The Cessna 425, known as the Corsair and as the Conquest I, is an eight-seat American pressurized turboprop twin-engined light aircraft. Now out of production, it was built by Cessna Aircraft of Wichita, Kansas between 1980 and 1986; the 425 was introduced as a competitor to the Beechcraft King Air. The 425 was introduced in 1980 and was a derivation of the Cessna 421, powered by two 450 hp Pratt & Whitney PT6 engines. In comparison to the King Air C90 "the result was an $875,000 pressurized twin-turboprop that could fly 15 knots to 20 knots faster than the C90, cruise 250 miles farther with four passengers aboard and burn 15-percent less fuel, it costs $200,000 less to buy". The 425 was easy to fly and was noted by reviewers for its spacious cabin with large windows for good visibility and comfortable seats; the original Corsair was developed into the Conquest I by customer demand for more cabin space and a higher maximum takeoff weight. Cessna worked on upgrades; the upgrades increased maximum takeoff weight.
The Cessna 441 had previous been called the Conquest, but was renamed the Conquest II. Earlier model Corsairs can be upgraded to Conquest I standard with factory provided modification kits. Due to economic conditions in general aviation, sales decreased in the mid-1980s and production of the 425 ended in 1986. Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982–83General characteristics Crew: two pilots Capacity: four–six passengers Length: 35 ft 10 1⁄4 in Wingspan: 44 ft 1 1⁄2 in Height: 12 ft 7 1⁄4 in Wing area: 224.98 sq ft Airfoil: NACA 23018-63 at root, NACA 23009-63 at tip Empty weight: 4,915 lb Max takeoff weight: 8,200 lb Fuel capacity: 366 US gal usable capacity Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-112 turboprops, 450 shp each Propellers: 3-bladed Hartzell 9910438-1 or McCauley 9910535-1 constant-speed propellersPerformance Maximum speed: 264 kn at 17,700 ft Cruise speed: 210 kn at 30,000 ft, econ cruise Stall speed: 79 kn,flaps and undercarriage down, engines idling Range: 1,646 nmi at 30,000 ft, econ cruise, 45 min reserves Service ceiling: 34,700 ft Rate of climb: 2,027 ft/min Takeoff run to 50 ft: 2,431 ft Landing run from 50 ft: 2,145 ft Related development Cessna 421Aircraft of comparable role and era Beechcraft King Air Mitsubishi MU-2 Piper PA-31T Cheyenne Taylor, John W. R. ed..
Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83. London: Jane's Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7106-0748-5. Media related to Cessna 425 at Wikimedia Commons
Piper J-3 Cub
The Piper J-3 Cub is an American light aircraft, built between 1937 and 1947 by Piper Aircraft. The aircraft has a simple, lightweight design which gives it good low-speed handling properties and short-field performance; the Cub is Piper Aircraft's most-produced model, with nearly 20,000 built in the United States. Its simplicity and popularity invokes comparisons to the Ford Model T automobile; the aircraft is a strut-braced monoplane with a large-area rectangular wing. It is most powered by an air-cooled, flat-4 piston engine driving a fixed-pitch propeller, its fuselage is a welded steel frame covered in seating two people in tandem. The Cub was intended as a trainer and had great popularity in this role and as a general aviation aircraft. Due to its performance, it was well suited for a variety of military uses such as reconnaissance and ground control, it was produced in large numbers during World War II as the L-4 Grasshopper. Many Cubs are still flying today. Notably, Cubs are prized as bush aircraft.
The aircraft's standard chrome yellow paint has come to be known as "Cub Yellow" or "Lock Haven Yellow". The Taylor E-2 Cub first appeared in 1930, built by Taylor Aircraft in Pennsylvania. Sponsored by William T. Piper, a Bradford industrialist and investor, the affordable E-2 was meant to encourage greater interest in aviation. In 1930, the company went bankrupt, with Piper buying the assets, but keeping founder C. Gilbert Taylor on as president. In 1936, an earlier Cub was altered by employee Walter Jamouneau to become the J-2 while Taylor was on sick leave.. When he saw the redesign, Taylor was so incensed. Piper, had encouraged Jamouneau's changes and hired him back. Piper bought Taylor's share in the company, paying him $250 per month for three years. Although sales were slow, about 1,200 J-2s were produced before a fire in the Piper factory, a former silk mill in Bradford, ended its production in 1938. After Piper moved his company from Bradford to Lock Haven, PA; the changes amounted to integrating the vertical fin of the tail into the rear fuselage structure and covering it with each of the fuselage's sides, changing the rearmost side window's shape to a smoothly curved half-oval outline and placing a true steerable tailwheel at the rear end of the J-2's leaf spring-style tailskid, linked for its steering function to the lower end of the rudder with springs and lightweight chains to either end of a double-ended rudder control horn.
Powered by a 40 hp engine, in 1938, it sold for just over $1,000. A number of different air-cooled engines, most of flat-four configuration, were used to power J-3 Cubs, resulting in differing model designations for each type: the J3C models used the Continental A series, the J3F used the Franklin 4AC, the J3L used the Lycoming O-145. A few examples, designated J3P, were equipped with Lenape Papoose 3-cylinder radial engines; the outbreak of hostilities in Europe in 1939, along with the growing realization that the United States might soon be drawn into World War II, resulted in the formation of the Civilian Pilot Training Program. The Piper J-3 Cub became the primary trainer aircraft of the CPTP and played an integral role in its success, achieving legendary status. About 75% of all new pilots in the CPTP were trained in Cubs. By war's end, 80% of all United States military pilots had received their initial flight training in Piper Cubs; the need for new pilots created an insatiable appetite for the Cub.
In 1940, the year before the United States' entry into the war, 3,016 Cubs had been built. Prior to the United States entering World War II, J-3s were part of a fund-raising program to support the United Kingdom. Billed as a Flitfire, a Piper Cub J3 bearing Royal Air Force insignia was donated by W. T. Piper and Franklin Motors to the RAF Benevolent Fund to be raffled off. Piper distributors nationwide were encouraged to do the same. On April 29, 1941, all 48 Flitfire aircraft, one for each of the 48 states that made up the country at that time, flew into La Guardia Field for a dedication and fundraising event which included Royal Navy officers from the battleship HMS Malaya, in New York for repairs, as honored guests. At least three of the original Flitfires have been restored to their original silver-doped finish; the Piper Cub became a familiar sight. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt took a flight in a J-3 Cub, posing for a series of publicity photos to help promote the CPTP. Newsreels and newspapers of the era featured images of wartime leaders, such as Generals Dwight Eisenhower, George Patton and George Marshall, flying around European battlefields in Piper Cubs.
Civilian-owned Cubs joined the war effort as part of the newly formed Civil Air Patrol, patrolling the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast in a constant search for German U-boats and survivors of U-boat attacks. Piper developed a military variant, variously designated as the O-59, L-4 and NE; the L-4 Grasshopper was mechanically identical to the J-3 civilian Cub, but was distinguishable by the use of a Plexiglas greenhouse skylight and rear windows for improved visibility, much like the Taylo
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
The wingspan of a bird or an airplane is the distance from one wingtip to the other wingtip. For example, the Boeing 777-200 has a wingspan of 60.93 metres, a wandering albatross caught in 1965 had a wingspan of 3.63 metres, the official record for a living bird. The term wingspan, more technically extent, is used for other winged animals such as pterosaurs, insects, etc. and other fixed-wing aircraft such as ornithopters. In humans, the term wingspan refers to the arm span, distance between the length from one end of an individual's arms to the other when raised parallel to the ground at shoulder height at a 90º angle. Former professional basketball player Manute Bol stands at 7 ft 7 in and owns one of the largest wingspans at 8 ft 6 in; the wingspan of an aircraft is always measured in a straight line, from wingtip to wingtip, independently of wing shape or sweep. The lift from wings is proportional to their area, so the heavier the animal or aircraft the bigger that area must be; the area is the product of the span times the width of the wing, so either a long, narrow wing or a shorter, broader wing will support the same mass.
For efficient steady flight, the ratio of span to chord, the aspect ratio, should be as high as possible because this lowers the lift-induced drag associated with the inevitable wingtip vortices. Long-ranging birds, like albatrosses, most commercial aircraft maximize aspect ratio. Alternatively and aircraft which depend on maneuverability need to be able to roll fast to turn, the high moment of inertia of long narrow wings produces lower roll rates. For them, short-span, broad wings are preferred; the highest aspect ratio man-made wings are aircraft propellers, in their most extreme form as helicopter rotors. To measure the wingspan of a bird, a live or freshly-dead specimen is placed flat on its back, the wings are grasped at the wrist joints and the distance is measured between the tips of the longest primary feathers on each wing; the wingspan of an insect refers to the wingspan of pinned specimens, may refer to the distance between the centre of the thorax to the apex of the wing doubled or to the width between the apices with the wings set with the trailing wing edge perpendicular to the body.
In basketball and gridiron football, a fingertip-to-fingertip measurement is used to determine the player's wingspan called armspan. This is called reach in boxing terminology; the wingspan of 16-year-old BeeJay Anya, a top basketball Junior Class of 2013 prospect who played for the NC State Wolfpack, was measured at 7 feet 9 inches across, one of the longest of all National Basketball Association draft prospects, the longest for a non-7-foot player, though Anya went undrafted in 2017. The wingspan of Manute Bol, at 8 feet 6 inches, is the longest in NBA history, his vertical reach was 10 feet 5 inches. Aircraft: Scaled Composites Stratolaunch — 117 m Aircraft: Hughes H-4 Hercules "Spruce Goose" – 97.51 m Aircraft Antonov An-225 Mriya - 88.4 m Bat: Large flying fox – 1.5 m Bird: Wandering albatross – 3.63 m Bird: Argentavis – Estimated 7 m Reptile: Quetzalcoatlus pterosaur – 10–11 m Insect: White witch moth – 28 cm Insect: Meganeuropsis – estimated up to 71 cm Aircraft: Starr Bumble Bee II – 1.68 m Aircraft: Bede BD-5 – 4.27 m Aircraft: Colomban Cri-cri – 4.9 m Bat: Bumblebee bat – 16 cm Bird: Bee hummingbird – 6.5 cm Insect: Tanzanian parasitic wasp – 0.2 mm
The Mitsubishi MU-2 is a Japanese high-wing, twin-engine turboprop aircraft with a pressurized cabin manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. It made its maiden flight in September 1963 and was produced until 1986, it is one of postwar Japan's most successful aircraft, with 704 manufactured in Japan and San Angelo, Texas, in the United States. Work on the MU-2, Mitsubishi's first postwar aircraft design, began in 1956. Designed as a light twin turboprop transport suitable for a variety of civil and military roles, the MU-2 first flew on 14 September 1963; this first MU-2, the three MU-2As built, were powered by the Turbomeca Astazou turboprop. Civil MU-2s powered by Garrett engines were certified as variants of the MU-2B, using the MU-2B type followed by a number. For marketing purposes, each variant was given a suffix letter. In 1963, Mitsubishi granted Mooney Aircraft rights in North America to assemble and support the MU-2. In 1965, Mooney established a facility to assemble MU-2s at its new factory in Texas.
Major components were shipped from Japan, the San Angelo factory installed engines and interiors painted, flight tested, delivered the completed aircraft to customers. By 1969, Mooney was in financial difficulty, the San Angelo facility was taken over by Mitsubishi. Production in the United States ended in 1986; the last Japanese-built aircraft was completed in January 1987. The subsequent production aircraft, designated MU-2B, were delivered with the Garrett TPE331 engines that remained standard on all models. Thirty-four MU-2Bs were built, followed by 18 examples of the similar MU-2D; the Japanese armed forces purchased four unpressurized MU-2Cs and 16 search and rescue variants designated MU-2E. Featuring more powerful upgraded TPE331 engines, 95 examples of the MU-2F were sold. Beginning with the MU-2G, the fuselage was stretched; the MU-2M, of which only 28 were built, is regarded as the toughest and most desired of all short-bodied MU-2s with a −10 engine conversion. It had a short fuselage and the same engines as the MU-2K and stretched MU-2J, had an increase in cabin pressurization to 6.0 psi.
The final short-fuselage MU-2s produced were known as Solitaires and were fitted with 496 kW Garrett TPE331-10-501M engines. The first significant change to the airframe came with the stretched MU-2G, first flying 10 January 1969, which featured a 1.91 m longer fuselage than earlier models. The MU-2L was a higher-gross-weight variant, followed by the MU-2N with uprated engines and four-blade propellers; the final stretched-fuselage MU-2 was named the Marquise, like the Solitaire, used 533 kW TPE331 engines. As of 2005, 397 MU-2 aircraft are registered in the United States; the Japan Self-Defense Forces are the only military operators to have flown the MU-2 in front-line service. The four C-model aircraft built, in addition to 16 MU-2Ks, entered service with the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force with the designation LR-1, they were retired in 2016. A number of them have been placed as gate guardians at JGSDF bases. 29 MU-2Es were purchased by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force as search-and-rescue aircraft and designated MU-2S.
Additional equipment consisted of a "thimble" nose radome, increased fuel capacity, bulged observation windows, a sliding door for dropping rafts. They were replaced in 2008 by the British Aerospace U-125A; some have been preserved. Four civilian MU-2 were acquired by the Argentine Air Force during the Falkland War; these Mitsubishi were unarmed, but used during combat operations by the Escuadrón Fénix as pathfinders and comm-relay planes. Among their missions were flying as guiding planes to the IA-58 Pucará replacements required after losses on the raid on pebble island. In late 2009 the Royal New Zealand Air Force took delivery of four Mitsubishi MU-2F fixed-wing training aircraft from the United States for use as training aids. In New Zealand service they are known as the Mitsubishi MU-2 Sumo; the aircraft were ferried to New Zealand and are located at the RNZAF's Ground Training Wing at RNZAF Base Woodbourne near Blenheim in New Zealand's South Island. Since 1987 MU-2s have been flown by retired United States Air Force pilots working for Air 1st Aviation Companies, Inc. under government contract at Tyndall Air Force Base, where they provide U.
S. Air Force undergraduate Air Battle Manager students of the U. S. Air Force Weapons Controller School with their initial experience controlling live aircraft. In the tactical simulations, the aircraft represent F-15s and Mikoyan MiG-29s. Students must control eight MU-2 missions before they can progress to controlling high-performance aircraft such as F-15s or F-22s. On 25 August 2013 Mike Laver and pilot of N50ET, along with AOPA Pilot technical editor Mike Collins, embarked on an around-the-world journey in the MU-2B-25; the voyage commenced at Aiken Municipal Airport and visited Nagoya, Japan on 14 September 2013, the 50th anniversary of the MU-2. Concerns have been raised about safety in operating the aircraft; as of October 2005, the United States Federal Aviation Administration undertook a safety evaluation of the aircraft. It conclud
A turboprop engine is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller. In its simplest form a turboprop consists of an intake, combustor, a propelling nozzle. Air is compressed by the compressor. Fuel is added to the compressed air in the combustor, where the fuel-air mixture combusts; the hot combustion gases expand through the turbine. Some of the power generated by the turbine is used to drive the compressor; the rest is transmitted through the reduction gearing to the propeller. Further expansion of the gases occurs in the propelling nozzle, where the gases exhaust to atmospheric pressure; the propelling nozzle provides a small proportion of the thrust generated by a turboprop. In contrast to a turbojet, the engine's exhaust gases do not contain enough energy to create significant thrust, since all of the engine's power is used to drive the propeller. Exhaust thrust in a turboprop is sacrificed in favour of shaft power, obtained by extracting additional power from turbine expansion. Owing to the additional expansion in the turbine system, the residual energy in the exhaust jet is low.
The exhaust jet produces around or less than 10% of the total thrust. A higher proportion of the thrust comes from less at higher speeds. Turboprops can have bypass ratios up to 50-100 although the propulsion airflow is less defined for propellers than for fans; the propeller is coupled to the turbine through a reduction gear that converts the high RPM/low torque output to low RPM/high torque. The propeller itself is a constant speed type similar to that used with larger reciprocating aircraft engines. Unlike the small diameter fans used in turbofan jet engines, the propeller has a large diameter that lets it accelerate a large volume of air; this permits a lower airstream velocity for a given amount of thrust. As it is more efficient at low speeds to accelerate a large amount of air by a small degree than a small amount of air by a large degree, a low disc loading increases the aircraft's energy efficiency, this reduces the fuel use. Propellers lose efficiency as aircraft speed increases, so turboprops are not used on high-speed aircraft above Mach 0.6-0.7.
However, propfan engines, which are similar to turboprop engines, can cruise at flight speeds approaching Mach 0.75. To increase propeller efficiency, a mechanism can be used to alter their pitch relative to the airspeed. A variable-pitch propeller called a controllable-pitch propeller, can be used to generate negative thrust while decelerating on the runway. Additionally, in the event of an engine failure, the pitch can be adjusted to a vaning pitch, thus minimizing the drag of the non-functioning propeller. While most modern turbojet and turbofan engines use axial-flow compressors, turboprop engines contain at least one stage of centrifugal compression. Centrifugal compressors have the advantage of being simple and lightweight, at the expense of a streamlined shape. While the power turbine may be integral with the gas generator section, many turboprops today feature a free power turbine on a separate coaxial shaft; this enables the propeller to rotate independent of compressor speed. Residual thrust on a turboshaft is avoided by further expansion in the turbine system and/or truncating and turning the exhaust 180 degrees, to produce two opposing jets.
Apart from the above, there is little difference between a turboprop and a turboshaft. Alan Arnold Griffith had published a paper on turbine design in 1926. Subsequent work at the Royal Aircraft Establishment investigated axial turbine designs that could be used to supply power to a shaft and thence a propeller. From 1929, Frank Whittle began work on centrifugal turbine designs that would deliver pure jet thrust; the world's first turboprop was designed by the Hungarian mechanical engineer György Jendrassik. Jendrassik published a turboprop idea in 1928, on 12 March 1929 he patented his invention. In 1938, he built a small-scale experimental gas turbine; the larger Jendrassik Cs-1, with a predicted output of 1,000 bhp, was produced and tested at the Ganz Works in Budapest between 1937 and 1941. It was of axial-flow design with 15 compressor and 7 turbine stages, annular combustion chamber and many other modern features. First run in 1940, combustion problems limited its output to 400 bhp. In 1941,the engine was abandoned due to war, the factory was turned over to conventional engine production.
The world's first turboprop engine that went into mass production was designed by a German engineer, Max Adolf Mueller, in 1942. The first mention of turboprop engines in the general public press was in the February 1944 issue of the British aviation publication Flight, which included a detailed cutaway drawing of what a possible future turboprop engine could look like; the drawing was close to what the future Rolls-Royce Trent would look like. The first British turboprop engine was the Rolls-Royce RB.50 Trent, a converted Derwent II fitted with reduction gear and a Rotol 7 ft 11 in five-bladed propeller. Two Trents were fitted to Gloster Meteor EE227 — the sole "Trent-Meteor" — which thus became the world's first turboprop-powered aircraft, albeit a test-bed not intended for production, it first flew on 20 September 1945. From their experience with the Trent, Rolls-Royce developed the Rolls-Royce Clyde, the first turboprop engine to be type certificated for military and civil use, the Dart, which became one of the most reliable turboprop engines built.
Dart production continued for more than fifty years. The Dart-powered Vickers Vi
The Flitfire is a special edition of the Piper J-3 Cub, used to raise funds to support the British war effort in World War II. In April 1941, prior to the United States' entry into World War II, Piper Aircraft and its distributors donated special edition Piper J-3 Cubs as a publicity event and a fundraiser for the Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund; these donated Cubs — painted with Royal Air Force insignia — were known as "Flitfires." This fund raising program consisted of 49 Flitfire aircraft, one paid for by Piper Aircraft and 48 by Piper distributors. All were built by Piper. There was a Flitfire named for each of the 48 states in the union at that time; these airplanes were colloquially known as "The Flitfire Brigade." During the Battle of Britain the Royal Air Force suffered heavy casualties, losing 1,420 members: 520 in Fighter Command, 700 in Bomber Command and 200 in Coastal Command. The Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund, an independent charity established post World War I to support RAF casualties and their families, worked to provide welfare to the RAF and families who were affected in the new conflict.
The RAFBF was supported by a light aircraft manufacturer in the United States, Piper Aircraft Corporation of Lock Haven, Pennsylvania. As an expression of encouragement to the RAF, Piper's President William T. Piper decided to donate a single Piper J-3 Cub as a grand national prize, with all proceeds going to the RAFBF. At the start of April 1941, Bill Strohmeier, Piper’s Sales and Promotion Manager encouraged Piper dealers across the country to order further ones for their own use; the special silver finish with RAF-style insignia was included at no additional cost to the dealers. Strohmeier requested the 48 U. S. Piper dealers donate one Cub. For every donation, Piper set aside 20 minutes of manufacturing time, sufficient to build one aircraft. A total of 49 Cubs were donated to support the fund raiser, one named for each of the 48 states, plus William Piper's initial donation, registered as NC1776. All funds collected went to the RAFBF and none went toward expenses; the first Flitfire, NC1776, a J-3F-65, serial number 6600, was powered by a Franklin 65 hp engine, donated by the manufacturer Air Cooled Motors Corporation.
The Civil Aeronautics Administration assigned registration number NC1776 to this aircraft, symbolizing the Benevolent Fund's aid to Britain in the same manner as the Lend Lease Act, which had Congressional number HR1776. The March 1941 Lend Lease Act was the principal vehicle for the U. S. to provide military aid to foreign nations before its entry in World War II. The other forty-eight Cubs had one of three engines: Lycoming or Franklin. To honor the RAF, instead of the signature yellow Cub color, the Flitfire airplanes were painted silver with RAF insignia. Royal Air Force roundels were painted on fuselage. NC1776 was distinguished from the other 48 Flitfires by the full words "Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund" painted on its fuselage to the rear of the RAF roundel. A. F. Benevolent Fund"; the name of the state of each aircraft was painted on its nose cowl. All Flitfires were manufactured at the Lock Haven plant in twelve days between 10 – 22 April 1941; the 49 Cubs were nicknamed "Flitfires" by Piper factory workers because of their markings, which were similar to the famed Supermarine Spitfire aircraft used during the Battle of Britain.
The silver Cubs that made up the "Flitfire Brigade" left Lock Haven on Sunday, 27 April 1941. T. H. Miller of the Lehigh Aircraft Co. was flight commander. Considerable preparations were made to organize the flight into military formation; the Flitfires were flown in precise formation by Piper employee-pilots, known as Cub Fliers. William Piper flew in the Brigade as a line pilot. Seven squadrons of seven airplanes took off, one after another, under direction of squadron leaders that included William Piper's brother, Tony Piper; the Cubs landed at Allentown-Bethlehem Airport for refueling. Despite 25 mph winds, gusting to 35 mph, all Cubs landed in Allentown in 12 minutes. Five thousand people turned out to witness the quick departure. After a mass take off from Allentown, the airplanes flew in formation over the New York metropolitan area; the formation flight was first seen over Staten Island at which point they dipped in salute to the Statue of Liberty. A wide swing to the left 180 degrees brought the brigade down the river to the Empire State Building east to a point south of the World's Fair grounds to Flushing Airport where they were parked before going on to LaGuardia Field.
On Tuesday, 29 April 1941, the Flitfires left Flushing Airport and were ferried to LaGuardia Field in groups of six, plus squadron leader, flying in close formation. The normal $2.50 landing fee was waived by Mayor LaGuardia. Traffic was handled by airport cars using two way radios; each aircraft was equipped with a portable radio loaned by Lear Avia Inc. Control of the flights was possible through these radio sets, despite the fact the Flitfires were not equipped with external antennas or shielded ignitions; the Flitfire Brigade's New York landing was the largest mass landing attempted up to that time. More than 1,000 social and business leaders and screen stars, aviation enthusiasts attended a black tie event to celebrate the arrival of the Flitfire Cubs in New York City. In attendance were the guests of honor, several Royal Navy officers whose ship, the battleship HMS Mal