in the early days of the Sturm und Drang movement. Complete Danish translations were made in 1790, Swedish ones in 1794–1800. In Scandinavia and Germany the Celtic nature of the setting was ignored or not understood, Ossian was regarded as a Nordic or Germanic figure who became a symbol for nationalist aspirations.
The French general Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, made King Charles XIV John of Sweden and King of Norway, had named his only son after a character from Ossian, at the suggestion of Napoleon, the child's godfather and an admirer of Ossian. Born in 1799, Bernadotte's son became King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway, who was, in turn, succeeded by his sons Charles XV of Sweden and Oscar II. "Oscar" being a Royal Swedish name led to its becoming a common male first name in Scandinavia but in other European countries. Melchiore Cesarotti was an Italian clergyman whose translation into Italian is said by many to improve on the original, was a tireless promoter of the poems, in Vienna and Warsaw as well as Italy, it was his translation that Napoleon admired, among others it influenced Ugo Foscolo, Cesarotti's pupil in the University of Padua. By 1800 Ossian was translated into Spanish and Russian, with Dutch following in 1805, Polish and Hungarian in 1827–33; the poems were as much admired in Hungary as in Germany.
The Jagiellonian University is a research university in Kraków, Poland. Founded in 1364 by Casimir III the Great, the Jagiellonian University is the oldest university in Poland, the second oldest university in Central Europe, one of the oldest surviving universities in the world. Notable alumni include, among others and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, poet Jan Kochanowski, Polish king John III Sobieski, constitutional reformer Hugo Kołłątaj, chemist Karol Olszewski, anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski, writer Stanisław Lem and the President of Poland Andrzej Duda. Among its students who did not earn a diploma were Karol Wojtyła, future Pope John Paul II, Nobel laureates Ivo Andrić and Wisława Szymborska; the campus of the Jagiellonian University is centrally located within the city of Kraków. The university consists of fifteen faculties, including the humanities, the natural and social sciences, medicine; the university employs 4,000 academics, has more than 40,000 students who study in some 80 disciplines.
More than half of the student body are women. The language of instruction is Polish, although several degrees are offered in either German or English; the university library is one of Poland's largest, houses several medieval manuscripts, including Copernicus' De Revolutionibus. Due to its history, the Jagiellonian University is traditionally considered Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning, this standing being reflected in international rankings; the Jagiellonian University is a member of Europaeum. In 2018, the Academic Ranking of World Universities placed the university within the 401–500 band globally. In the mid-14th century, King Casimir III the Great realised that the nation needed a class of educated people lawyers, who could codify the country's laws and administer the courts and offices, his efforts to found an institution of higher learning in Poland were rewarded when Pope Urban V granted him permission to set up a university in Kraków. A royal charter of foundation was issued on 12 May 1364, a simultaneous document was issued by the City Council granting privileges to the Studium Generale.
The King provided funding for one chair in liberal arts, two in Medicine, three in Canon Law and five in Roman Law, funded by a quarterly payment taken from the proceeds of the royal monopoly on the salt mines at Wieliczka. Development of the University of Kraków stalled upon the death of King Casimir, its founder, lectures were held in various places across the city, amongst others, in professors' houses, churches and in the cathedral school on the Wawel Hill, it is believed that, in all likelihood, the construction of a building to house the Studium Generale began on Plac Wolnica in what is today the district of Kazimierz. After a period of disinterest and lack of funds, the institution was restored in the 1390s by King Władysław II Jagiełło and his wife Saint Hedwig, the daughter of King Louis of Hungary and Poland; the royal couple decided that, instead of building new premises for the university, it would be better to buy an existing edifice. The Queen donated all of her personal jewelry to the university.
The faculties of astronomy and theology attracted eminent scholars: for example, John Cantius, Stanisław of Skarbimierz, Paweł Włodkowic, Jan of Głogów, Albert Brudzewski, who from 1491 to 1495 was one of Nicolaus Copernicus' teachers. The university was the first university in Europe to establish independent chairs in Mathematics and Astronomy; this rapid expansion in the university's faculty necessitated the purchase of larger premises in which to house them. The Collegium Maius' qualities, many of which directly contributed to the sheltered, academic atmosphere at the university, became respected, helping the university establish its reputation as a place of learning in Central Europe. For several centuries the entire intellectual elite of Poland were educated at the university, where they enjoyed particular royal favour being provided with game from the royal hunt to satisfy their needs at mealtime. Whilst it was, remains, Polish students who make up the greater part of the university's student body, it has, over its long history, educated thousands of foreign students from countries such as Lithuania, Hungary, Bohemia and Spain.
During the second half of the 15th century, over 40 percent of students came from outside the Kingdom of Poland. The first chancellor of the University was Piotr Wysz, the first professors were Czechs and Poles, many of them trained at the Charles University in Prague in Bohemia. By 1520 Greek philology was introduced by Wenzel von Hirschberg. At this time, the Collegium Maius comprised seven reading rooms, six of which were named for the great ancient scholars: Aristotle, Plato, Galen and Pythagoras. Furthermore, it was during this period that the faculties of Law, Medicine and Philosophy were established in their own premises; the golden era of the University of Kraków took place during the Polish Renaissance, between 1500 and 1535, when it was attended by 3,215 students in the
Golden Age of Russian Poetry
Golden Age of Russian Poetry is the name traditionally applied by philologists to the first half of the 19th century. It is called the Age of Pushkin, after its most significant poet. Mikhail Lermontov and Fyodor Tyutchev are regarded as two most important Romantic poets after Pushkin. Vasily Zhukovsky and Konstantin Batyushkov are the best regarded of his precursors. Pushkin himself, considered Evgeny Baratynsky to be the finest poet of his day. Silver Age of Russian Poetry List of Russian-language poets
Kraków spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was being reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre; the city has a population of about 770,000, with 8 million additional people living within a 100 km radius of its main square. After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau became the capital of Germany's General Government.
The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów. In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first Slavic pope and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years; that year, UNESCO approved the first sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Old Town in inscribing Kraków's Historic Centre. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of high sufficiency by GaWC, its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.
In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013 Kraków was approved as a UNESCO City of Literature; the city hosted the World Youth Day in July 2016. The name of Kraków is traditionally derived from Krakus, the legendary founder of Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of Lechitians. In Polish, Kraków is an archaic possessive form of Krak and means "Krak's". Krakus's name may derive from "krakula", a Proto-Slavic word meaning a judge's staff, or a Proto-Slavic word "krak" meaning an oak, once a sacred tree most associated with the concept of genealogy; the first mention of Prince Krakus dates back to 1190, although the town existed as early as the 7th century, inhabited by the tribe of Vistulans. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, which can be translated as "Royal Capital City of Kraków". In English, a person born or living in Kraków is a Cracovian. While in the 1990s the English version of the name was written Cracow, the most widespread modern English version is Krakow.
Kraków's early history begins with evidence of a Stone Age settlement on the present site of the Wawel Hill. A legend attributes Kraków's founding to the mythical ruler Krakus, who built it above a cave occupied by a dragon, Smok Wawelski; the first written record of the city's name dates back to 965, when Kraków was described as a notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia, but captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took Kraków from the Bohemians and incorporated it into the holdings of the Piast dynasty towards the end of his reign. In 1038, Kraków became the seat of the Polish government. By the end of the 10th century, the city was a leading centre of trade. Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, a basilica; the city was sacked and burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt identical, based on new location act and incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Bolesław V the Chaste who following the example of Wrocław, introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens.
In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the new built fortifications. In 1335, King Casimir III of Poland declared the two western suburbs to be a new city named after him, Kazimierz; the defensive walls were erected around the central section of Kazimierz in 1362, a plot was set aside for the Augustinian order next to Skałka. The city rose to prominence in 1364, when Casimir III of Poland founded the University of Kraków, the second oldest university in central Europe after the Charles University in Prague. King Casimir began work on a campus for the Academy in Kazimierz, but he died in 1370 and the campus was never completed; the city continued to grow under the joint Lithuanian-Polish Jagiellon dynasty. As the capital of the Kingdom of Poland and a member of the Hanseatic League, the city attracted many craftsmen and guilds as science and the arts began to flourish; the royal chancery and the University ensured a first flourishing of Polish literary culture in the city.
The 15th and 16th centuries were known as Poland's Złoty Golden Age. Many works of Pol
Romanticism in Scotland
Romanticism in Scotland was an artistic and intellectual movement that developed between the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth centuries. It was part of the wider European Romantic movement, a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment, emphasising individual and emotional responses, moving beyond Renaissance and Classicist models to the Middle Ages. In the arts, Romanticism manifested itself in literature and drama in the adoption of the mythical bard Ossian, the exploration of national poetry in the work of Robert Burns and in the historical novels of Walter Scott. Scott had a major impact on the development of a national Scottish drama. Art was influenced by Ossian and a new view of the Highlands as the location of a wild and dramatic landscape. Scott profoundly affected architecture through his re-building of Abbotsford House in the early nineteenth century, which set off the boom in the Scots Baronial revival. In music, Burns was part of an attempt to produce a canon of Scottish song, which resulted in a cross fertilisation of Scottish and continental classical music, with romantic music becoming dominant in Scotland into the twentieth century.
Intellectually and figures like Thomas Carlyle played a part in the development of historiography and the idea of the historical imagination. Romanticism influenced science the life sciences, geology and astronomy, giving Scotland a prominence in these areas that continued into the late nineteenth century. Scottish philosophy was dominated by Scottish Common Sense Realism, which shared some characteristics with Romanticism and was a major influence on the development of Transcendentalism. Scott played a major part in defining Scottish and British politics, helping to create a romanticised view of Scotland and the Highlands that fundamentally changed Scottish national identity. Romanticism began to subside as a movement in the 1830s, but it continued to affect areas such as music until the early twentieth century, it had a lasting impact on the nature of Scottish identity and outside perceptions of Scotland. Romanticism was a complex artistic and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the eighteenth century in western Europe, gained strength during and after the Industrial and French Revolutions.
It was a revolt against the political norms of the Age of Enlightenment which rationalised nature, was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but influenced historiography and the natural sciences. Romanticism has been seen as "the revival of the life and thought of the Middle Ages", reaching beyond Rationalist and Classicist models to elevate medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived to be authentically medieval, in an attempt to escape the confines of population growth, urban sprawl and industrialism, embracing the exotic and distant, it is associated with political revolutions, beginning with those in Americana and France and movements for independence in Poland and Greece. It is thought to incorporate an emotional assertion of the self and of individual experience along with a sense of the infinite and sublime. In art there was a stress on landscape and a spiritual correspondence with nature, it has been described by Margaret Drabble as "an unending revolt against classical form, conservative morality, authoritarian government, personal insincerity, human moderation".
Although after union with England in 1707 Scotland adopted English language and wider cultural norms, its literature developed a distinct national identity and began to enjoy an international reputation. Allan Ramsay laid the foundations of a reawakening of interest in older Scottish literature, as well as leading the trend for pastoral poetry, helping to develop the Habbie stanza as a poetic form. James Macpherson was the first Scottish poet to gain an international reputation. Claiming to have found poetry written by the ancient bard Ossian, he published translations that acquired international popularity, being proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical epics. Fingal, written in 1762, was speedily translated into many European languages, its appreciation of natural beauty and treatment of the ancient legend has been credited more than any single work with bringing about the Romantic movement in European, in German literature, through its influence on Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
It was popularised in France by figures that included Napoleon. It became clear that the poems were not direct translations from the Gaelic, but flowery adaptations made to suit the aesthetic expectations of his audience. Robert Burns and Walter Scott were influenced by the Ossian cycle. Burns, an Ayrshire poet and lyricist, is regarded as the national poet of Scotland and a major influence on the Romantic movement, his poem "Auld Lang Syne" is sung at Hogmanay, "Scots Wha Hae" served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country. Scott began as a poet and collected and published Scottish ballads, his first prose work, Waverley in 1814, is called the first historical novel. It launched a successful career, with other historical novels such as Rob Roy, The Heart of Midlothian and Ivanhoe. Scott did more than any other figure to define and popularise Scottish cultural identity in the nineteenth century. Other major literary figures connected with Romanticism include the poets and novelists James Hogg, Allan Cunningham an