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Piphilology comprises the creation and use of mnemonic techniques to remember a span of digits of the mathematical constant π. The word is a play of the linguistic field of philology. There are many ways to memorize π, including the use of piems, which are poems that represent π in a way such that the length of each word represents a digit. Here is an example of a piem: "Now I need a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy lectures involving quantum mechanics." Notice how the first word has three letters, the second word has one, the third has four, the fourth has one, the fifth has five, so on. In longer examples, 10-letter words are used to represent the digit zero, this rule is extended to handle repeated digits in so-called Pilish writing; the short story "Cadaeic Cadenza" records the first 3834 digits of π in this manner, a 10,000-word novel, Not A Wake, has been written accordingly. However, poems prove to be inefficient for large memorizations of π. Other methods include the method of loci.

Until the 20th century, the number of digits of pi which mathematicians had the stamina to calculate by hand remained in the hundreds, so that memorization of all known digits at the time was possible. In 1949 a computer was used to calculate π to 2000 places, presenting one of the earliest opportunities for a more difficult challenge. Computers calculated pi to extraordinary numbers of digits, people began memorizing more and more of the output; the world record for the number of digits memorized has exploded since the mid-1990s, it stood at 100,000 as of October 2006. The previous record was set by the same person on July 2, 2005, the record previous to, held by Hiroyuki Goto. An institution from Germany provides the details of the "Pi World Ranking"; the most common mnemonic technique is to memorize a so-called "piem" in which the number of letters in each word is equal to the corresponding digit of π. This famous example for 15 digits has several variations, including: How I want a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy chapters involving quantum mechanics!

- Sir James Hopwood JeansShort mnemonics such as these, of course, do not take one far down π's infinite road. Instead, they are intended more as amusing doggerel. If less accuracy suffices, the following examples can be used: How I wish I could recollect pi today! May I have a large container of coffee and sugar? This second one gives the value of π as 3.1415926535, while the first only brings it to the second five. Indeed, many published poems use truncation instead of one of the several roundings, thereby producing a less-accurate result when the first omitted digit is greater than or equal to five, it is advantageous to use truncation in memorizing if the individual intends to study more places on, otherwise one will be remembering erroneous digits. Another mnemonic is: The point I said a blind Bulgarian in France would knowIn this mnemonic the word "point" represents the decimal point itself, yet another example is: How I wish I could recollect, of circle round, the exact relation Arkimedes learnedIn this example, the spelling of Archimedes is normalised to nine.

Longer mnemonics employ the same concept. This example created by Peter M. Brigham incorporates twenty decimal digits: How I wish I could enumerate pi since all these bullshit mnemonics prevent recalling any of pi's sequence more simply; some mnemonics, such as this poem which gives the three and the first 20 decimal digits, use the separation of the poem's title and main body to represent the decimal point: Pie I wish I could determine pi Eureka, cried the great inventor Christmas pudding, Christmas pie Is the problem's center. Another, more poetic version is: Sir, I have a rhyme excelling, In mystic power and magic spelling, Celestial spirits elucidate, For my own problems can't relate. Extensions to 30 or 31 decimals of the same proceed as follows: There are minor variations on the above rhyme, which still allow pi to be worked out correctly. However, one variation replaces the word "lexicon's" with "lesson's" and in doing so, incorrectly indicates that the 18th digit is seven; the logologist Dmitri Borgmann gives the following 30-word poem in his book, Language on Vacation: An Olio of Orthographical Oddities: Now, a moon, a lover refulgent in flight, Sails the black silence's loneliest ellipse.

Computers use the constant, when polite, Or gentle data for sad tracking aid at eclipse. In the fantasy book, Somewhen by David Saul, a 35-word piem both provides a description of the constant pi and the digits, The text is laid out as a circle to provide another clue to the readers of the purpose of the poem. In this example, the word "nothing" is used to represent the digit zero; the following sonnet is a mnemonic for pi to 75 decimal places in iambic pentameter: Now I defy a tenet gallantly Of circle canon law: these integers Importing circles' quotients are, we see, Unwieldy long series of cockle bursPut all together, get no clarity. Strangely, the queer'st rules I manipulate Being followéd, do facilitate Whimsical musings from geometric bard; this poesy, unabashed

Maple Leaf Rag

The "Maple Leaf Rag" is an early ragtime musical composition for piano composed by Scott Joplin. It was one of Joplin's early works, became the model for ragtime compositions by subsequent composers, it is one of the most famous of all ragtime pieces. As a result, Joplin became dubbed the "King of Ragtime" by his contemporaries; the piece gave Joplin a steady if unspectacular income for the rest of his life. Despite ragtime's decline after Joplin's death in 1917, the "Maple Leaf Rag" continued to be recorded by many well-known artists; the ragtime revival of the 1970s brought. The "Maple Leaf Rag" is associated with the city of Sedalia, although there is no record of Joplin having a permanent residence there before 1904. Joplin arrived in Sedalia in 1894 as a touring musician and stayed with the family of Arthur Marshall, who became one of Joplin's students and a ragtime composer in his own right. Joplin played as a solo musician at dances and at the major black clubs in Sedalia, among them the "Maple Leaf Club".

It is possible that the rag was named after the Maple Leaf Club, although there is no direct evidence to prove the link, there were many other possible sources for the name in and around Sedalia at the time. Although there were hundreds of rags in print by the time of the "Maple Leaf Rag's" publication, Joplin was not far behind, his first published rag was "Original Rags". The "Maple Leaf Rag" was known in Sedalia prior to its publication in 1899. Prior to its publication, Joplin anticipated that the piece would be a success—he told Arthur Marshall that "The Maple Leaf will make me the king of ragtime composers"; the exact circumstances which led to publication of the "Maple Leaf Rag" are unknown, there are versions of the event which contradict each other. After approaching several publishers, Joplin signed a contract with John Stillwell Stark on August 10, 1899 for a $0.01 royalty on all sales of the rag, with a minimum sales price of $0.25. The "Maple Leaf Rag" was published between August 10 and September 20, 1899, when the United States Copyright Office received two copies of the score.

The rag was reissued in 1900 or 1901 with a new cover showing a green maple leaf and a photograph of Joplin. In 1903, Stark issued a "Maple Leaf Rag Song", an arrangement of Joplin's music with words by Sydney Brown. AA BB A CC DD"Maple Leaf Rag" is a multi-strain ragtime march with athletic bass lines and offbeat melodies; each of the four parts features a recurring theme and a striding bass line with copious seventh chords. The piece may be considered the "archetypal rag" due to its influence on the genre, it is more constructed than all the previous rags, the syncopations in the transition between the first and second strain, were novel at the time. The piece is considered difficult; when it was first published, it was considered more difficult than the average Tin Pan Alley and early ragtime sheet music common at the time. "Gladiolus Rag", a composition by Joplin, is a developed variant of the "Maple Leaf Rag" showcasing Joplin's increasing musical sophistication, is played at a somewhat slower tempo.

In addition, the first strain of Joplin's "The Cascades", "Leola", "Sugar Cane" are modeled on the structure used in the composition. The composition starts in the key of A-flat major and changes to D-flat major during the first part of the trio modulates back to A-flat major. In 1903 Stark issued a "Maple Leaf Rag Song", an arrangement of Joplin's music with words by Sydney Brown. Brown's lyrics tell the story of a poor man from Accomack County, who stumbles into a ballroom where, in spite of his anxiety over the state of his appearance he manages to wow the crowd with the Maple Leaf Rag. While the men are jealous of his dancing abilities and draw their razors, the women love him, the "finest belle" sends for a carriage and the two of them ride away. Modern ragtime composer Ron O'Dell has commented that the song has characteristics in common with rap, such as the lyrical themes, the lyrics being written in the African American Vernacular English of the time, the fact that the lyrics are sung over the least melodic strain of the music.

There have been many claims about the sales of the "Maple Leaf Rag", for example that 1 million copies of the sheet music were sold in the composer's lifetime, making Scott Joplin the first musician to sell 1 million copies of a piece of instrumental music. Joplin's first biographer Rudi Blesh wrote that during its first six months the piece sold 75,000 copies, became "the first great instrumental sheet music hit in America". However, research by Joplin's biographer Edward A. Berlin demonstrated. Sales were steady and would have given Joplin an income which would have covered his expenses. In addition to sales of sheet music, it was popular in orchestrations for dance bands and brass bands for years. Joplin failed to repeat the success of Maple Leaf Rag, with none of his other famous rags garnering


Riccione is a comune in the Province of Rimini, Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. As of 2018, Riccione had an estimated population of 35,003; the oldest archaeological findings in Riccione's area date to the 2nd century BC, although it was most settled in advance. At the time of the Roman Republic, it was known as Vicus Popilius and a bridge over the Rio Melo river. After an obscurity period, in 1260 it was acquired by the Agolanti family, connected to the lords of Rimini, the Malatesta. In the 17th century some watchtowers were built on the seaside against assaults by pirates. Origins of the tourist fame of Riccione date to the late 19th century spurred by the construction of residences by rich Bolognese people. In the 1930s there were some 30,000 tourists a year, with some 80 hotels existing. Benito Mussolini had a villa built here in 1934. After World War II, tourist flow was further increased by its choosing as vacation resort by numerous famous people, such as Pelè, Ugo Tognazzi, Vittorio De Sica, Romano Mussolini, Maria Scicolone, Pacifico Marchesini and others.

Since the 1930s Riccione gained the status of a main destination of summer tourism on the Adriatic riviera of Romagna, together with Rimini, is one of the best known seaside resorts in Northern Italy. Every two years, a festival called. Tourism in Riccione is massive, including young people attracted by its great nightlife; the Adriatic coast in Emilia Romagna is called Riviera Romagnola and it has plenty of night clubs. Riccione attracts families with children, thanks to its theme parks, hotels organize baby sitting for kids all day in the hotel and on the beach; the scores of hotels on the Riviera, one next to the other, determine the large number of tourists flowing there in summer. The main streets of Riccione, viale Dante and viale Ceccarini have numerous night spots and hotels, in the night and they are the best place for shopping and eating during the day; the seafront is a long boulevard, shaped by a road and an developed bicycle lane, that reaches up to the town's end going along the sea.

Cycling is popular in the Emilia Romagna area and a number of Riccione's hotels have teamed up to capitalise on this. These hotels provide specific facilities for cycling tourists, including bike hire, cycle storage and tour guides. One of the main event in Riccione beaches is the pink night. There are parties on the beaches all the night for an entire week end and it is possible to see the Adriatic coast becoming pink for all the magnificent fireworks. From 4 to 15 September 2007, Riccione hosted the World Masters Athletics Championships. From 29 June to 6 July 2007, Riccione hosted the CSIT championships. Riccione outdoors; every year, it hosts international competitions. The city has hosted the FINA World Masters Championships in swimming, water polo, open water and synchronized swimming. Minor sport events are the beach line festival, tennis beach competitions. On the beach there are surf clubs and kitesurf clubs as well. In 2020, it will host the International Lifesaving Federation World Life Saving Championships.

Riccione is linked with the nearby city of Rimini by the Rimini–Riccione trolleybus line and it is linked to the main cities by train, to Bologna and to Ancona. The nearest airport is the Federico Fellini Airport in Miramare di Rimini, only a few kilometres from Riccione. Carlotta Montanari, actress. Martina Colombari, Miss Italia 1991, actress. Mattia Pasini, motorcycle road racer. Isabella Santacroce, novelist. Andrea Speziali, designer and decoration consultant. Fabio Lombardi. Storia di Riccione. Cesena: Il ponte vecchio. ISBN 88-8312-188-0. Andrea Speziali. Villa Antolini a Riccione. New York: Lulu. ISBN 978-1-4457-8644-5. Andrea Speziali. Le ville di Riccione. New York: Lulu. ISBN 978-1-4461-5980-4. Andrea Speziali. Una Stagione del Liberty a Riccione. Santarcangelo: Maggioli editore. ISBN 978-88-387-5649-8. Hotel Riccione Vacanze, 10 things to do in Riccione. Riccione, Riccione cultura. La Città Invisibile, collection of signs and memories on Riccione during the war age. Riccione, Riccione tourism web site.

Vela Club Marano


Hypopigmentation is characterized as an area of skin becoming lighter than the baseline skin color, but not devoid of pigment. This is not to be confused with depigmentation, characterized as the absence of all pigment, it is caused by melanocyte or melanin depletion, or a decrease in the amino acid tyrosine, used by melanocytes to make melanin. Some common genetic causes include mutations in the tyrosinase OCA2 gene; as melanin pigments tend to be in the skin and hair, these are the affected areas in those with hypopigmentation. Hypopigmentation is common and one in twenty have at least one hypopigmented macule. Hypopigmentation can be upsetting to some those with darker skin whose hypopigmentation marks are seen more visibly. Most causes of hypopigmentation are not serious and can be treated, it is seen in: Albinism Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis Leprosy Leucism Phenylketonuria Pityriasis alba Vitiligo Angelman syndrome Tinea versicolor An uncommon adverse effect of imatinib therapy Injections of high concentrations of corticosteroids Areas of lighter pigmentation can be indications of hypopigmentation.

Biopsies and genetic information are used to diagnose. Hypopigmentation can be brought on by laser treatments. Treatment for hypopigmentation depends on the initial cause of the discoloration. Hyperpigmentation


WLXV is a radio station licensed to Cadillac, Michigan. The station, which began broadcasting on July 7, 1974, has programmed easy listening and adult contemporary music as WITW, beautiful music as WEVZ, CHR as WWLZ. WWLZ was changed in 1994 to a simulcast of WLXT 96.3 FM in Petoskey, which continued until MacDonald-Garber Broadcasting, believing the Cadillac area needed its own music station, began the "Mix" format. Mix 96.7 was programmed locally by Program Director and Morning Show Host. Weekend programming included the Hot AC version of American Top 40 with Ryan Seacrest Sundays 8am till 12pm. WLXV shares the same location and houses studios for its sister station 93.7 The Ticket which includes the nationally known show Free Beer and Hot Wings from 5am till 9am Monday thru Friday and 5am till 10am on Saturday. The rest of the format on WKAD is sports talk. WLXV's other sister station is WATT-AM, a heritage station in the market and has been news talk for years. Mix 96.7 is one of two Hot AC stations in Cadillac, the other being WCDY 107.9 FM which leans more toward CHR/Top 40.

On September 3, 2015, Mix signed off after 13 years, 96.7 began stunting with a ticking clock. With sweepers stating “Tomorrow morning get ready to ride”, WLXV the next day flipped to Country as “96.7 The Bull”, launching with 10,000 songs in a row. - WLXV History Query the FCC's FM station database for WLXV Radio-Locator information on WLXV Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WLXV

Eg White

Francis Anthony "Eg" White is a British musician and producer. White has worked with Kylie Minogue, Lennon Stella, Natalie Imbruglia, Adele and the Machine, Dua Lipa, Tom Odell, Sam Smith, Will Young, James Morrison, Linkin Park, Joss Stone, Matt Cardle, Maverick Sabre and Rebecca Ferguson. Eg White started his career in the band Yip Yip Coyote and formed Brother Beyond with his brother, David White, in the late 1980s, leaving the latter when they became involved with the songwriting team of Stock and Waterman, just prior to their chart successes. In 1990, Eg White collaborated with London model and BMX champion Alice Temple to record the critically acclaimed pop album 24 Years of Hunger, released in 1991 under the name Eg and Alice and failed to chart. Lack of commercial success did not deter the taste-makers, 24 Years of Hunger was described by Allmusic as "one of the finest, most refined and realized recordings of the era, employing a much more sophisticated and romantic style than anything else out of England at the time".

In 1992 White produced the debut, self-titled album by Kinky Machine disappeared from the music industry until 1996 when he released his debut solo album Turn Me On, I'm a Rocket Man, unsuccessful. He turned to songwriting in 1997, providing instrumentation for the sessions of Suggs' solo album The Three Pyramids Club, but it was in 1999 that his career began to take off as he became a songwriter and producer in hot demand, his collaborative relationship with Alice Temple continued, the results of which can be heard on her solo debut album Hang Over. He worked with Icelandic-Italian singer Emiliana Torrini on her debut album Love in the Time of Science and produced British singer-songwriter Mark Abis' album Changing Inside. White's song "Leave Right Now" was recorded by Will Young in 2003, reached number 1 in the UK Singles Chart. In recognition, White won the Ivor Novello Award for Best Song Musically and Lyrically in 2004, he has since enjoyed enduring chart success with acts including Duffy, James Morrison and Joss Stone.

In 2008 White worked with Adele on three tracks which appeared on her first album 19, including the second single "Chasing Pavements". White is known in the industry for his pace of work and ability to reach the core of the intent of the artist he is working with, saying "Sometimes I get two hours. Someone comes over at three, we have a cup of tea, chew the cud for a bit, go:'All right, shall we write a song?' And by six, they've gone home and we've...done it. Chasing Pavements, that took two or three hours."In 2009 White was awarded his second Ivor Novello Award for'Songwriter of the Year', in 2010 he had a second UK number 1 with the Diana Vickers single "Once", a song he wrote with Cathy Dennis. In 2010, White reprised his collaborative role with Adele, with her wrote "Take It All", which appears on her number one album 21. White started his own record label imprint, Spilt Milk Records, in 2009 – making Lauren Pritchard its first signing, signing an exclusive license deal with Island Records to release the album Wasted in Jackson in 2010.

The album features collaborations with Ed Harcourt and Marcus Mumford. He signed a recording contract with Parlophone Records and released a second album entitled Adventure Man on 18 May 2009; the instrumental version of the lead single, "Broken" was used as the incidental music to the BMW PGA Championship 2009 and played during the closing credits of BBC's coverage of England's final game in the 2010 World Cup in South Africa. Singles"Indian" c/w "Crosstown and Bobby and Holly" - did not chart "Doesn't Mean That Much to Me" - did not chartAlbum24 Years of Hunger - did not chart 2015: "You Fooled Me" 2006: "Broken" 1997: "Made My Baby Cry" 1996: "Stay Home" Turn Me On, I'm a Rocket Man Track listing"Nothing Comes Easy" "Made My Baby Cry" "What Can I Do" "Stay Home" "Mr Cool" "Do It for Myself" "Sister Blue" "Holding It In" "I Wish You Could Be Happy Too" "Angel" "My Lovely Valentine"Adventure Man Track Listing"But California" "Weird Friendless Kid" "My People" "'Til The End" "Pay Later" "Broken" "There's Going To Be Someone" "Whatever Makes You Sick" "Time To Fall" "If You Run" "Pull Me Through" "Our Turn Will Come" First review found at Daily Music Guide.

Spilt Milk Management