Pipeline transport is the long-distance transportation of a liquid or gas through a system of pipes—a pipeline—typically to a market area for consumption. The latest data from 2014 gives a total of less than 2,175,000 miles of pipeline in 120 countries of the world; the United States had 65%, Russia had 8%, Canada had 3%, thus 75% of all pipeline were in these three countries. Pipeline and Gas Journal's worldwide survey figures indicate that 118,623 miles of pipelines are planned and under construction. Of these, 88,976 miles represent projects in the design phase. Liquids and gases are transported in pipelines and any chemically stable substance can be sent through a pipeline. Pipelines exist for the transport of crude and refined petroleum, fuels – such as oil, natural gas and biofuels – and other fluids including sewage, water, hot water or steam for shorter distances. Pipelines are useful for transporting water for drinking or irrigation over long distances when it needs to move over hills, or where canals or channels are poor choices due to considerations of evaporation, pollution, or environmental impact.
Oil pipelines are made from steel or plastic tubes which are buried. The oil is moved through the pipelines by pump stations along the pipeline. Natural gas are pressurized into liquids known as Natural Gas Liquids. Natural gas pipelines are constructed of carbon steel. Hydrogen pipeline transport is the transportation of hydrogen through a pipe. Pipelines are one of the safest way of transporting materials as compared to road or rail and hence in war, pipelines are the target of military attacks, it is uncertain. Credit for the development of pipeline transport is disputed, with competing claims for Vladimir Shukhov and the Branobel company in the late 19th century, the Oil Transport Association, which first constructed a 2-inch wrought iron pipeline over a 6-mile track from an oil field in Pennsylvania to a railroad station in Oil Creek, in the 1860s. Pipelines are the most economical way to transport large quantities of oil, refined oil products or natural gas over land. For example, in 2014, pipeline transport of crude oil cost about $5 per barrel, while rail transport cost about $10 to $15 per barrel.
Trucking has higher costs due to the additional labor required. In the United States, 70% of crude oil and petroleum products are shipped by pipeline. In Canada for natural gas and petroleum products, 97% are shipped by pipeline. Natural gas are pressurized into liquids known as Natural Gas Liquids. Small NGL processing facilities can be located in oil fields so the butane and propane liquid under light pressure of 125 pounds per square inch, can be shipped by rail, truck or pipeline. Propane can be used as a fuel in oil fields to heat various facilities used by the oil drillers or equipment and trucks used in the oil patch. EG: Propane will convert from a gas to a liquid under light pressure, 100 psi, give or take depending on temperature, is pumped into cars and trucks at less than 125 psi at retail stations. Pipelines and rail cars use about double that pressure to pump at 250 psi; the distance to ship propane to markets is much shorter, as thousands of natural-gas processing plants are located in or near oil fields.
Many Bakken Basin oil companies in North Dakota, Montana and Saskatchewan gas fields separate the NGLs in the field, allowing the drillers to sell propane directly to small wholesalers, eliminating the large refinery control of product and prices for propane or butane. The most recent major pipeline to start operating in North America, is a TransCanada natural gas line going north across the Niagara region bridges with Marcellus shale gas from Pennsylvania and others tied in methane or natural gas sources, into the Canadian province of Ontario as of the fall of 2012, supplying 16 percent of all the natural gas used in Ontario; this new US-supplied natural gas displaces the natural gas shipped to Ontario from western Canada in Alberta and Manitoba, thus dropping the government regulated pipeline shipping charges because of the shorter distance from gas source to consumer. To avoid delays and US government regulation, many small and large oil producers in North Dakota have decided to run an oil pipeline north to Canada to meet up with a Canadian oil pipeline shipping oil from west to east.
This allows the Bakken Basin and Three Forks oil producers to get higher negotiated prices for their oil because they will not be restricted to just one wholesale market in the US. The distance from the biggest oil patch in North Dakota, in Williston, North Dakota, is only about 85 miles or 137 kilometers to the Canada–US border and Manitoba. Mutual funds and joint ventures are big investors in new gas pipelines. In the fall of 2012, the US began exporting propane to Europe, known as LPG, as wholesale prices there are much higher than in North America. Additionally, a pipeline is being constructed from North Dakota to Illinois known as the Dakota Access Pipeline; as more North American pipelines are built more exports of LNG, propane and other natural gas products occur on all three US coasts. To give insight, North Dakota Bakken region's oil production has grown by 600% from 2007 to 2015. North Dakota oil companies are shipping huge amounts of oil by tanker rail car as they can direct the oil to the ma
The NZPWI Invitational was a professional wrestling pay-per-view event hosted by the website New Zealand Pro Wrestling Informer. The event was the first interpromotional show held in New Zealand and featured wrestlers from the country's three major promotions Impact Pro Wrestling, Kiwi Pro Wrestling, New Zealand Wide Pro Wrestling, Peter Ball's Major Impact Wrestling from Australia now called Impact Pro Wrestling Australia. Held annually in 2006 and 2007, it was a single-elimination tournament and included a 20-man battle royal semi-main event; the battle royal would end via pin or submission between the last two entrants, the winner of which would receive an entry for next year's invitational. The event was organised by Dion McCraken, NZPWI editor-in-chief, whose intention was to bring attention to professional wrestling in New Zealand. Similar to the Super 8 Tournament in the United States or the Super J-Cup in Japan, it showcased the top talent of New Zealand's "big three" and provided the first major television exposure for many independent wrestlers in the Australasian region since the days of Steve Rickard's "On the Mat" during the 1980s.
The show served as a reunion of sorts for older veterans of the era. John da Silva, a champion amateur and pro wrestler during the 1960s and 70s, was in attendance at the 2006 invitational and presented the trophy to "Heartless" Alfred Valentine after winning the tournament, it was one of the largest show's held in New Zealand and the event received some coverage by the national media. The 2006 NZPWI Invitational was promoted by Fight Times Magazine in March 2006; the Machine, an IPW wrestler and first entrant to battle royal, was featured in a cover story for the Horowhenua-Kapiti Weekend Chronicle on 29 July. Two of its participants, IPW wrestlers Alfred Valentine and Jon E. King, were interviewed on TV One's morning talk show Breakfast by Kay Gregory days prior to the event; the first annual NZPWI Invitational was held at the Lynfield YMCA on 12 August 2006, was attended by a sell out crowd of 450 fans. It was the largest attendance for a live wrestling event in 20 years; the 2006 NZPWI Invitational was shown on Sky1 and proved so popular that the network aired on primetime the following year.
The second show was broadcast following the 9 December 2007 edition of WWE Smackdown, again on Christmas Eve followed by the WWE Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony. The program was watched by over 100,000 people on SKY Television and both invitationals released on DVD. Dion McCracken served as the colour commentator for both shows, with co-host Vinny Dunn in 2006 and manager Gary O. Davis in 2007, his performance led to a full-time position as the head announcer of IPW Ignition. Although plans were made to hold a third NZPWI Invitational in November 2008, the event was unable to gain the necessary corporate sponsorship to cover costs. Previous shows had been held at a significant loss, costing at least $15,000 to run, entirely supported financially by McCraken himself. Due to the financial burden, as well as familial commitments, McCraken announced on NZPWI.co.nz that he would no longer be able to host the event. 12 August 2006 in Lynfield, New Zealand The tournament took place on 12 August 2006.
The Hairy Ape is a 1922 expressionist play by American playwright Eugene O'Neill. It is about a beastly, unthinking laborer known as Yank, the protagonist of the play, as he searches for a sense of belonging in a world controlled by the rich. At first, Yank feels secure as he stokes the engines of an ocean liner, is confident in his physical power over the ship's engines and his men. However, when the rich daughter of an industrialist in the steel business refers to him as a "filthy beast", Yank undergoes a crisis of identity and so starts his mental and physical deterioration, he leaves the ship and wanders into Manhattan, only to find he does not belong anywhere—neither with the socialites on Fifth Avenue, nor with the labor organizers on the waterfront. In a fight for social belonging, Yank's mental state disintegrates into animalistic, in the end he is defeated by an ape in which Yank's character has been reflected; the Hairy Ape is a portrayal of the impact industrialization and social class has on the dynamic character Yank.
Bob "Yank" Smith — Man who works on a ship. He is a leader among the other workers and finds himself rebelling against the authoritarian upper class he feels does not appreciate his hard work. Paddy — An aged ship worker, he is able to see the monotony of the work and is aware of the hierarchy of capitalist society. He could be seen as symbolizing the voice of reason and disappears midway through the play as Yank begins his rebellious quest. Long — Another ship worker who accompanies Yank to Fifth Avenue where his initial act of rebelling against the upper class takes place. Mildred Douglas— A young, wealthy socialite who faints at the sight of Yank working in the ship. Terrified of his behavior and appearance, she calls him a “filthy beast” inciting his rebellion against the upper class. A Secretary of an Organization — Works in a Labor Union and dismisses Yank’s ideas of violent rebellion in favor of peaceful strikes and the passing out of pamphlets; the play is divided into eight scenes. Scene 1:In the firemen's forecastle of a cruise ship that has just sailed from New York for a trip across the Atlantic Ocean.
Off-duty men are singing drunkenly. Yank, portrayed as a leader among the men, is confident in his strength to fuel the machinery of the ship and the world, he shows particular contempt toward two other firemen: Long, an Englishman with socialist leanings, Paddy, an old Irishman who reflects wistfully on the days of wind-powered sailing ships. Scene 2:Mildred Douglas and her aunt are talking above deck on the ship whilst sunbathing, they argue over Mildred's desire to do social work, ending only when two officers come to escort her below decks for her planned visit to the ship's stokehole. Her aunt does not understand, she ends up going below deck regardless. Scene 3:In the stokehole and the other firemen take pride in their daily work. Yank does not notice Mildred when she enters, instead shouts threats toward the unseen engineer ordering the men to keep coaling the engines; the men stop to turn. Confused as to why they have stopped working, he turns to see Mildred. Scene 4:In the firemen's forecastle yet again.
Yank is mulling over the incident in the stokehole. The other men try to understand his fury by asking if he is in love. Yank is infuriated at Mildred for claiming, he tries to charge after Mildred in revenge. However, his men wrestle him to the ground before he can reach the door. Scene 5:Three weeks on Fifth Avenue in New York, the ship has returned from its cruise. Yank and Long argue over. Still obsessing with avenging himself against Mildred, Yank rudely accosts several churchgoers that come out into the streets as Long flees the scene. Yank is arrested shortly thereafter. Scene 6:The following night at the prison on Blackwell's Island, Yank has begun serving a 30-day sentence. Seeing the prison as a zoo, he tells the other inmates of. One of them tells him about the Industrial Workers of the World and suggests that he think about joining. Enraged by the thought of Mildred and her father again, Yank starts to bend the bars of his cell in an attempt to escape, but the guards retaliate in force.
Scene 7:A month Yank visits the local IWW office upon his release from prison and joins the group. The local members are happy to have him in their ranks at first because not many ship's firemen have joined. However, when he expresses his desire to blow up the Steel Trust, they suspect him of working for the government and throw him out. In the streets, Yank comes in contact with a policeman, who shows no interest in arresting him and tells him to move along. Scene 8:The following evening, Yank visits the zoo, he sympathizes with a gorilla, thinking they are the same. He approaches it to introduce himself as if they were friends; the gorilla attacks Yank, fatally crushing his ribs, throws Yank into the cage where he dies. One common analysis of the play reads it as an Existentialist piece in reference to the protagonist himself experiencing an existential crisis. Yank believed himself to be the sole provider for the ocean liner; when he is called a “filthy beast” by Mildred in scene three, he begins to rebel against the upper class that he believes relies on him.
After the insult, it became evident to Yank just what little worth he was to them, thus inciting his rebellion against them. How