Jan Alojzy Matejko was a Polish painter known for paintings of notable historical Polish political and military events. His works include large oil on canvas paintings like Rejtan, Union of Lublin or Battle of Grunwald, numerous portraits, a gallery of Polish kings, murals in St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków, he is referred to as the most famous Polish painter or the "national painter" of Poland. Matejko spent most of his life in Kraków, his teachers at the Kraków Academy of Fine Arts included Wojciech Korneli Stattler and Władysław Łuszczkiewicz. He became a director at this institution, renamed the Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts. A number of his students became prominent painters themselves, including Maurycy Gottlieb, Jacek Malczewski, Józef Mehoffer and Stanisław Wyspiański. Matejko was born on 24 June 1838, in the Free City of Kraków, his father, Franciszek Ksawery Matejko, a Czech from the village of Roudnice, was a graduate of the Hradec Králové school who became a tutor and music teacher.
He first worked for the Wodzicki family in Kościelniki, Poland moved to Kraków, where he married the half-German, half-Polish Joanna Karolina Rossberg. Jan was the ninth child of eleven children, he grew up in a kamienica building on Floriańska Street. After the death of his mother in 1845, Jan and his siblings were cared for by his maternal aunt, Anna Zamojska. At a young age he witnessed the Kraków revolution of 1846 and the 1848 siege of Kraków by the Austrians, the two events which ended the existence of the Free City of Kraków, his two older brothers served in these battles, under General Józef Bem. Matejko attended St. Ann's High School. From his earliest days Matejko showed artistic talent, but had great difficulty with other academic areas, he never mastered a foreign language. Despite that, because of his exceptional skill, he studied at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków from 1852 to 1858, his teachers included Władysław Łuszczkiewicz. He selected historical painting as his specialization, finished his first major work, Tsars Shuyski before Zygmunt III, in 1853.
During this time, he began exhibiting historical paintings at the Kraków Society of Friends of Fine Arts. His seminal project for his graduation in 1858 was Sigismund I the Old ennobles the professors of the Jagiellonian University. After graduation, Matejko received a scholarship in 1859 to study with Hermann Anschütz at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich; the following year he received a scholarship to study at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna as well, but after a few days and a major quarrel with Christian Ruben, Matejko returned to Kraków. and opened a studio at his family home in Floriańska Street. It would however be years. In 1860 Matejko published an illustrated album, Clothing in Poland, a project reflecting his intense interest in historical records of all kinds and his desire to promote such interest among Polish people, to intensify their patriotism, his financial situation improved when he sold two paintings, Death of Wapowski during the crowning of Henry Valois and Jan Kochanowski mourning his daughter Urszulka, which settled his debts.
In 1862 he finished Stańczyk. Received without much applause, in time this would become known as one of Matejko's most famous masterpieces, it marks a visible transition in Matejko's art style, from illustrating history to creating a philosophical and moral commentary of it. During the January Uprising of 1863, in which he did not participate because of poor health, Matejko gave financial support, donating most of his savings to the cause, transported arms to the insurgents' camp, his Skarga's Sermon, finished in May 1864, was displayed in the gallery of the Kraków Society of Friends of Fine Arts, which gained him much publicity. On 5 November that year, in recognition for his contributions to recreating historical themes, he became a member of the Kraków Scientific Society. Soon afterward, on 21 November, he married Teodora Giebultowska, with whom he would have five children: Beata, Tadeusz and Regina. Helena, his daughter an artist, helped victims in World War I and was awarded the Cross of Independence by president Stanisław Wojciechowski.
At that time Matejko started to gain international recognition. In 1865, Matejko's painting Skarga's Sermon was awarded a gold medal at the yearly Paris salon. In 1867, his painting Rejtan was awarded a gold medal at the World Exhibition in Paris and acquired by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria for 50,000 franks, his next major painting was the Union of Lublin, created in the years 1867-1869. Once again applauded in Paris, it won Matejko a Cross of the French Légion d'honneur. and was purchased by the Sejm of Galicia. Union... was followed by Stefan Batory at Pskov, finished in 1871. In 1872 he visited Istanbul in the Ottoman Empire, a
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Sieraków is a town in western Poland with 8,768 inhabitants. Located by the Warta River, it has been situated in the Greater Poland Voivodeship in Poznań Voivodeship. Sieraków is known as a holiday destination with well-developed sport infrastructure, it is surrounded by extensive areas of forest and lakes, including the protected area called Sieraków Landscape Park. Lewis Naphtali Dembitz, German American legal scholar Hartmut Neugebauer German actor and voice actor Krzysztof Opaliński, Polish nobleman and political satirist Piotr Opaliński, Krzysztof Opaliński, Łukasz Opaliński Sierakow official web page Parish of Sierakow official web page TKKF Discussion forum WartaGlass Glass Work Majchrzak
The szlachta was a privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After the Union of Lublin in 1569, the Grand Duchy and its neighbouring Kingdom became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth; the origins of the szlachta are shrouded in obscurity and mystery and have been the subject of several theories. Traditionally, its members were landowners in the form of "manorial estates" or so-called folwarks; the nobility won substantial and increasing political and legal privileges for itself throughout its entire history until the decline and end of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the late 18th century. Apart from providing officers for the army, among its chief civic obligations were electing the monarch, plus filling advisory and honorary roles at court, e.g. Stolnik - "Master of the King's Pantry," or their assistant, in the state government, e.g. Podskarbi, "Minister to the Treasury", they served as elected representatives in the Sejm and in local Sejmiki assemblies, appointing officials and overseeing judicial and financial governance, including tax-raising, at the provincial level.
Their roles included Voivodeship, Marshal of Voivodeship and Starosta. The szlachta gained considerable institutional privileges between 1333 and 1370 in the Kingdom of Poland during the reign of King Casimir III the Great. In 1413, following a series of tentative personal unions between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, the existing Lithuanian-Ruthenian nobility formally joined this class; as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth evolved and expanded in territory, its membership grew to include the leaders of Ducal Prussia and Livonia. During the Partitions of Poland from 1772 to 1795, minor szlachta began to lose these legal privileges and social status, while elites became part of nobility of partitioning countries. Although in reality, szlachta members could have unequal status due to wealth and political influence, there were few official distinctions between the elites and common nobility. Unlike in most other countries, those few hereditary titles that there were in the Kingdom of Poland, were bestowed by foreign monarchs, including personal hereditary titles granted by the Pope, see Feliks Sobański as an example.
While in Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Samogitia princely titles were inherited either by descendants of Old Lithuanian-Ruthenian Rurikid and Gediminids princely families, or by princely dynasties of Tatar origin that settled there. The Polish term szlachta is derived from the Old High German word slahta. In modern German Geschlecht - which came from the Proto-Germanic *slagiz, "blow", "strike", shares the Anglo-Saxon root for "slaughter" or the verb "to slug" – means "breeding" or gender. Like many other Polish words pertaining to nobility, it derives from Germanic words: So for example, the Polish for a "knight" is "rycerz", a cognate of the German "Ritter"; the Polish word for "coat of arms" is "herb" from the German "Erbe" or "heritage". 17th century Poles assumed that "szlachta" came from the German "schlachten" "to slaughter" or "to butcher", was therefore related to the German word for battle, "Schlacht". Some early Polish historians thought the term might have derived instead from the name of the legendary proto-Polish chief, mentioned in Polish and Czech writings.
A few exceptionally wealthy and powerful szlachta members during the 17th and 18th centuries came to be known as "magnates" - "możni": see Magnates of Poland and Lithuania. The Polish term "szlachta" designated the formalized, hereditary noble class of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which constituted the nation itself, ruled without competition. In official Latin documents of the old Commonwealth, the hereditary szlachta were referred to as "nobilitas" from the Latin term, could be compared in legal status to English or British peers of the realm, or to the ancient Roman idea of cives, "citizen". Today the word szlachta translates as "nobility". In its broadest sense, it can denote some non-hereditary honorary knighthoods and baronial titles granted by other European monarchs, including the Holy See. 19th-century landowners of non-noble descent were referred to as szlachta by courtesy or error, when they owned manorial estates but were not in fact noble by birth. Szlachta denotes the Ruthenian and Lithuanian nobility from before the old-Commonwealth.
In the past, a misconception sometimes led to the mistranslation of "szlachta" as "gentry" rather than "nobility". This mistaken practice began due to the inferior economic status of many szlachta members compared to that of the nobility in other European countries; the szlachta included those rich and powerful enough to be magnates down to the indigent with a noble lineage, but with no land, no castle, no money, no village, no subject peasants. At least 60,000 families belonged to the nobility, only about 100 were wealthy, all the rest were poor. Over time, numerically most lesser szlachta became or were poorer than their few rich peers in their social class, many were worse off than the non-noble gentry, they were called szlachta zagrodowa, that is, "nobility from within the second estate compound", sometimes referred to as drobna szlachta, "petty nobles" or yet, szlachta okoliczna, meaning "local". Impoverished szlachta families were forced to become tenants of their wealthier peers, they were described as "tenant nobles" who paid rent.
In doing so, they retained all their constitutional prerogati
Krzysztof Opaliński was a Polish nobleman, writer and Governor of Poznań. A notable figure during the Swedish Deluge, Opaliński was a skilled diplomat who opposed King John II Casimir and published many of his works concerning the daily political or social matters in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, he was the son of Piotr Opaliński and married Teresa Czarnkowska on 28 May 1634, with whom he had two sons: Piotr Adam Opaliński Jr. and Jan Karol Opaliński and four daughters. Together with his brother Łukasz Opaliński he studied in the Lubrański Academy in Poznań, abroad at Louvain, Orléans and Padua. After returning to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with the position of a starost he became active on the political scene. In February 1632, he was elected a deputy at the election sejm. In 1637, after his father's death, he became the Governor of Poznań. Opaliński opposed most of Władysław's military proposals, although he supported his idea of sea tariffs. In 1645 he led a diplomatic mission to Paris, where he was a proxy of king Władysław IV during his marriage to Marie Louise Gonzaga, whom he escorted back to Poland afterwards.
In 1647 Opaliński purchased the town of Sieraków from his brother Łukasz and, in 1650, opened the first modern school in Poland, using the didactic materials prepared by Jan Amos Komenski. A Catholic himself, Opaliński was critical of the zealous Society of Jesus and supported religious tolerance, he was a patron of scientists and a bibliophiles. Opaliński was a lifelong political rival of starost Bogusław Leszczyński in Greater Poland; when in 1648 Poland elected John II Casimir as king, Opaliński joined the opposition. The king had few friends among the Polish nobility, as he sympathised with Austria and showed disregard and contempt for Sarmatism, which has become part of Polish culture. Due to this, thinking that John Casimir was too weak or for any other reasons, he encouraged King Charles X Gustav of Sweden to claim the Polish Crown. During the Swedish invasion Krzysztof Opaliński and Bogusław Leszczyński were tasked with defence of the Greater Poland province. Dissatisfied with policies of John Casimir, they decided to surrender together with their pospolite ruszenie to Charles Gustav at Ujście on 25 July 1655.
Many other voivodes of other voivodeships followed their suit Prince Janusz Radziwiłł in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The entire country was overrun by the Swedes, before the Jasna Góra resistance and the Tyszowce Confederation which turned the tide against the Swedes. Opaliński died in 1655 at Włoszakowice at the age of 44, he was buried next to his father in the catacombs of a local church in Sieraków. He was the author of many popular works such as Satyry, albo Przestrogi do naprawy rządu i obyczajów w Polszcze należące published in 1650, in the aftermath of the Khmelnytsky Uprising that spelled the end of the Golden Age of the Commonwealth; the satires, modelled on the Satires of Juvenal, written in an unrhymed syllabic verse, are his most famous work. In his works, Opaliński denounced the oppression of peasants and corruption of Golden Freedoms, visible in the increasing anarchy, to be found in political life, he wrote on witchcraft in one the satires, one of the few contemporary voices to identify some of the motives behind the witchcraft persecution and to denounce them.
He wrote comedies and tragedies, however they were lost with time. Translated: Translated: Michael J. Mikoś, Polish Baroque and Enlightenment Literature: An Anthology. Ed. Michael J. Mikoś. Columbus, Ohio/Bloomington, Indiana: Slavica Publishers. 1996. 104–108. ISBN 0-89357-266-7 Kate Wilson, The Politics of Toleration Among the Szlachta of Great Poland: Rafał Leszczyński and Krzysztof Opaliński, Slovo 14/2002
Łodzia coat of arms
Łodzia is a Polish coat of arms. It was used by many noble families of the Kingdom of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. A variant serves as the coat of arms of the city of Łódź. It's a classic example of the so-called canting arms well known in European heraldry as it was borne by the medieval lords de Łodzia and their clan. Hence the boat in the shield alluding to the estate's name meaning Boat. Coats of Arms in the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth were a symbol of a clan. A clan was not a family but rather a group of lords that went to battle under one hetman.. Łodzia is one of the oldest Polish coats of arms. Its earliest appearance is on a seal belonging to Wojciech of Palatine of Kalisz; the first blazon description dates from 1411. The first Łodzia coat of arms featured a golden letter M on the shield, a boat in the crest; that version was used by Mikołaj of Łodzia in 1301. By 1315, all the bearers of the coat of arms had adopted the version used by Wojciech of Krośno; the coat of arms had a checkerboard background, which by 1382 had been supplanted by a plain red field.
Until the 16th century, variously shaped boats were depicted. After the publication of Bartosz Paprocki's Herby rycerstwa polskiego, most authors adopted the present version. Paprocki was the first to mention the crest as comprising peacock feathers with boat superimposed; the Łodzia coat of arms was used by over 150 families around Kalisz, Poznań and Sieradz. After the Union of Horodło, it was adopted by several Lithuanian families. Gules, a rudderless and mastless boat Or. Notable members of the clan and bearers of this coat of arms include: House of Czarniecki Stefan Czarniecki House of Opaliński Andrzej Opaliński, Great Crown Marshal Andrzej Opaliński, Bishop of Poznań Łukasz de Bnin Opaliński, Castellan of Poznań Łukasz de Bnin Opaliński, Court Marshal of the Crown House of Kurnatowski Zygmunt Łodzia Kurnatowski Łukasz Górka z Górki h. Łodzia,/<https://wielcy.pl/wgm/?m=NG&t=PN&n=6.585.13> J. Lyčkoŭski. "Belarusian Nobility Coats of Arms". Lodzia Coat of Arms and the bearers. Polish heraldry Heraldic family List of Polish nobility coats of arms Kasper Niesiecki: Herbarz Polski, Lwów, 1738 Tadeusz Gajl: Herbarz polski od średniowiecza do XX wieku: ponad 4500 herbów szlacheckich 37 tysięcy nazwisk 55 tysięcy rodów.
L&L, 2007. ISBN 978-83-60597-10-1
Battle of Khotyn (1621)
The Battle of Khotyn or Battle of Chocim or Hotin War was a combined siege and series of battles which took place between 2 September and 9 October 1621 between a Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth army and an invading Ottoman Imperial army. The Commonwealth commanding officer, Grand Hetman of Lithuania Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, held the forces of Sultan Osman II at bay until the first autumn snows, in the end died during the battle. On 9 October, due to the lateness of the season and having sustained heavy losses in several assaults on fortified Commonwealth lines, the Ottomans abandoned their siege and the battle ended in stalemate, reflected in a treaty that in some sections favoured the Ottomans and in others favoured the Commonwealth. Khotyn was controlled by many states, resulting in many name changes. Other name variations include Choczim. At the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century, the magnates of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth intervened in the affairs of Moldavia, which was—and had been since its conquest by Mehmed II in the 15th century—a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire.
Additionally, the Ottomans were aggravated by the constant raids by Cossacks nominally subjects of the Commonwealth, across the border into Ottoman territories. In the meantime, the Thirty Years' War raged across Europe; the Commonwealth was uninvolved in this war but the Polish King Sigismund III Vasa sent an elite and ruthless mercenary unit, the Lisowczycy, to aid his Habsburg allies in Vienna, since his brother-in-law was the Emperor. They defeated George Rákóczi of Transylvania at the Battle of Humenné in 1619. Gabriel Bethlen, the reigning Prince of Transylvania, asked Sultan Osman II for aid; the sultan agreed. A large Ottoman army was gathered for a punitive invasion of the Commonwealth. On 20 September 1620, an Ottoman army under the command of the governor of Oczakov Iskender Pasha routed the Polish-Commonwealth army at the Battle of Cecora, captured Stanisław Koniecpolski, beheaded Stanisław Żółkiewski, sent Tatar raiders into southern Poland; the campaign was suspended for the winter.
Both sides resumed hostilities in 1621. In April 1621 an army of 120,000–160,000 soldiers, led by Osman II, advanced from Constantinople and Edirne towards the Polish frontier. Khan Temir of the Budjak Horde and the Khan of Crimea, Canibek Giray joined the battle on the Ottoman side. 25% of the Ottoman forces were composed of contingents from their vassal states: Tatars and Wallachians, a total of about 13,000 troops. The Ottoman army had about 66 heavy guns; when the Ottomans reached an area near Iași a distribution of bahşiş took place on 26/27 July. There were 34,825 paid Kapikulu soldiers; each one was given 1,000 Akçe, for a total of 34,825,000 Akçe spent. In Poland, the Sejm, shaken by the previous year's defeat, agreed to raise taxes and fund a larger army, as well as to recruit a large number of Cossack allies. Polish commander Grand Lithuanian Hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz crossed the Dniester River in September 1621 with 20,000 to 35,000 soldiers, joined by 10,000 more led by the future king of Poland, Prince Władysław Vasa.
The Polish-Lithuanian army numbered 30,000 and their allied Cossack army was composed of 25,000–40,000 troops—mostly infantry—led by ataman Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny. The Cossacks had about 22 guns; the Polish-Lithuanian army arrived near Khotyn around August 24 and started entrenching itself near the Khotyn Fortress, blocking the path of the Ottoman march. The army followed a common Commonwealth defense strategy, it employed deep defences by building separate field works in front of the camp's defences. These field works were designed to allow the use of cavalry counterattacks. Cavalry counterattacks were crucial because the Commonwealth relied on its elite Polish Hussars and Cossacks. A semicircle of field fortifications was created; the fortress was behind Dniester River bordered the fortifications. The circle was divided into three sections: right, commanded by Hetman Chodkiewicz. In addition, two fortified camps were set in front of the main defence line: the Cossacks' and the mercenaries'.
On August 27, a Cossack cavalry detachment carried out a suicidal raid, delaying the approaching Ottoman forces. It inflicted casualties amounting to several times the number of attacking Cossacks, but the attackers were nearly annihilated. On August 31, Ottoman cavalry, in turn, struck at the Cossack forces outside camp; the Ottomans tried to scatter the Cossacks and cut them off from the main Polish-Lithuanian forces, but did not succeed. By September 2, the main Ottoman army had arrived, the siege began the day after the Cossacks joined the Polish camp. On September 2 the Ottomans tried to breach the unfinished Cossack camp; the Cossacks had held their positions. On September 3, another Ottoman assault was directed at Lubomirski's flank of the main fortifications; this attack was stopped. In the afternoon the big Ottoman forces attacked the Cossack camp; this attack started a fierce fight. The Ottomans were repulsed; the Cossacks rushed up behind the Ottomans into the Ottoman camp and returned at dusk with rich loot.
The next day, September 4, the Ottomans again failed again. A Commonwealth counterattack managed to destroy several Ottoman gu