The uilleann pipes are the characteristic national bagpipe of Ireland. Earlier known in English as "union pipes", their current name is a partial translation of the Irish-language term píobaí uilleann, from their method of inflation. There is no historical record of the name or use of the term uilleann pipes before the twentieth century, it was an invention of the name stuck. People mistook the term'union' to refer to the 1800 Act of Union; the bag of the uilleann pipes is inflated by means of a small set of bellows strapped around the waist and the right arm. The bellows not only relieve the player from the effort needed to blow into a bag to maintain pressure, they allow dry air to power the reeds, reducing the adverse effects of moisture on tuning and longevity; some pipers can sing while playing. The uilleann pipes are distinguished from many other forms of bagpipes by their tone and wide range of notes – the chanter has a range of two full octaves, including sharps and flats – together with the unique blend of chanter and regulators.
The regulators are equipped with closed keys that can be opened by the piper's wrist action enabling the piper to play simple chords, giving a rhythmic and harmonic accompaniment as needed. There are many ornaments based on multiple or single grace notes; the chanter can be played staccato by resting the bottom of the chanter on the piper's thigh to close off the bottom hole and open and close only the tone holes required. If one tone hole is closed before the next one is opened, a staccato effect can be created because the sound stops when no air can escape at all; the uilleann pipes have a different harmonic structure, sounding sweeter and quieter than many other bagpipes, such as the Great Irish Warpipes, Great Highland Bagpipes or the Italian Zampognas. The uilleann pipes are played indoors, are always played sitting down. Uilleann is the genitive of the Irish word uillinn, meaning "elbow", emphasising the use of the elbow when playing the uilleann pipes; the Irish word for uilleann pipes is píobaí uilleann, which means "pipes of the elbow".
However, the first attested written form is "Union pipes", at the end of the 18th century to denote the union of the chanter and regulators. Another theory is that it was played throughout a prototypical full union of England, Wales and Scotland; this was only realised, with the Act of Union. Alternatively Union pipes were a favorite of the upper classes in Scotland and the North-East of England and were fashionable for a time in formal social settings, where the term Union pipes may originate; the term "uilleann pipes" is first attested at the beginning of the 20th century. William Henry Grattan Flood, an Irish music scholar, proposed the theory that the name "uilleann" came from the Irish word for "elbow", he cited to this effect William Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice published in 1600 where the expression "woollen pipes" appears. This theory originated in correspondence between two earlier antiquarians, was adopted as gospel by the Gaelic League; the use of uilleann was also a rebellion against the term union, with its connotations of English rule.
It was however shown by Breandán Breathnach that it would be difficult to explain the Anglicization of the word uillin into'woollen' before the 16th century and its adaptation as'union' two centuries later. The first bagpipes to be well attested for Ireland were similar, if not identical, to the Scottish Highland bagpipes that are now played in Scotland; these are known as the "Great Irish Warpipes". In Irish and Scottish Gaelic, this instrument was called the píob mhór. While the mouth-blown warpipe was alive and well upon the battlefields of France and other parts of Europe, it had disappeared in Ireland; the union or uilleann pipe emerged during the early 18th century around the same time as the development of the bellows-driven Northumbrian smallpipes and the bellows-driven Scottish Lowland bagpipes. All three instruments were far sweeter in tone than their mouth-blown predecessors, their design required the joining of a bellows under the right arm, which pumped air via a tube to a leather bag under the left arm, which in turn supplied air at a constant pressure to the chanter and the drones.
Geoghegan's tutor of the 1740s calls this early form of the uilleann pipes the "Pastoral or New bagpipe". The Pastoral pipes were bellows played in either a seated or standing position; the conical bored chanter was played "open", that is, unlike the uilleann pipes, which can be played "closed", that is, staccato. The early Pastoral pipes had two drones, examples had one regulator; the Pastoral and flat set Union pipes developed with ideas on the instrument being traded back-and-forth between Ireland and England, around the 18th and early 19th century. The earliest surviving sets of uilleann pipes date from the second half of the 18th century, but it must be said that datings are not definitive. Only has scientific attention begun to be paid to the instrument, problems relating to various stages of its development have yet to be resolved, it is accepted that the union p
The pan flutes are a group of musical instruments based on the principle of the closed tube, consisting of multiple pipes of increasing length. Multiple varieties of pan flutes have long been popular as folk instruments; the pipes are made from bamboo, giant cane, or local reeds. Other materials include wood, plastic and ivory; the pan flute is named after Pan, the Greek god of nature and shepherds depicted with such an instrument. In Greek mythology, Syrinx was a forest Nymph. In her attempt to escape the affection of god Pan, she was transformed in to water-reed or calamos. Pan cut several reeds, placed them in parallel one next to the other, bound them together to make a melodic musical instrument. Ancient Greeks called this instrument Syrinx, in honour of the Muse, Pandean, or Pan-pipes and Pan-flute, after Pan; the Syrinx, a predominantly pastoral instrument for the Greeks, was adopted by the Etruscans who played it at their festivals and banquets. The Romans adopted the Syrinx from the Greeks and the Etruscans, they too played it at their banquets, festivals, as well as in religious and funeral processions.
The pan flute's tubes are stopped at one end, at which the standing wave is reflected giving a note an octave lower than that produced by an open pipe of equal length. In the traditional South American style, pipes are fine-tuned to correct pitch by placing small pebbles or dry corn kernels into the bottom of the pipes. Contemporary makers of curved Romanian-style panpipes use wax to tune new instruments. Special tools are used to remove the wax. Corks and rubber stoppers are used, are easier to tune pipes; the pan flute is an end-blown flute. Sound is produced by the vibration of an air-stream blowing across an open hole at the end of a resonating tube; the length of the tube determines the fundamental frequency. An overblown harmonic register is near a 12th above the fundamental in cylindrical tubes, but can approach an octave jump if a decreasing taper is used. According to the Fundamental Principle for pan flutes, the frequency and the length of the tube are inversely proportional; every time the pitch goes up one octave, the frequency doubles.
Because there are 12 notes in a chromatic scale or a full octave, every half-step in a chromatic scale is multiplied by the 12th root of 2 to get the note next to it. By this, it is possible to calculate the length of any pipe, given that one knows the length of any one pipe; the formula for calculating the length of a pan flute pipe is L = / 4. Because of a property of compression within the tube, the length must be a little shorter to correct flat pitch; the extra length is helpful for a maker, who can use a cork or plug at the bottom to adjust the pitch. Some instruments use wax or pellets to tune the fundamental pitch of each tube. A tube that has a diameter 1/10 of its length yields a typical tone colour. An inner diameter range between 1/7 and 1/14 of the length L is acceptable. A narrow tube will sound "reedy", while a wide one will sound "flutey". A more exact method is to multiply the bore diameter by 0.82 and subtract this value from the tube length. This compensates for internal compression slowing frequency and the lips covering the voicing.
Only tiny adjustments will be needed to adjust fundamental pitch for air density and temperature. The pan flute is played by blowing horizontally across an open end against the sharp inner edge of the pipes; each pipe is tuned to a keynote, called the fundamental frequency. By overblowing, that is, increasing the pressure of breath and tension of lips, odd harmonics, near a 12th in cylindrical tubes, may be produced; the Romanian pan flute has the pipes arranged in a curved array, solidly glued together, unlike Andean versions, which are tied together. Thus, the player can reach all the notes by swiveling the head, or by moving the instrument with the hands; these instruments can play all the sharps and flats, with a special technique of both tilting the pipes and jaw movement, thus reducing the size of the pipe's opening and producing a change in pitch. A advanced player can play any scale and in any key. There are two styles of vibrato possible, hand breath vibrato. In hand vibrato, the pitch is shifted down, like a vocal vibrato.
The player moves one end of the pan flute somewhat similar to violin vibrato. Breath, or throat vibrato, tremelo, a shift in volume, is the same technique used by players of the flute and other woodwinds by use of the player's diaphragm, or throat muscles; the curved-style pan flute was popularized by the Romanian musician Gheorghe Zamfir, who toured extensively and recorded many albums of pan flute music in the 1970s, by several other artists who began recording at the same time. Today there are thousands of devoted players across Europe and the Americas. Both the curved and traditional South American variations are very popular in Peruvian traditional groups and other Andean music. In Laos and Thailand, there is a cylindrical version called the wot, used in folk music from the Isaan region of the country; the player alters notes by rotating the instrument with the hands, rather than by head movements. Some new designs are beginning to appear, as de
Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids from one location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid. Industrial process piping can be manufactured from wood, glass, aluminum, plastic and concrete; the in-line components, known as fittings and other devices sense and control the pressure, flow rate and temperature of the transmitted fluid, are included in the field of piping design. Piping systems are documented in instrumentation diagrams. If necessary, pipes can be cleaned by the tube cleaning process. Piping sometimes refers to piping design, the detailed specification of the physical piping layout within a process plant or commercial building. In earlier days, this was sometimes called drafting, technical drawing, engineering drawing, design, but is today performed by designers that have learned to use automated computer-aided drawing or computer-aided design software. Plumbing is a piping system with which most people are familiar, as it constitutes the form of fluid transportation, used to provide potable water and fuels to their homes and businesses.
Plumbing pipes remove waste in the form of sewage, allow venting of sewage gases to the outdoors. Fire sprinkler systems use piping, may transport nonpotable or potable water, or other fire-suppression fluids. Piping has many other industrial applications, which are crucial for moving raw and semi-processed fluids for refining into more useful products; some of the more exotic materials used in pipe construction are Inconel, chrome-moly and various other steel alloys. Industrial piping engineering has three major sub-fields: Piping material Piping design Stress analysis Process piping and power piping are checked by pipe stress engineers to verify that the routing, nozzle loads and supports are properly placed and selected such that allowable pipe stress is not exceeded under different loads such as sustained loads, operating loads, pressure testing loads, etc. as stipulated by the ASME B31, EN 13480, GOST 32388, RD 10-249 or any other applicable codes and standards. It is necessary to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the piping under regular loads as well under occasional and intermittent loading cases such as earthquake, high wind or special vibration, water hammer.
This evaluation is performed with the assistance of a specialized pipe stress analysis computer programs such as AutoPIPE, CAEPIPE, CAESAR, PASS/START-PROF. In cryogenic pipe supports, most steel become more brittle as the temperature decreases from normal operating conditions, so it is necessary to know the temperature distribution for cryogenic conditions. Steel structures will have areas of high stress that may be caused by sharp corners in the design, or inclusions in the material; the material with which a pipe is manufactured forms as the basis for choosing any pipe. Materials that are used for manufacturing pipes include: Carbon steel ASTM A252 Spec Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3 Steel Pile Pipe Plastic piping, e.g. HDPE pipe, PP-R pipe or LDPE pipe. Low temperature service carbon steel Stainless steel Nonferrous metals, e.g. cupro-nickel, tantalum lined, etc. Nonmetallic, e.g. tempered glass, Teflon lined, PVC, etc. Early wooden pipes were constructed out of logs that had a large hole bored lengthwise through the center.
Wooden pipes were constructed with staves and hoops similar to wooden barrel construction. Stave pipes have the advantage that they are transported as a compact pile of parts on a wagon and assembled as a hollow structure at the job site. Wooden pipes were popular in mountain regions where transport of heavy iron or concrete pipes would have been difficult. Wooden pipes were easier to maintain than metal, because the wood did not expand or contract with temperature changes as much as metal and so expansion joints and bends were not required; the thickness of wood afforded some insulating properties to the pipes which helped prevent freezing as compared to metal pipes. Wood used for water pipes does not rot easily. Electrolysis doesn't affect wood pipes at all. In the Western United States where redwood was used for pipe construction, it was found that redwood had "peculiar properties" that protected it from weathering, acids and fungus growths. Redwood pipes stayed smooth and clean indefinitely while iron pipe by comparison would begin to scale and corrode and could plug itself up with the corrosion.
There are certain standard codes that need to be followed while designing or manufacturing any piping system. Organizations that promulgate piping standards include: ASME - The American Society of Mechanical Engineers - B31 series ASME B31.1 Power piping ASME B31.3 Process piping ASME B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids and oil and gas ASME B31.5 Refrigeration piping and heat transfer components ASME B31.8 Gas transmission and distribution piping systems ASME B31.9 Building services piping ASME B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems ASME B31.12 Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM A252 Standard Specification for Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Piles API - American Petroleum Institute API 5L Petroleum and natural gas industries—Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems CWB - Canadian Welding Bureau EN 13480 - European metallic industrial piping code EN 13480-1 Metallic ind
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. The Scottish Great Highland bagpipes are the best known in the Anglophone world; the term bagpipe is correct in the singular or plural, though pipers refer to the bagpipes as "the pipes", "a set of pipes" or "a stand of pipes". A set of bagpipes minimally consists of an air supply, a bag, a chanter, at least one drone. Many bagpipes have more than one drone in various combinations, held in place in stocks—sockets that fasten the various pipes to the bag; the most common method of supplying air to the bag is through blowing into a blowstick. In some pipes the player must cover the tip of the blowpipe with their tongue while inhaling, but most blowpipes have a non-return valve that eliminates this need. In recent times, there are many instruments that assist in creating a clean air flow to the pipes and assist the collection of condensation. An innovation, dating from the 16th or 17th century, is the use of a bellows to supply air.
In these pipes, sometimes called "cauld wind pipes", air is not heated or moistened by the player's breathing, so bellows-driven bagpipes can use more refined or delicate reeds. Such pipes include the Irish uilleann pipes; the bag is an airtight reservoir that holds air and regulates its flow via arm pressure, allowing the player to maintain continuous sound. The player keeps the bag inflated by blowing air into it through a blowpipe or pumping air into it with a bellows. Materials used for bags vary but the most common are the skins of local animals such as goats, dogs and cows. More bags made of synthetic materials including Gore-Tex have become much more common. A drawback of the synthetic bag is the potential for fungal spores to colonise the bag because of a reduction in necessary cleaning, with the associated danger of lung infection. An advantage of a synthetic bag is that it has a zip which allows the user to fit a more effective moisture trap to the inside of the bag. Bags cut from larger materials are saddle-stitched with an extra strip folded over the seam and stitched or glued to reduce leaks.
Holes are cut to accommodate the stocks. In the case of bags made from intact animal skins, the stocks are tied into the points where the limbs and the head joined the body of the whole animal, a construction technique common in Central Europe; the chanter is the melody pipe, played with two hands. All bagpipes have at least one chanter. A chanter can be bored internally so that the inside walls are parallel for its full length, or it can be bored in a conical shape; the chanter is open-ended, so there is no easy way for the player to stop the pipe from sounding. Thus most bagpipes share a legato sound where there are no rests in the music; because of this inability to stop playing, technical movements are used to break up notes and to create the illusion of articulation and accents. Because of their importance, these embellishments are highly technical systems specific to each bagpipe, take many years of study to master. A few bagpipes have closed ends or stop the end on the player's leg, so that when the player "closes" the chanter becomes silent.
A practice chanter is a chanter without bag or drones, allowing a player to practice the instrument and with no variables other than playing the chanter. The term chanter is derived from the Latin cantare, or "to sing", much like the modern French word chanteur; the note from the chanter is produced by a reed installed at its top. The reed may be a double reed. Double reeds are used with both conical- and parallel-bored chanters while single reeds are limited to parallel-bored chanters. In general, double-reed chanters are found in pipes of Western Europe while single-reed chanters appear in most other regions. Most bagpipes have at least one drone: a pipe, not fingered but rather produces a constant harmonizing note throughout play. Exceptions are those pipes which have a double-chanter instead. A drone is most a cylindrically-bored tube with a single reed, although drones with double reeds exist; the drone is designed in two or more parts with a sliding joint so that the pitch of the drone can be adjusted.
Depending on the type of pipes, the drones may lie over the shoulder, across the arm opposite the bag, or may run parallel to the chanter. Some drones have a tuning screw, which alters the length of the drone by opening a hole, allowing the drone to be tuned to two or more distinct pitches; the tuning screw may shut off the drone altogether. In most types of pipes, where there is one drone it is pitched two octaves below the tonic of the chanter. Additional drones add the octave below and a drone consonant with the fifth
Pipe Mania is a puzzle game developed in 1989 by The Assembly Line for the Amiga. It was ported to several other platforms by Lucasfilm Games, who gave it the name Pipe Dream and acted as general distributors for the US. In this game, the player must connect randomly appearing pieces of pipe on a grid to a given length within a limited time; the Windows version of the game was included in the MS Windows Entertainment Pack. In 1990, it was released as an arcade game by Japanese manufacturer Video System Co. Ltd. though with altered gameplay, giving the player the task to connect a source and drain with the random pipe pieces. Long after its initial release, the Pipe Mania concept re-emerged as a minigame representing hacking or security system bypassing in larger video games. Using a variety of pipe pieces presented randomly in a queue, the player must construct a path from the start piece for the onrushing sewer slime, or "flooz", which begins flowing after a time delay from the start of the round.
Pieces may not be rotated. The player can replace a laid piece by clicking on it, as long as the flooz has not yet reached it; the flooz is required to pass through a given number of pipe pieces in order for the player to continue to the next round. Some rounds include an end piece, which must be the end of the pipeline the player has constructed, in addition to fulfilling the minimum pipe length requirement. Completing the sewer pipeline in the time allotted allows the player to advance to the next level, which means a shorter interval from the start of the round until the flooz starts flowing, as well as faster-flowing flooz. On higher levels, some special pipe pieces appear in the game, such as reservoirs, one-way sections, bonus sections. Obstacles and wrap-around sections appear on the game board on higher levels. If a player is able to finish the level using five cross-section pieces and filling them both ways, 5,000 bonus points are awarded. Bonus rounds present the player with a grid full of one open space.
The game was reviewed in 1994 in Dragon # 211 by Dee in the "Eye of the Monitor" column. Jay did not rate the game, but Dee gave the Macintosh version of the game 2½ out of 5 stars, the Windows version 4½ stars. Many clones of Pipe Mania have been produced, under titles such as Wallpipe, Oilcap Pro, MacPipes, Pipe Master, DragonSnot, PipeNightDreams, Fun2Link. Many Nokia cell phones come with a free version of the game called Canal Control. A version with 3D graphics was released for the PlayStation in 2000, titled Pipe Dreams 3D in the US and Pipe Mania 3D in the UK. In September 2008, Empire Interactive released a remake of Pipe Mania for Windows, PlayStation 2, Nintendo DS, PlayStation Portable. Within BioShock, a variation of the game exists as a means of hacking machinery. Alien Swarm, Saints Row IV and Warframe use Pipe Dream-like minigames to represent hacking tasks; the North Korean game Railway Assemblage, sponsored by North Korean propaganda regime Uriminzokkiri and released on December 9, 2006, includes a simplified version of Pipe Mania.
The game involves joining together sections of railway in order to build a fast railroad track from South Korea to North Korea, before the KTX-shaped train appears on the screen. KLOV entry for Pipe Dream Pipe Mania at SpectrumComputing.co.uk
Pipe (fluid conveyance)
A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder but not of circular cross-section, used to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases, slurries and masses of small solids. It can be used for structural applications. In common usage the words pipe and tube are interchangeable, but in industry and engineering, the terms are uniquely defined. Depending on the applicable standard to which it is manufactured, pipe is specified by a nominal diameter with a constant outside diameter and a schedule that defines the thickness. Tube is most specified by the OD and wall thickness, but may be specified by any two of OD, inside diameter, wall thickness. Pipe is manufactured to one of several international and national industrial standards. While similar standards exist for specific industry application tubing, tube is made to custom sizes and a broader range of diameters and tolerances. Many industrial and government standards exist for the production of tubing; the term "tube" is commonly applied to non-cylindrical sections, i.e. square or rectangular tubing.
In general, "pipe" is the more common term in most of the world, whereas "tube" is more used in the United States. Both "pipe" and "tube" imply a level of rigidity and permanence, whereas a hose is portable and flexible. Pipe assemblies are always constructed with the use of fittings such as elbows, so on, while tube may be formed or bent into custom configurations. For materials that are inflexible, cannot be formed, or where construction is governed by codes or standards, tube assemblies are constructed with the use of tube fittings. Plumbing Tap water Pipelines transporting gas or liquid over long distances Compressed air systems Pipe bombs Casing for concrete pilings used in construction projects High-temperature or high-pressure manufacturing processes The petroleum industry: Oil well casing Oil refinery equipment Delivery of fluids, either gaseous or liquid, in a process plant from one point to another point in the process Delivery of bulk solids, in a food or process plant from one point to another point in the process The construction of high pressure storage vessels.
Additionally, pipe is used for many purposes. Handrails and support structures are constructed from structural pipe in an industrial environment. There are three processes for metallic pipe manufacture. Centrifugal casting of hot alloyed metal is one of the most prominent process. Ductile iron pipes are manufactured in such a fashion. Seamless pipe is formed by drawing a solid billet over a piercing rod to create the hollow shell; as the manufacturing process does not include any welding, seamless pipes are perceived to be stronger and more reliable. Seamless pipe was regarded as withstanding pressure better than other types, was more available than welded pipe. Advances since the 1970s in materials, process control, non-destructive testing, allow specified welded pipe to replace seamless in many applications. Welded pipe is formed by welding the seam; the weld flash can be removed from both outer surfaces using a scarfing blade. The weld zone can be heat-treated to make the seam less visible. Welded pipe have tighter dimensional tolerances than the seamless type, can be cheaper to manufacture.
There are a number of processes. Each of these processes leads to coalescence or merging of steel components into pipes. Electric current is passed through the surfaces. Pools of molten metal are formed where the two surfaces are connected as a strong electric current is passed through the metal. ERW pipes are manufactured from the longitudinal welding of steel; the welding process for ERW pipes is continuous, as opposed to welding of distinct sections at intervals. ERW process uses steel coil as feedstock; the High Frequency Induction Technology welding process is used for manufacturing ERW pipes. In this process, the current to weld the pipe is applied by means of an induction coil around the tube. HFI is considered to be technically superior to “ordinary” ERW when manufacturing pipes for critical applications, such as for usage in the energy sector, in addition to other uses in line pipe applications, as well as for casing and tubing. Large-diameter pipe may be EFW or Submerged Arc Welded pipe.
There are two technologies that can be used to manufacture steel pipes of sizes larger than the steel pipes that can be produced by seamless and ERW processes. The two types of pipes produced through these technologies are longitudinal-submerged arc-welded and spiral-submerged arc-welded pipes. LSAW are made by bending and welding wide steel plates and most used in oil and gas industry applications. Due to their high cost, LSAW pipes are used in lower value non-energy applications such as water pipelines. SSAW pipes are produced by spiral welding of steel coil and have a cost advantage over LSAW pipes, as the process uses coils rather than steel plates; as such, in applications where spiral-weld is acceptable, SSAW pipes may be preferr
A pipe is a tubular wind instrument in general, or various specific wind instruments. The word is an onomatopoeia, comes from the tone which can resemble that of a bird chirping. Fipple flutes are found in many cultures around the world. With six holes, the shepherd's pipe is a common pastoral image. Shepherds piped both to soothe the sheep and to amuse themselves. Modern manufactured; the recorder is a form of pipe used as a rudimentary instructional musical instrument at schools, but so versatile that it is used in orchestral music, but it has seven finger holes and a thumb hole. The three-holed pipe is a form of the folk pipe, played with one hand, while the other hand plays a tabor or other drone instrument, such as a bell or a psalterium. In English this instrument is properly called a pipe, but is referred to as a tabor pipe to distinguish it from other instruments; the tabor pipe has one thumb hole. In the English tradition, these three holes play the same notes as the bottom three holes of a tin whistle, or tone, semitone.
Other tabor pipes, such as the French galoubet, the Picco pipe, the Basque txistu and xirula, the Aragonese chiflo or the Andalusian gaita of Huelva and gaita rociera, are tuned differently. A much larger, sophisticated 3-hole pipe played by a growing number of enthusiasts is the Slovak fujara, made of two connected parallel pipes of different lengths; this is not to be mistaken with the Polish single pipe, a much smaller old-fashioned instrument made of willow bark. It exists in locally modified modern versions. Similar to both of these is the Czech fujara; the pipe and tabor was a common combination throughout Asia, during the mediæval period, remains popular in some parts of Europe and the Americas today. The English pipe and tabor had waned in popularity, but had not died out before a revival by Morris dance musicians in the early 20th century. Traditionally made of cane, ivory, or wood, today pipes are available made of metal and of plastic; the flageolet was developed from the tabor pipe, in France, became an orchestral instrument.
Its lower three holes were configured the same with two on front and one on back. A second set of three holes was added above this; the mouthpiece had a unique configuration with a sponge inside. Used as orchestral instruments into the 19th Century, the flageolet was given keys, like in the orchestral flute. A reed pipe is an instrument, similar in construction to the fipple flutes but instead of a whistle mouthpiece, has a double reed, like the oboe. Hornpipes are instruments with one or more pipes that have single reeds that terminate in a resonator made of horn. Simple instruments may consist of little more than the reed, the pipe, the resonator. More complex instruments may have multiple pipes held in a common yoke, multiple resonators, or horn mouthpieces to facilitate playing, they are known from a broad region extending from India in the east to Spain in the west that includes north Africa and most of Europe. Bagpipes Organ Panpipes Picco pipe Pipe and tabor Pipers' Guild