Ford of Britain
Ford of Britain is a British wholly owned subsidiary of Blue Oval Holdings, itself a subsidiary of Ford International Capital LLC, a subsidiary of Ford Motor Company. Its business has its registered office in Brentwood, Essex, it adopted the name of Ford of Britain in 1960. Ford of Britain operates three major manufacturing sites in the UK, in Bridgend and Halewood, it operates a large research and development facility in Dunton, which employs over 3,000 engineers. Ford has been the UK's biggest-selling car and commercial vehicle brand for 34 and 45 consecutive years respectively; the first Ford cars, three Model As, were imported into the UK in 1903 and the first dealership in Southampton opened in 1910. In 1909 the Ford Motor Company Limited was established under the chairmanship of Percival Perry opening an office at 55 Shaftesbury Avenue, London, on 8 March 1911. An assembly plant in an old Tram factory in Trafford Park, was opened in 1911 employing 60 people to make the Model T and the company was re-registered as Henry Ford & Son, Ltd.
This was the first Ford factory outside North America. At first the cars were assembled from imported chassis and mechanical parts with bodies sourced locally. Six thousand cars were produced in 1913 and the Model T became the country's biggest selling car with 30% of the market. In 1914 Britain's first moving assembly line for car production started with 21 cars an hour being built. After the First World War, the Trafford Park plant was extended, in 1919, 41% of British registered cars were Fords. In 1917, a plant opened in Cork, Ireland for tractor manufacture, but from 1921 cars were built as well; this factory was the first to be purpose built by Ford in Europe. The company of Henry Ford and Son Limited–Fordson– was incorporated on 17 April 1917, starting its life on the site of an old Cork racecourse, its first registered office was at Cork. Although the Manchester plant was served by the Manchester Ship Canal, Ford decided that access to a deep water port was required and in 1923 a new site was chosen by the River Thames at Dagenham, east of London.
In December 1928 Ford announced in London that it had formed a new company, Ford Motor Company Limited, with three US directors and four English directors – including chairman Sir Percy Perry – with a capital of £7 million. This company had acquired all Ford's European and Middle Eastern business in exchange for 60% of its capital; the balance of 40% of the capital of the new Ford Motor Company Limited, 2.8 million shares of £1 each, was now available for public subscription. These shares were over-subscribed. There was considerable investing interest from America as US investors had had no previous opportunity of investing in a Henry Ford business; the new chairman, Sir Percival Perry, had been, now was again, central to the development of Ford in Europe. Perry's association with Henry Ford dated from 1905 when Perry became a shareholder of Ford's first British agency but the first link between them was earlier, in 1903; the two men first met in 1906 in Detroit. From Britain Perry envisioned Ford making vehicles outside USA and selling them across the British Empire and Europe.
He raced the company's cars, organised a chain of exclusive dealers and superintended the Trafford Park assembly plant. In 1919 Henry Ford chose to run operations from Detroit, Perry was determined to run all European business himself. Perry resigned in May 1919, his American managers having failed him Henry Ford offered Perry the chairmanship of this new Ford Motor Company Limited in 1928. At the first meeting of shareholders in London on 6 March 1929 Perry reported "during the first three months of our first year we and our associated companies in Europe have delivered upwards of 50,000 Model'A' vehicles into the hands of satisfied owners; the improved Fordson tractor is not yet in production but it is hoped to deliver the first tractors manufactured at our Cork works within the next month." Construction started at Dagenham in 1929, in October 1931, Britain's and Europe's largest car plant opened producing the Model AA truck and Model A car. This was at the height of the Depression and the Model A was too expensive to tax and run in Britain and few were sold, only five in the first three months.
A smaller car was urgently needed and this came in 1932 with the 933 cc Model Y, a car much more suited to the market and becoming in 1935 Britain's first £100 car. This was Ford's first car designed for sale outside North America. Between 1932 and 1937 over 157,000 were made at Dagenham and Cork and at its peak it captured 41% of its market sector. In 1938, Ford's Cork factory hit an important milestone, producing its 25,000th vehicle since becoming an assembly plant in 1932. In all, 73,000 cars and tractors had been built at Cork up to that time; the original 1928 plan was for Canada, having the benefit of imperial-preference tariffs, to manufacture components for Ford assembly plants in the British Empire. Dagenham was to do, did, the same for assembly plants in Europe but in 1932, mired in the financial depression, both France and Germany announced their intention to impose heavy new tariffs on imported components. In France urgent arrangements were made with Mathis for their plant to be leased by a joint-venture to be known as Matford and devoted to the full manufacture of Ford or Matford products.
More capital was required. There were consequential exchange
The Triumph Herald is a small two-door car introduced by Standard-Triumph of Coventry in 1959 and made through to 1971. The body design was by the Italian stylist Giovanni Michelotti, the car was offered in saloon, coupé, estate and van models, with the latter marketed as the Triumph Courier. Total Herald sales numbered well over half a million; the Triumph Vitesse, Spitfire and GT6 models are all based on modified Herald chassis and running gear with bolt-together bodies. Towards the end of the 1950s Standard-Triumph offered a range of two-seater Triumph sports cars alongside its Standard saloons, the Standard Eight and Standard Ten, powered by a small 4-cylinder engine, which by the late 1950s were due for an update. Standard-Triumph therefore started work on the Herald; the choice of the Herald name suggests that the car was intended to be marketed as a Standard, as it fits the model-naming scheme of the time. But by 1959 it was felt that the Triumph name had more brand equity, the Standard name was phased out in Britain after 1963.
Giovanni Michelotti was commissioned to style the car by the Standard-Triumph board, encouraged by chief engineer Harry Webster, produced designs for a two-door saloon with a large glass area that gave 93 per cent all-round visibility in the saloon variant and the "razor-edge" looks to which many makers were turning. As Fisher & Ludlow, Standard-Triumph's body suppliers became part of an uncooperative British Motor Corporation, it was decided that the car should have a separate chassis rather than adopting the newer unitary construction; the main body tub was bolted to the chassis and the whole front end hinged forward to allow access to the engine. Every panel – including the sills and roof – could be unbolted from the car so that different body styles could be built on the same chassis; as an addition to the original coupé and saloon models, a convertible was introduced in 1960. The Standard Pennant's 4-cylinder 948 cc OHV Standard SC engine and 4 speed manual gearbox was used with synchromesh on the top three gears and remote gear shift and driving the rear wheels.
Most of the engine parts were used in the Standard 8/10. The rack and pinion steering afforded the Herald a tight 25-foot turning circle. Coil and double-wishbone front suspension was fitted, while the rear suspension, a new departure for Triumph, offered "limited" independent springing via a single transverse leaf-spring bolted to the top of the final drive unit and swing axles. Instruments were confined to a single large speedometer with fuel gauge in the saloon on a dashboard of grey pressed fibreboard; the coupé dashboard was equipped with speedometer and temperature gauges, together with a lockable glovebox. The car had loop-pile heater as standard. A number of extras were available including twin SU carburettors, leather seats, a wood-veneered dashboard, Telaflo shock absorbers and paint options. In late 1958, prototype cars embarked on a test run from Cape Town to Tangiers. An account of the journey was embellished by PR at the time. However, only minor changes were deemed necessary between the production cars.
The new car was launched at the Royal Albert Hall in London on 22 April 1959 but was not an immediate sales success owing to its high cost, approaching £700. In standard single-carburettor form the 34.5 bhp car was no better than average in terms of performance. A saloon tested by The Motor magazine in 1959 was found to have a top speed of 70.9 mph and could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 31.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 34.5 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The rear suspension was criticised as yielding poor handling at the extremes of performance though the model was considered easy to drive with its good vision, light steering and controls, ease of repair. A Herald S variant was introduced in 1961 with a lower equipment level and less chrome than the Herald, it was offered in saloon form only. The 948 cc Herald Coupé and Convertible models were discontinued in 1961, the 948 cc Herald Saloon in 1962 and the Herald S in 1964. Standard-Triumph experienced financial difficulties at the beginning of the 1960s and was taken over by Leyland Motors in 1961.
This released new resources to develop the Herald and the car was re-launched in April 1961 with an 1147 cc engine as the Herald 1200. The new model featured a wooden laminate dashboard and improved seating. Quality control was tightened up. Twin carburettors were no longer fitted to any of the range as standard although they remained an option, the standard being a single down-draught Solex carburettor. Claimed maximum power of the Herald 1200 was 39 bhp, as against the 34.5 bhp claimed for the 948 cc model. One month after the release of the Herald 1200, a 2-door estate was added to the range. Disc brakes became an option from 1962. Sales picked up despite growing competition from the Ford Anglia; the coupé was dropped from the range in late 1964 as it was by in direct competition with the Triumph Spitfire. The Triumph Courier van, a Herald estate with side panels in place of rear side windows, was produced from 1962 until 1966, but was dropped following poor sales. Production in England ceased in mid-1964.
CKD assembly by MCA in Malta continued till late 1965, at least. The Courier was powered by the 1147 cc engine. An upmarket version, the Herald 12/50, was offered from 1963 to 1967, it featured a tuned engine with a claimed output of 51 bhp in place of the previous 39, along with
A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a cam forms an integral part. The camshaft was described in Turkey by Al-Jazari in 1206, he employed it as part of his automata, water-raising machines, water clocks such as the castle clock. The camshaft appeared in European mechanisms from the 14th century. Among the first cars to utilize engines with single overhead camshafts were the Maudslay designed by Alexander Craig and introduced in 1902 and the Marr Auto Car designed by Michigan native Walter Lorenzo Marr in 1903. In internal combustion engines with pistons, the camshaft is used to operate poppet valves, it consists of a cylindrical rod running the length of the cylinder bank with a number of oblong lobes protruding from it, one for each valve. The cam lobes force the valves open by pressing on the valve, or on some intermediate mechanism, as they rotate. Camshafts can be made out of several types of material; these include: Chilled iron castings: Commonly used in high volume production, chilled iron camshafts have good wear resistance since the chilling process hardens them.
Other elements are added to the iron before casting to make the material more suitable for its application. Billet Steel: When a high quality camshaft or low volume production is required, engine builders and camshaft manufacturers choose steel billet; this is a much more time consuming process, is more expensive than other methods. However, the finished product is far superior. CNC lathes, CNC milling machines, CNC camshaft grinders will be used during production. Different types of steel bar can be used, one example being EN40b; when manufacturing a camshaft from EN40b, the camshaft will be heat treated via gas nitriding, which changes the micro-structure of the material. It gives a surface hardness of 55-60 HRC; these types of camshafts can be used in high-performance engines. The relationship between the rotation of the camshaft and the rotation of the crankshaft is of critical importance. Since the valves control the flow of the air/fuel mixture intake and exhaust gases, they must be opened and closed at the appropriate time during the stroke of the piston.
For this reason, the camshaft is connected to the crankshaft either directly, via a gear mechanism, or indirectly via a belt or chain called a timing belt or timing chain. Direct drive using gears is unusual because of the cost; the reversing torque caused by the slope of the cams tends to cause gear rattle which for an all-metal gear train requires further expense of a cam damper. Rolls-Royce V8 used gear drive as, unlike chain, it could be made silent and to last the life of the engine. Where gears are used in cheaper cars, they tend to be made from resilient fibre rather than metal, except in racing engines that have a high maintenance routine. Fibre gears have a short life span and must be replaced much like a timing belt. In some designs the camshaft drives the distributor and the oil and fuel pumps; some vehicles may have the power steering pump driven by the camshaft. With some early fuel injection systems, cams on the camshaft would operate the fuel injectors. Honda redesigned the VF750 motorcycle from chain drive to the gear drive VFR750 due to insurmountable problems with the VF750 Hi-Vo inverted chain drive.
An alternative used in the early days of OHC engines was to drive the camshaft via a vertical shaft with bevel gears at each end. This system was, for example, used on the pre-World War I Mercedes Grand Prix cars. Another option was to use a triple eccentric with connecting rods. O. Bentley-designed engines and on the Leyland Eight. In a two-stroke engine that uses a camshaft, each valve is opened once for every rotation of the crankshaft. In a four-stroke engine, the valves are opened only half as often; the timing of the camshaft can be advanced to produce better low RPM torque, or retarded for better high RPM power. Changing cam timing moves the overall power produced by the engine down or up the RPM scale; the amount of change is little, affects valve to piston clearances. Refer to this video. Duration is the number of crankshaft degrees of engine rotation during which the valve is off the seat. In general, greater duration results in more horsepower; the RPM at which peak horsepower occurs is increased as duration increases at the expense of lower rpm efficiency.
Duration specifications can be misleading because manufacturers may select any lift point from which to advertise a camshaft's duration and sometimes will manipulate these numbers. The power and idle characteristics of a camshaft rated at a.006" lift point will be much different from one with the same rating at a.002" lift point. Many performance engine builders gauge a race profile's aggressiveness by looking at the duration at.020".050" and.200". The.020" number determines how responsive the motor will be and how much low end torque the motor will make. The.050" number is used to estimate where peak power will occur, the.200" number gives an estimate of the power potential. A secondary effect of increased duration can be increased overlap, the number of crankshaft degrees during which both intake and exhaust valves are off their seats, it is overlap which most affects idle quality, inasmuch as the "blow-through" of the intake charge back out thru the exhaust valve which occurs during overlap reduces engine efficiency, is greatest during low RPM operation.
In general, increasing a camshaft's duration increases the overlap, unless the intake and exhaust lobe centers are m
1969 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 1969 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 37th Grand Prix of Endurance, took place on 14 and 15 June 1969. It was the eighth round of the 1969 World Sportscar Championship season; as it turned out, 1969 was the last event with the traditional "Le Mans" style start, in which the drivers run across the track to enter their cars, start them, race away. The previous year, Willy Mairesse crashed on the first lap while trying to properly close the door of his car at speed on the Mulsanne Straight. Jacky Ickx famously staged his own one-man protest by walking the start, taking his time doing up his belts; as if to underline the point, privateer John Woolfe had a similar accident to Mairesse on the opening lap near Maison Blanche corner. Not strapped in properly yet, he was killed when the car broke up; the race itself was one of the most exciting in the event's history. Having wrapped up the World Sportscar Championship, Porsche were strong favourites to achieve their first outright win. Indeed, Porsche cars made up over a third of the starters and the mighty 917s held the lead for 90% of the race.
But when the Elford/Attwood car's gearbox broke at 11am, it was the Ford of Ickx and Jackie Oliver that took over the lead. It became a 3-hour sprint race with the Ford battling the pursuing Porsche 908 of Hans Herrmann and Gérard Larrousse non-stop. In the end it was the Ford GT40 – the identical car that had won the previous year – that took the chequered flag by just 120 metres after 24 hours. Heeding the calls of race promotors worried about diminishing fields, the FIA sought to fix things by reducing the minimum production figure to run in Group 4 from 50 to 25. Though they had an unlimited engine capacity, it was reasoned that it would not be a difference as the cars were not as competitive as the Group 6 Prototypes; this however, left a large flaw in the system for big manufacturers with the resources to exploit the regulations. Porsche were able to construct 25 chassis of their new 917 prototype, with its 4.5-litre engine, to get it homologated for Group 4. This year the Automobile Club de l'Ouest brought the start-time forward to 2pm, to allow time for the French crowd to still be able to get to vote in the Presidential Elections on the Sunday afternoon.
New Armco crash barriers were installed around the circuit, including on the Mulsanne Straight, where there was no protection from the trees and embankments in the event of a car leaving the track. Sandbanks were replaced by barriers. Into the second year of the new 3-litre regulations, the initial entries closed with 109 applications – the biggest number in the past decade. However, after the requisite culling 60 cars were accepted, but a number of withdrawals meant only 51 practiced with non-starters reducing the final grid to only 45, the smallest field in the decade. After a dominant season to date, Porsche had won the Sportscar Championship, arrived with the biggest representation with 16 cars, a third of the field. Porsche had wrapped up the championship after the seven races to date. Starting in July 1968, Porsche made a surprising and expensive effort to conceive and build a whole new car for the Group 4 Sport category with one underlying goal: to win its first overall victory at Le Mans.
In only ten months, the first Porsche 917 prototype was developed with a fibreglass body and Porsche's first 12-cylinder engine. Bored out to 4.5-litres, made from titanium and exotic alloys, it produced a mighty 520 bhp. The 917 included another feature which would prove to be controversial in the week leading up to the race: movable aerodynamic wings linked to the suspension; these were banned by the CSI at the Monaco GP in May as dangerous. Porsche team manager, Rico Steinemann, protested that their test-sessions had shown the car was inherently unstable without them and that the cars had been homologated for Group 4 with the flaps. A last-minute decision the day before Le Mans by the FISA allowed them to race, although the 908s had to lose the flaps as they had run without them. Team Matra was upset by this decision, but in a statement said they did not intend to protest, it was believed that if the ban was again reinstated because of a protest by other teams, Porsche would have pulled out of the 1969 race entirely.
By May the necessary 25 chassis were completed for homologation, intended to be sold to private racing teams at $35,000 each. The first was purchased by a private interest by the time of the Le Mans race, that of Briton John Woolfe; the cars had their first race at Spa, three works entries were at Le Mans in langheck form for Vic Elford/Richard Attwood and Rolf Stommelen/Kurt Ahrens, with Herbert Linge in the reserve car. In the Prototype class, Porsche had three works 908s in langheck form, including regular team drivers Gerhard Mitter / Udo Schütz; this season's version was at least 20% lighter than the 1968 car. The new 908/2 spyder version, successful through the season was run by the team's lead drivers, Jo Siffert and Brian Redman, through Siffert's sponsor, Hart Ski with strong works support. There were a pair of privateer 910s in the 2-litre Prototype class. After a tight season last year, Ford were no longer as competitive as their Porsche rivals. Although the GT40 was showing its age, five were entered.
John Wyer's J. W. Automotive, managed by David Yorke, chose not to run the disappointing Group 6 Mirage M2s and instead entered two of the cars they ran in the previous year's race, they kept their regular driving combinations: Jacky Ickx / Ja
South Willingham is a village and civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated 1 mile south-west from the A157 road, 8 miles south-east from Market Rasen, 10 miles north from Horncastle and 10 miles west from Louth. South Willingham is recorded in the Domesday Book as "Ulingeham". South Willingham Grade II listed; the church, built of greenstone, was rebuilt in 1835, but the Perpendicular style tower and screen remain. In 1964 Pevsner noted a 1571 paten cover by John Morley. Other Grade II listed buildings include four cottages and two farm housesThe village had both a Wesleyan and a Free Methodist chapel, both now converted to other use. South Willingham was a railway station on the Great Northern Railway branch line from Bardney to Louth; the station closed in the 1950s. Media related to South Willingham at Genuki. Retrieved 28 June 2011
A kit car is an automobile, available as a set of parts that a manufacturer sells and the buyer assembles into a functioning car. Many of the major mechanical systems such as the engine and transmission are sourced from donor vehicles or purchased new from other vendors. Kits vary in completeness, consisting of as little as a book of plans, or as much as a complete set with all components to assemble into a operational vehicle such as those from Caterham. There is a sub-set of the kit car referred to as a "re-body", in which a commercially manufactured vehicle has a new body put on the running chassis. Most times, the existing drive gear and interior are retained; these kits require less technical knowledge from the builder, because the chassis and mechanical systems were designed and tested by a major automotive manufacturer, a re-body can lead to a much higher degree of safety and reliability. The definition of a kit car indicates that a manufacturer constructs multiple kits of the same vehicle, each of which it sells to a third party to build.
A kit car should not be confused with a hand built car or special car, modified or built from scratch by an individual for a specific purpose. Note, that rally specials have since World War 2 referred to manufacturers' specially series-produced cars. A component car, a self-assembly car in which 100% of the parts required to build the car are purchased from a single company. Component Cars are distinguished from kit cars as all parts are quality controlled and designed to fit together perfectly, they can be built in less time than a "kit car". See Knock-down kit, a term applied to a similar but larger commercial exercise. Kit cars have been around from the earliest days of the automobile. In 1896 the Englishman Thomas Hyler-White developed a design for a car that could be assembled at home and technical designs were published in a magazine called The English Mechanic. In the USA, the Lad's Car of 1912 could be bought for $160 assembled or $140 in kit form, it was not until the 1950s that the idea took off.
Car production had increased and with rust proofing in its infancy many older vehicles were being sent to breaker yards as their bodywork was beyond economic repair. An industry grew up supplying new bodies and chassis to take the components from these cars and convert them into new vehicles into sports cars. Fiber reinforced plastic was coming into general use and made limited-scale production of automobile body components much more economical. In the UK up to the mid-1970s, kit cars were sometimes normal production vehicles that were assembled as this avoided the imposition of purchase tax as the kits were assessed as components and not vehicles. During the 1970s many kits had bodies styled as sports cars that were designed to bolt directly to VW Beetle chassis; this was popular as the old body could be separated from the chassis leaving all mechanical components attached to the chassis and a GRP-body from the kit supplier shop fitted. This made the Beetle one of the most popular "donor" vehicles of all time.
Examples of this conversion include the Bradley GT, Sebring which were made by the thousands and many are still around today. Volkswagen based dune buggies appeared in large numbers in the 1960s and 1970s based on a shortened floor pan. Current kit cars are replicas of well-known and expensive classics and are designed so that anyone with a measure of technical skill can build them at home to a standard where they can be driven on the public roads; these replicas are in general appearance like the original, but their bodies are made of fiberglass mats soaked in polyester resin instead of the original sheet metal. Replicas of the AC Cobra and the Lotus 7 are popular examples, the right to manufacture the Lotus 7 now being owned by Caterham Cars who bought the rights to the car from Lotus founder Colin Chapman in 1973. Caterham Cars are a "Component Car" and are a continued development of Chapman's design, whereas all other Lotus 7 style cars are replicas, are "Kit Cars" costing less and not having the residual values of the Caterham.
These Replica kit cars enable enthusiasts to possess a vehicle similar in appearance to a vehicle which because of scarcity they may not be able to afford, at the same time take advantage of modern technology. The Sterling Nova Kit produced in the UK was the most popular VW based Kits being produced worldwide and licensed under several different names with an estimated 10000 sold. Many people react sceptically when they first hear about kit cars as it appears to them to be technically impossible to assemble a car at home and license it for public roads, they may be worried that such a car would not subsequently pass the mandatory quality control, required in most countries. For example, to obtain permission to use a kit car in Germany, every such vehicle with a speed over 6 km/h without a general operating license or an EC type permission has to undergo, as per the § 21 of Road traffic licensing regulations, a technical inspection by an recognized expert of a Technical Inspection Authority.
In the United Kingdom it is necessary to meet the requirements of the IVA regulations. In the United States SEMA has gone state by state to set up legal w