Catlinite is a type of argillite brownish-red in color, which occurs in a matrix of Sioux Quartzite. Because it is fine-grained and worked, it is prized by Native Americans those of the Plains nations for use in making ceremonial pipes such as chanunpas. Pipestone quarries are located and preserved in Pipestone National Monument outside Pipestone, Minnesota, in Pipestone County, at the Pipestone River in Ontario, Canada; the term Catlinite came into use after the American painter George Catlin visited the quarries in Minnesota in 1835. Minnesota catlinite is buttery smooth and can be cut with a regular hacksaw or a knife, it comes out of the ground a pinkish color with a cream layer protecting it from the hard quartzite. It is more subject to breaking under stress than Utah pipestone. Most catlinite deposits exist beneath the level of groundwater or are in deep enough layers where the soil is moist as the iron compounds which give catlinite its red color convert into iron oxides when exposed to the elements and the stone degrades and breaks down.
The red catlinite from the Pipestone, Minnesota quarries is a soft claystone bed which occurs between layers of hard Sioux Quartzite. Only hand tools are used to reach the catlinite. Only enrolled Native Americans are allowed to quarry for the stone at the Pipestone National Monument, thus it is protected from over-mining. Another quarry is located near Hayward, Wisconsin on the reservation, which the Ojibwa have used for centuries; the stone there is harder than the stone from Pipestone National Monument. Utah pipestone has a more variable range of hard and soft forms, since it occurs as layers between deposits of harder slates. Utah pipestone is a by-product of slate mining in Delta and several natural deposits have been mined and used for pipemaking by Native Americans in the area for millennia; the Canadian quarry is no longer used, although there are quarries in Canada where another type of pipestone, black stone, is gleaned. The Ojibwe use both the black stone for their sacred pipes. Catlinite is used to make the hollow tubes in pipeclay triangles.
A large range of pipestones exist, not just those in Minnesota, numerous Native American tribes use a variety of materials in addition to catlinite for pipemaking. Smoking pipes molded from wet clay are different from those where the bowl is carved from solid pipestone and fitted with a wooden stem; the Eastern Band Cherokee are social smokers, use molded clay pipes for this purpose. In the United Kingdom, since the 17th century "pipe-clay" has meant a whitish clay; the Oxford English Dictionary defines it as "fine white kind of clay, which forms a ductile paste with water". It is traditionally used for all sorts of polishing and whitening purposes as well as for making tobacco pipes and pottery. Sigstad, John S. "A Field Test for Catlinite". American Antiquity 35:3. Pp. 377–382. Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center at the University of Wisconsin - La Crosse: Describes the process of making pipes from Catlinite Pipestone Artifacts from Upper Mississippi Valley Sites by J. T. Penman and J. N. Gundersen in the Plains Anthropologist
Rock County, Minnesota
Rock County is a county at the southwestern corner of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,687, its county seat is Luverne. The county was formed on May 23, 1857 by act of the territorial legislature, but was not organized at that time; the area was designated as Pipestone County, the name Rock County was attached to the present Pipestone. In 1862 the Minnesota state legislature changed the designations, attaching the present names to the present counties. On March 5, 1870, the state legislature approved an act which finalized the county's organization, designated Luverne as the county seat; the county's name came from the Rock River, which in turn is named for a prominent rocky outcrop of reddish-gray quartzite, about 3 miles north of Luverne. This mound forms an impressive contrast to the low surrounding prairie. Another source attributes the county name to its rocky soil. Rock County lies at the SW corner of Minnesota, its west border abuts the east border of the state of South Dakota and its south border abuts the north border of the state of Iowa.
The Rock River flows southward through the east central part of the county, Beaver Creek flows southward through the west central part of the county. The county consists of low rolling hills, carved with drainages; the area is devoted to agriculture. The terrain slopes to the south, with its highest point near the midpoint of its north boundary, at 1,759' ASL; the county has a total area of 483 square miles, of which 482 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. The entire county falls in the hot summer humid continental climate zone. One of Minnesota's nicknames is "Land of 10,000 Lakes", it is speckled from one end to the other with bodies of water large and small. However, four of the state's counties do not contain a natural lake. Rock County did host a manmade lake from 1938 until 2014: A WPA work project constructed a small dam on Blue Mounds Creek in 1938, creating a small lake in Blue Mounds State Park; this continued until June 2014, when the dam was damaged by rain and floodwaters, allowing the pond to drain.
In June 2016 the Minnesota Division of Natural Resources announced its decision to not rebuild the dam. Blue Mounds State Park Northern Tallgrass Prairie National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 9,721 people, 3,843 households, 2,705 families in the county; the population density was 20.2/sq. Mi.. There were 4,137 housing units at an average density of 8.58/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 97.27% White, 0.53% Black or African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.62% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.53% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. 1.28% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 41.4% were of German, 23.8% Dutch and 16.5% Norwegian ancestry. There were 3,843 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.10% were married couples living together, 5.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.01. The county population contained 26.30% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 24.10% from 25 to 44, 22.00% from 45 to 64, 20.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,102, the median income for a family was $44,296. Males had a median income of $28,776 versus $22,166 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,411. About 5.50% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.10% of those under age 18 and 8.90% of those age 65 or over. Ash Creek Kanaranzi Manley Bruce Carnegie Much of the second season of Fargo is set in Luverne and Rock County. Like all counties in Minnesota, Rock is governed by an elected and nonpartisan board of commissioners; each of the five commissioners represents a fifth of the county's population.
Commissioners as of January 24, 2018: Rock County voters have traditionally voted Republican. In no national election since 1964 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Rock County, Minnesota Rock County government website The Rock County Star Herald newspaper website
Split Rock Creek State Park
Split Rock Creek State Park is a state park of Minnesota, USA, located in Ihlen, or just south of Pipestone. The Works Progress Administration built a dam in 1938 to create a lake, which provided an opportunity for water recreation in an area of the state with few natural lakes; the dam was constructed of Sioux Quartzite, a hard red rock found in the area. A nearby bridge, Split Rock Creek Bridge, was built by the WPA of Sioux quartzite in 1938; the bridge carries County Road 54 over the creek. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Minnesota Masonry-Arch Highway Bridges MPS. Split Rock Creek State Park
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Brookings County, South Dakota
Brookings County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 31,965, making it the fifth-most populous county in South Dakota, its county seat is Brookings. The county was created in 1862 and organized in 1871. Brookings County comprises SD Micropolitan Statistical Area; the county was founded July 3, 1871, was named for Wilmot Wood Brookings, a politician and pioneer of southeastern South Dakota. Medary was the first county seat, from 1871 to 1879. Brookings County is on the east side of South Dakota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Minnesota. The Big Sioux River flows south-southeastward through the east central part of the county; the county terrain consists of sloped flatlands, marked by numerous lakes and ponds in the western part. The area is devoted to agricultural use; the county has a total area of 805 square miles, of which 782 square miles is land and 13 square miles is water. Brookings Regional Airport Arlington Municipal Airport As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 28,220 people, 10,665 households, 6,217 families in the county.
The population density was 36 people per square mile. There were 11,576 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.36% White, 0.31% Black or African American, 0.90% Native American, 1.34% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 0.88% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 39.2 % were of 23.2 % Norwegian and 5.7 % Irish ancestry. There were 10,665 households out of which 28.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.00% were married couples living together, 6.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.70% were non-families. 29.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.97. The county population contained 20.80% under the age of 18, 26.80% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 17.30% from 45 to 64, 10.90% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 102.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,438, the median income for a family was $48,052. Males had a median income of $30,843 versus $22,074 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,586. About 6.20% of families and 14.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.10% of those under age 18 and 7.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 31,965 people, 12,029 households, 6,623 families in the county; the population density was 40.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,137 housing units at an average density of 16.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.2% white, 2.7% Asian, 0.9% American Indian, 0.8% black or African American, 0.9% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 47.9% were German, 24.3% were Norwegian, 11.9% were Irish, 6.9% were English, 6.1% were Dutch, 2.0% were American.
Of the 12,029 households, 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.9% were non-families, 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 26.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $45,134 and the median income for a family was $63,338. Males had a median income of $40,425 versus $30,023 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,995. About 5.9% of families and 19.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.2% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. Aurora Bushnell Sinai Lake Poinsett Ahnberg*Medary Brookings County voters are reliably Republican. In only two national elections since 1932 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Brookings County, South Dakota Brookings County, SD government website
Lincoln County, Minnesota
Lincoln County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 5,896, its county seat is Ivanhoe. During and after the American Civil War, the Minnesota legislature wanted to name a county after President Abraham Lincoln. Acts were proposed to effect this change in 1861, in 1866, in 1870, but each time the effort failed by vote or was ignored by the county's citizens; the final effort was an act passed on March 6, 1873, dividing Lyon County into equal halves, with the western half to be named Lincoln. The county voters approved this act in the November 1873 election, Governor Horace Austin proclaimed the county's existence on December 5, 1873, with Lake Benton as county seat. In 1900 a new town closer to the county's center was platted, in 1902 the county seat was moved to that settlement, Ivanhoe. Lincoln County lies on Minnesota's border with South Dakota; the Lac qui Parle River flows northeast through the upper eastern part of the county on its way to discharge into the Minnesota River.
The county's terrain consists of rolling hills and is devoted to agriculture. The terrain slopes to the north and east, with its highest point on its lower west border, at 1,991' ASL; the county has a total area of 548 square miles, of which 537 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 6,429 people, 2,653 households, 1,785 families in the county; the population density was 12.0/sqmi. There were 3,043 housing units at an average density of 5.67/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 98.82% White, 0.05% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.42% from other races, 0.23% from two or more races. 0.86% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 36.1 % were of 25 % English, 17.5 % Norwegian, 10.9 % Polish and 10.5 % Danish ancestry. There were 2,653 households out of which 27.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.70% were married couples living together, 4.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.70% were non-families.
30.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.93. The county population contained 23.70% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 23.00% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 24.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,607, the median income for a family was $38,605. Males had a median income of $26,494 versus $20,083 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,009. About 7.00% of families and 9.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.60% of those under age 18 and 15.00% of those age 65 or over. Verdi Wilno Lincoln County has been a swing district in recent decades. Since 1980 the county has selected the Democratic Party candidate in 56% of national elections.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Lincoln County, Minnesota Lincoln County government's official website
South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive