Lake Pepin is a occurring lake on the Mississippi River on the border between the U. S. states of Wisconsin. It is located in a valley carved by the outflow of an enormous glacial lake at the end of the last Ice Age; the lake formed when the Mississippi, a successor to the glacial river, was dammed by a delta from a tributary stream and spread out across the ancient valley. Lake Pepin is now a corridor for water and rail transportation. Known as the birthplace of water skiing, it hosts a variety of recreational activities. Lake Pepin has a surface area of about 40 square miles and an average depth of 21 feet, It is up to 2 miles wide and 22 miles long; the wide area of the lake stretches from Bay City, Wisconsin, in the north, down to Reads Landing, Minnesota in the south. The villages of Pepin, Maiden Rock and Stockholm are on the Wisconsin side, while Frontenac State Park takes up a large part of the Minnesota side; the largest city on the waterfront is Minnesota. The Canadian Pacific Railway now owns the former mainline of the Milwaukee Road on the Minnesota side, the Burlington Northern's former Burlington Route mainline is lakeside on the Wisconsin side.
Both were former racetracks for the premier passenger trains of their owners, the CP rails still carry Amtrak's Empire Builder between Chicago and the Pacific Northwest. Lakeside highways are U. S. Route 61 on the Minnesota side, across the lake Wisconsin State Highway 35 is just inland from the railroad. Both are parts of the Great River Road. Maiden Rock, on Lake Pepin, is one site said to be the locale where a Dakota woman named Winona leapt to her death. Lake Pepin occupies a valley carved by the waters of Glacial River Warren, which drained Lake Agassiz in a catastrophic flood at the end of the last Ice Age, to a lesser extent from Lake Duluth, a smaller glacial lake which drained through the present valley of the St. Croix River; when the continental glacier's meltwaters found other outlets to the sea, River Warren was succeeded by the more modest Upper Mississippi, which drains a much smaller basin, the St. Croix spillway became the present river. Over a long period of time, the deep valley was filled with sediments, forming a broad floodplain.
In this plain Lake Pepin formed behind a delta comprising sediments deposited into the ancient lake bed by the Chippewa River near the present community of Wabasha at the southern end of the lake. The lake backed up behind this sediment dam as far north as the location of Saint Paul. In the 10,000 years since the lake's creation, ongoing sedimentation into Lake Pepin has caused its upper end to migrate downstream some 80km to its present location east of Red Wing, Minnesota; the process of sedimentation continues at an accelerated rate. Pepin's natural flora are threatened by these increased rates of sedimentation, leading the Lake Pepin Legacy Alliance to call the phenomenon a "wet desert." Some theorize the lake is filling in at a rate of ten times greater than pre-colonization, due to increased run-off from farms along the Minnesota River. Other research maintains sediment accumulation is from a more diverse and complicated series of processes, including natural bank sloughing of large amounts of soil from steep river banks, a result of the geography of the area and physical properties of the soil, man-made restriction of river flooding, access to flood plains and wetlands, forced straightening an deepening of river channels.
Research suggests these processes are being heightened due to increasing precipitation due to climate change. The lake was first named in a map of New France made by Guillaume Delisle at the request of Louis XIV of France in 1703; the lake was named for Jean Pepin who settled on its shores in the late 1600s after exploring the Great Lakes from Boucherville. Nicolas Perrot erected the first of a number of fur trade posts, Fort Saint Antoine, in 1686. In 1727 René Boucher de La Perrière and Michel Guignas built Fort Beauharnois on the lake. In 1730 it had to be rebuilt on higher ground. Boucher was the military leader and Father Guignas was a missionary to the Sioux. In the nineteenth century the lake was used to transport freshly-cut trees for the lumber industry. Cut logs were floated across the lake, from the 1840s with the assistance of steamboats to counter adverse winds and the sluggish currents in the lake. Large rafts were assembled at Reads Landing at the southern end, towed downstream to mills at Winona and St. Louis.
In 1890 it was the site of one of the worst maritime disasters on the Mississippi, known as the Sea Wing disaster when the Sea Wing ferry capsized in a bad storm, killing 98 people. In 1922, Lake City native Ralph Samuelson invented the sport of water skiing on the lake, Lake City is known as "the birthplace of waterskiing." The city celebrates. Lake Pepin is the lake that Laura and her family visit in the "Going to Town" chapter of Little House in the Big Woods, the first book in Laura Ingalls Wilder's Little House series. Laura's family and their covered wagon cross the frozen Lake Pepin in the chapter "Going West", the first chapter of the second book, Little House on the Prairie. Ojakangas, Richard W.. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0953-5. Waters, Thomas F.. The Streams and Rivers of Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0821-0
Thunderbolt is a wooden roller coaster located at Kennywood in West Mifflin, near Pittsburgh. It was built by John A. Miller in 1924; the ride's name was the Pippin until 1967, when it was changed to Thunderbolt beginning with the 1968 season, coinciding with an expansion of the track headed up by Andy Vettel. In 1924, the Pippin roller coaster was built. In 1958, the Pippin's open-front trains were replaced with Century Flyer trains made by the National Amusement Device company; these are the trains used on the Thunderbolt today. The Pippin roller coaster was rebuilt and the Thunderbolt was created in 1968. Most of the ride was left intact except for the double dip and station turn-around to the first hill which were removed in 1968 for the addition of the new front helix hills necessary for the transformation of The Pippin into the new Thunderbolt roller coaster; the four drops down a ravine were incorporated in the Andy Vettel-designed Thunderbolt coaster. In 1969, a small "speed bump" hill was removed from the inner helix of the front of the coaster near the loading station.
The Thunderbolt was rated the #1 roller coaster by the New York Times in 1974. In 1991, the tunnel located at the end of the first dip was removed, providing for a view of Steel Phantom. In 1998, for Kennywood's 100th anniversary, the headlights on the front of the trains were restored when the trains themselves were refurbished. In 1999, an accident happened on the Thunderbolt when the operators failed to brake the train coming into the station, colliding with the train being loaded. Thirty people were injured in the crash. After the accident the headlights on the cars were removed because the electrical system did not hold up well to the vibration of the cars. Installation of Phantom's Revenge resulted in the ride being closed for a few weeks in 2001 so that the new ride could be built through the structure near the Turtle Ride. Phantom's Revenge still however retains Steel Phantom's drop through the Thunderbolt; the ride was still being rebuilt a few weeks after the new ride opened. In 2006, the trains could be seen sporting the famous T-bolt logo on the fronts of the cars where the center headlights had been.
Thunderbolt follows the surrounding terrain with a track length of 3,250 feet. Its maximum height is 70 feet, but because of the track layout and the natural ravines on which the ride is set, the maximum drop is 90 feet. Reaching a maximum speed of 55 mph, the ride takes 101 seconds to complete its circuit. A feature of the Thunderbolt is that after departing from the station, the train does not go up the lift hill as on most other coasters. Instead, it goes into the first drop and the lift hill is in the middle of the ride after the second drop. Thunderbolt is Coaster Landmark. Media related to Thunderbolt at Wikimedia Commons
Pepin I of Aquitaine
Pepin I or Pepin I of Aquitaine was King of Aquitaine and Duke of Maine. Pepin was his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye; when his father assigned to each of his sons a kingdom in August 817, he received Aquitaine, Louis's own subkingdom during his father Charlemagne's reign. Ermoldus Nigellus was his court poet and accompanied him on a campaign into Brittany in 824. Pepin rebelled in 830 at the insistence of his brother Lothair's advisor Wala, he took an army of Gascons with him and marched all the way to Paris, with the support of the Neustrians. His father marched back from a campaign in Brittany all the way to Compiègne, where Pepin surrounded his forces and captured him; the rebellion, broke up. In 832, Pepin rebelled again and his brother Louis the German soon followed. Louis the Pious was in Aquitaine to subdue any revolt, but was drawn off by the Bavarian insurrection of the younger Louis. Pepin took other Imperial territories; the next year, Lothair joined the rebellion and, with the assistance of Ebbo, archbishop of Reims, the rebel sons deposed their father in 833.
Lothair's behaviour alienated Pepin, the latter was at his father's side when Louis the Pious was reinstated on 1 March 834. Pepin was restored to his former status. Pepin died scarcely four years and was buried in the Church of St. Radegonde in Poitiers. In 822, Pepin had married Ingeltrude, daughter of Theodobert, count of Madrie, with whom he had two sons: Pepin, Charles, who became Archbishop of Mainz. Both were minors when Pepin died, so Louis the Pious awarded Aquitaine to his own youngest son, Pepin's half-brother Charles the Bald; the Aquitainians, elected Pepin's son as Pepin II. His brother Charles briefly claimed the kingdom. Both died childless. Pepin had two daughters, one of whom married Gerard, Count of Auvergne. Collins, Roger. "Pippin I and the Kingdom of Aquitaine." Charlemagne's Heir: New Perspectives on the Reign of Louis the Pious, edd. P. Godman and Roger Collins. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. Reprinted in Law and Regionalism in Early Medieval Spain. Variorum, 1992. ISBN 0-86078-308-1
The Zippin Pippin is one of the oldest existing wooden roller coasters in the United States. It was constructed in the former East End Park in Memphis, Tennessee, in either 1912, 1915, or 1917 by John A. Miller and Harry C. Baker of National Amusement Devices; the construction material was pine wood. As the park declined in popularity, the coaster was dismantled and relocated adjacent to the horse track in Montgomery Park known as the Mid-South Fairgrounds. For a time it was incorporated as an attraction in the now-closed Libertyland amusement park there, until that park closed in 2005. Purchased by the city of Green Bay, Wisconsin, in 2010, it was installed at the Bay Beach Amusement Park, where it is once again in operation; the Pippin was built in 1912, 1915, or 1917. After severe damage from a tornado in April 1928, the Pippin was rebuilt by July of the same year at a cost of $45,000, "higher and longer" than before. In 1976, the city of Memphis opened a theme park called Libertyland around the Pippin and the Grand Carousel on the grounds.
Renamed the Zippin Pippin, the coaster was billed as the most prominent and historic ride at Libertyland, was Elvis Presley's favorite roller coaster. At first, Presley would rent the entire park on occasion just to ride it without constant fan interference. Just a week before his death, Presley rented the park from 1 a.m. to 7 a.m. to entertain a small number of guests and he rode the Zippin Pippin for hours without stopping. On October 29, 2005, citing persistent loss of money, Libertyland permanently closed; the Zippin Pippin stood without operating for four years in the Libertyland Amusement Park at the Mid-South Fairgrounds (a 125-acre tract of land purchased in 1912 and "edicated to the Citizens of Memphis for recreation, athletic fields, fairs." It was taken down between January 28, 2010, February 11, 2010. The Libertyland website stated: "One of the oldest operating wooden roller coasters in North America, the Zippin Pippin is as popular today as it was in the early 20th century, it is 2,865 feet long, travels 20.8 mph ], increasing to 40 mph ] at the maximum drop of 70 feet.
Ride duration is 90 seconds. Great care is taken to replace its wood to preserve its structure. Manufacturer is Amusement Device Co." On June 21, 2006, the Zippin Pippin was sold at auction to Robert Reynolds, former bassist with country band The Mavericks, Stephen Shutts. They purchased the Pippin for $2,500, having planned to bid on only one of the roller coaster cars; the sale agreement required the buyer to remove the ride within 30 days. Reynolds and Shutts consulted with a coaster expert to determine the practicality of moving the entire coaster to another location. "It's not in anybody's best interest just to come in and knock it down," Shutts said. On October 29, 2006, it was announced that the Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina, Tourism Bureau had bought the Zippin Pippin from Reynolds and Shutts and were bringing the coaster to a new tourist development under construction named Carolina Crossroads, it would be a 1,000-acre music park, including the 1,500-seat Roanoke Rapids theatre, outdoor amphitheatre and outlet shopping center.
On November 16, 2009, a section of the Pippin's track was torn out to determine the salvageability of the materials. On January 28, 2010, crews began dismantling the Zippin Pippin with the hopes of preserving as much of the coaster as possible; the coaster had not been maintained since 2005. On February 7, 2010, the dismantlement was put on hold as Green Bay, Wisconsin administrators visited Memphis to examine the Zippin Pippin for use in Bay Beach Amusement Park; the Zippin Pippin collapsed during dismantlement, but the deal was not affected as most of the materials were understood to be unsalvageable. After the Green Bay City Council approved plans to purchase the Zippin Pippin, the city spent $3.8 million to purchase and rebuild the ride. The groundbreaking for the Zippin Pippin's new location in Green Bay took place on August 25, 2010, it opened to the public on May 21, 2011. The ride had about 110,000 passengers in the first month and over 460,000 riders in the first season. On June 23, 2013 Bay Beach recognized the 1,000,000th rider on the Zippin Pippin since the relocation to Green Bay.
On June 20, 2016, a Zippin Pippin train collided with an empty one in the loading area. Three people had minor injuries. On May 26, 2017, the ride was temporarily shut down for repairs due to a "sensor" issue; the ride's train is in the station and no one was stuck on the ride, city workers say. The city is operating one train of cars on the roller-coaster instead of two this year; the ride was shut down for two-and-a-half weeks last summer after a set of cars failed to stop and crashed into the train ahead of it. A rider and two park workers were injured; the roller coaster was not ranked among the top 100 in CoasterBuzz's listing. "Zippin' Pippin - Elvis' Favorite Ride Donated To Save Libertyland". Elvis Australia News. July 6, 2008. "Zippin Pippin Remembered - The history of the ride and photos of its last week standing". Lost Memphis.com. Archived from the original on 2010-03-11. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
Pippin is a 1972 musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Schwartz and a book by Roger O. Hirson. Bob Fosse, who directed the original Broadway production contributed to the libretto; the musical uses the premise of a mysterious performance troupe, led by a Leading Player, to tell the story of Pippin, a young prince on his search for meaning and significance. The protagonist Pippin and his father Charlemagne are characters derived from two real-life individuals of the early Middle Ages, though the plot is fictional and presents no historical accuracy regarding either; the show was financed by Motown Records. As of February 2018, the original run of Pippin is the 34th longest-running Broadway show. Ben Vereen and Patina Miller won Tony Awards for their portrayals of the Leading Player in the original Broadway production and the 2013 revival making them the first actors to win Tonys for Best Leading Actor and Best Leading Actress in a Musical, for the same role. Pippin was conceived as a student musical titled Pippin and performed by Carnegie Mellon University's Scotch'n'Soda theatre troupe.
Stephen Schwartz collaborated with Ron Strauss, when Schwartz decided to develop the show further, Strauss left the project. Schwartz has said that not a single line nor note from Carnegie Mellon's Pippin, Pippin made it into the final version; the musical begins with the Leading Player of a troupe and the accompanying actors in various costume pieces of several different time periods, establishing the play's intentionally anachronistic, unconventional feel. The Leading Player and troupe, throughout the performance, metafictionally channel the Brechtian distancing effect and break the fourth wall, directly speaking to the audience and provocatively inviting their attention, they begin a story about a boy prince searching for existential fulfillment. They reveal that the boy, to play the prince, named Pippin, is a new actor. Pippin talks to scholars of his dreams to find where he belongs, they applaud Pippin on his ambitious quest for an extraordinary life. Pippin returns home to the castle and estate of his father, King Charles.
Charles and Pippin don't get a chance to communicate as they are interrupted by nobles and courtiers vying for Charles' attention, Charles is uncomfortable speaking with his educated son or expressing any loving emotions. Pippin meets up with his stepmother Fastrada, her dim-witted son Lewis. Charles and Lewis are planning on going into battle against the Visigoths soon, Pippin begs Charles to take him along so as to prove himself. Charles reluctantly proceeds to explain a battle plan to his men. Once in battle, the Leading Player re-enters to lead the troupe in a mock battle using top hats and fancy jazz to glorify warfare and violence, with the Leading Player and two lead dancers in the middle; this charade of war does not appeal to Pippin, he flees into the countryside. The Leading Player tells the audience of Pippin's travels through the country, until he stops at his exiled grandmother's estate. There, Berthe tells Pippin not to live a little. Pippin decides to search for something a bit more lighthearted.
While he enjoys many meaningless sexual encounters, he soon discovers that relationships without love leave you "empty and unfulfilled." The Leading Player tells Pippin that he should fight tyranny, uses Charles as a perfect example of an uneducated tyrant to fight. Pippin plans a revolution, Fastrada is delighted to hear that Charles and Pippin will both perish so that her beloved Lewis can become king. Fastrada arranges the murder of Charles, Pippin falls victim to her plot. While Charles is praying at Arles, Pippin murders him, becomes the new king; the Leading Player mentions to the audience that they will break for now, but to expect a thrilling finale. Act 2 begins with Pippin trying his best to grant the wishes of as many people as possible, but he realizes. Pippin realizes that neither he nor his father could change society and seemed forced to act as tyrants, he begs the Leading Player to bring his slain father back to life, the Leading Player does so as Charlemagne nonchalantly comes back to life and mildly scolds Pippin.
He feels directionless. After experimenting with art and religion, he falls into monumental despair and collapses on the floor. Widowed farm-owner Catherine finds him on the street, is attracted by the arch of his foot and when Pippin comes to, she introduces herself to Pippin. From the start, it is clear that the Leading Player is concerned with Catherine's acting ability and actual attraction to Pippin — after all, she is but a player playing a part in the Leading Player's yet-to-be-unfolded plan. At first, Pippin thinks himself above such boring manorial duties as sweeping and milking cows, but he comforts Catherine's small boy, Theo, on the sickness and eventual death of his pet duck and warms up to the lovely Catherine. However, as time goes by, Pippin feels that he must leave the estate to continue searching for his purpose. Catherine is heartbroken, reflects on him ("I Guess I'll Miss t
Pepin Island is a owned tied island in New Zealand connected by a causeway to the settlement of Cable Bay north-east of Nelson. Pepin Island is 3.5 kilometres long, up to 2.1 kilometres wide. It measures about 5 square kilometres in area; the highest point is Stuart Hill. The island is located on the northeast coast of Tasman Bay, with the smaller indentation of Delaware Bay to the east, it is joined to the mainland by a formed pathway made from boulders that have tumbled down nearby hillsides been shaped into a causeway by the sea. Historian John Mitchell said the Ngāti Tama and other iwi came into the area from the 1820s, that part of the island was once the pā of the paramount chief of Tama, Te Pūoho-o-te-rangi, but that it left Ngāti Tama control around 1880; the island was named by the French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville after Adèle Pépin. In 1996, the island was bought by the German businesswoman Dr Viola von Hohenzollern for NZ$2 million; when von Hohenzollern bought the island, it was overgrazed, run down, had many wild goats that prevent the growth of native bush.
Her farm manager improved the situation by planting trees and pest control. Von Hohenzollern and farm manager Andrew Newton won a top Nelson Tasman Environmental award in 2011 for their custodianship. In December 2012, von Hohenzollern died and Pepin Island was inherited by her daughter, Olivia Hallman; the new owner has introduced public open days, the second one was run in May 2015, which attracted over 1,000 people and was again a fundraiser for the Hira Volunteer Fire Force. In late 2018, the island went with an asking price of $ NZ16 million. Nelson mayor Rachel Reese expressed interest that the island be locally owned
Peregrin Took, more known as Pippin, is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings, he is tied with his friend and cousin, Meriadoc Brandybuck, the two are together during most of the story. Pippin and Merry are introduced as a pair of young hobbits who become ensnared in fellow hobbit Frodo Baggins's quest to destroy the One Ring. In this regard, Pippin is a member of the Fellowship of the Ring, he and Merry become separated from the rest of the group at the breaking of the Fellowship and spend much of The Two Towers with their own story line. Impetuous and curious, he enlists as a soldier in the army of Gondor and fought in several battles during the War of the Ring. In the epilogues to the main story, Pippin returns to the Shire and becomes Thain or hereditary leader of the land before dying and being buried as a hero in Gondor. Peregrin was the only heir of Paladin Took II, the Thain of the Shire, his best friend Meriadoc Brandybuck, more known as Merry, was his cousin.
Pippin indeed saw much more of Middle-earth than most Hobbits: he journeyed with Frodo and the Fellowship of the Ring, fought in the War of the Ring. Late in life he travelled again to the kingdoms of Gondor. Pippin's hair colour is mentioned as "almost golden" in The History of vol. IX, Sauron Defeated, through the eyes of Pippin Gamgee. In the drafts of this same section Tolkien omitted this statement, leaving the reader to envisage Pippin's appearance. Peregrin was born in T. A. 2990 the only son of Paladin Took II and wife Eglantine Banks. He had three older sisters, Pearl Took, Pimpernel Took, Pervinca Took, they were raised in their father's farm at Whitwell. In 3001 Pippin and his family were among the 144 special guests at the Farewell Party of Bilbo Baggins, a relative in Hobbiton, his best friend Meriadoc Brandybuck was son of Paladin's sister Esmeralda Brandybuck. He was good friends with Frodo Baggins, a more remote cousin. In T. A. 3015 Ferumbras III, the Thain of the Shire died. Pippin was the youngest of the four Hobbits who set out from the Shire and the only one who had not yet reached his'coming of age' at age 33.
He was therefore said to be still in his'tweens'. He was 28 at the time, while Merry, the next youngest, was 36. At Rivendell, Elrond denied Pippin the chance to accompany Frodo, intending to send Pippin and Merry as messengers back to the Shire. Gandalf, supported his and Merry's claims of friendship and loyalty, the Council of Elrond chose them as the last two members of the Fellowship. After remaining with the Fellowship until its breaking at Amon Hen, Pippin was captured along with Merry by an Orc-band, which included some of Saruman's Uruk-hai. While held captive by the Orcs, he purposefully dropped his elven brooch as a sign for Aragorn and Gimli, who were in pursuit. During a skirmish among his captors, Pippin managed to cut his bonds using a sword held fast by a dead Uruk. In Rohan and Merry managed to escape when the Orcs were attacked by a company of Rohirrim, the local people. Upon their escape, he and Merry befriended leader of the Ents, they roused the other Ents to fight against Saruman, they attacked his stronghold of Isengard crippling his power.
Due to a special "Ent-draught" that Treebeard made him and Merry drink and his cousin became the tallest Hobbits in history, at four and a half feet, surpassing Pippin's ancestor, Bullroarer Took, four feet and five inches tall. Pippin picked up the palantír of Orthanc. Obsessed by the mysterious stone, Pippin took it out of Gandalf's hands while the wizard slept, putting a rock in its place. Looking into the stone, he had a terrifying encounter with Sauron himself. In fact, Pippin is the only character in the book, shown to speak directly to Sauron. To keep Pippin safe from Sauron's forces, Gandalf brought him to the city of Minas Tirith, separating him from his friends. In Minas Tirith, Pippin was granted an audience with Denethor, the Steward of Gondor, Pippin volunteered for service out of respect for Denethor's son Boromir, who had died trying to defend Merry and Pippin from the Orcs. According to Gandalf, this gesture touched Denethor, who accepted the Hobbit's offer and made him one of the Guards of the Citadel.
When a despairing Denethor set out to burn his son Faramir and himself alive in Rath Dínen, Pippin rushed to fetch Gandalf, saving Faramir's life. Pippin joined the Army of the West, led by Aragorn, as it assaulted the Black Gate of Mordor in a desperate gambit. At the final parley with the Mouth of Sauron, members of all the races opposed to Sauron were represented, Elves and Hobbits, Pippin was the sole Hobbit. During the last battle before the Morannon, Pippin slew a troll officer; the dying troll fell upon him. Gimli recognised his Hobbit feet under the troll and dragged him out of the battle, saving his life. After the Ring was destroyed and Sauron defeated, newly crowned as King Elessar, knighted him and granted him leave to return home. There he and Merry were instrumental in overthrowing Saruman's forces during the Scouring of the Shire, thus achieved much greater fame in their homeland than Frodo. In F. A. 6, Pippin married Diamond of Long Cleeve, when she was 32 and he was 37. They had one son, who