Mananjary is a city located in Vatovavy-Fitovinany. The city had an population of 28,498 inhabitants in 2005. It contains a town of the name, situated on the southern part of the east coast. Theres a small port and an airport Mananjary Airport, the Canal des Pangalanes divides the town into two sections. Local industry focuses on vanilla and pepper production and it is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mananjary. The small Antambahoaka tribe holds a mass circumcision rite every seven years in the village. French international schools, École primaire française de Mananjary
Cities of the Red Night
Cities of the Red Night is a 1981 novel by American author William S. Burroughs. His first full-length novel since The Wild Boys, it is part of his trilogy of novels, known as The Red Night Trilogy, followed by The Place of Dead Roads. The plot involves a group of pirates who seek the freedom to live under the articles set out by Captain James Misson. In near present day, a parallel story follows a detective searching for a lost boy, the cities of the title mimic and parody real places, and Burroughs makes references to the United States and Morocco. The plot follows a course through time and space. It imagines an alternate history in which Captain James Missons Libertatia lives on and his way of life is based on The Articles, a general freedom to live as one chooses, without prejudice. The novel is narrated from two different standpoints, one set in the 18th century which follows a group of boys led by Noah Blake. The other is set in the late 20th century, and follows a detective tracing the disappearance of an adolescent boy.
In a March 15,1966 letter to Brion Gysin, Burroughs describes a project he was working on at the time, about a Chinese officer in Tibet. A description of his training in Academy 23. and what he finds in the monasteries would make a buzzard crack his carrion, deliberately using places I have never been to. This project would become the basis of the chapter We See Tibet with the Binoculars of the People, several of those phrases became chapter titles in Cities of the Red Night. The city of Waghdas is in the grip of a cholera epidemic, morgan notes that while this disease is similar to AIDS, the novel was written when AIDS was unheard of. Morgan concludes that Cities of the Red Night is, certainly the most compelling, thomas M. Dischs review of the book from the New York Times
A General History of the Pyrates
Its author uses the name Captain Charles Johnson, generally considered a pseudonym for one of Londons writer-publishers. The book contains the name of the flag the Jolly Roger. First appearing in Charles Rivingtons shop in London, the book sold so well that by 1726 an enlarged fourth edition had appeared and it pandered to the British publics taste for the exotic, revelling in graphic stories on the high seas. English naval historian David Cordingly writes, it has said, and there seems no reason to question this. Scottish novelists Robert Louis Stevenson and J. M, the author has remained unknown in spite of numerous attempts by historians to discover his identity. Many scholars have suggested that the author could have been either Daniel Defoe or publisher Nathaniel Mist, the books first publisher of record, Charles Rivington, had printed many books for Mist, who lived just a few yards from his office. More importantly, the General History was registered at Her Majestys Stationery Office in Mists name, the author specifically cites two pirates as having named their flag Jolly Roger, Welsh pirate Bartholomew Roberts in June 1721, and English pirate Francis Spriggs in December 1723.
The book gives an almost mythical status to the colourful characters, such as the infamous English pirates Blackbeard. It provides the account of the lives of many people still famous in the 21st century. The book was released in two volumes, the first mostly deals with early 18th-century pirates, while Volume II records the exploits of their predecessors a few decades earlier. In the first volume, the author sticks fairly close to the available sources and he stretches the truth farther in the second volume, and includes the biographies of three subjects who may be entirely fictional. The book has been influential in shaping popular notions of piracy. The buccaneers profiled in Volume I are, Volume II features, as well as biographies of the probably fictional captains James Misson, under the Black Flag, The Romance and Reality of Life Among the Pirates
Michael Bruce Sterling is an American science fiction author known for his novels and work on the Mirrorshades anthology. This work helped to define the cyberpunk genre, along with William Gibson, Rudy Rucker, John Shirley, Lewis Shiner, and Pat Cadigan, is one of the founders of the cyberpunk movement in science fiction. In addition, he is one of the chief ideological promulgators. This has earned him the nickname Chairman Bruce and he was one of the first organizers of the Turkey City Writers Workshop, and is a frequent attendee at the Sycamore Hill Writers Workshop. He won Hugo Awards for his novelettes Bicycle Repairman and Taklamakan and his first novel, Involution Ocean, published in 1977, features the world Nullaqua where all the atmosphere is contained in a single, miles-deep crater. The story concerns a ship sailing on the ocean of dust at the bottom and it is partially a science-fictional pastiche of Moby-Dick by Herman Melville. From the late 1970s onwards, Sterling wrote a series of set in the Shaper/Mechanist universe.
The Mechanists use a great deal of computer-based mechanical technologies, the Shapers do genetic engineering on a massive scale, alastair Reynolds identified Schismatrix and the other Shaper/Mechanist stories as one of the greatest influences on his own work. In the 1980s, Sterling edited the science fiction critical fanzine Cheap Truth under the alias of Vincent Omniaveritas and he wrote a column called Catscan for the now-defunct science fiction critical magazine SF Eye. He contributed a chapter to Sound Unbound, Sampling Digital Music and he contributed, along with Lewis Shiner, to the short story Mozart in Mirrorshades. From April 2009 through May 2009, he was an editor at Cool Tools, since October 2003 Sterling has blogged at Beyond the Beyond, which is hosted by Wired. His most recent novel is Love Is Strange, a Paranormal Romance, the Viridian Design home page, including Sterlings Viridian Manifesto and all of his Viridian Notes, is managed by Jon Lebkowsky at http, //www. viridiandesign. org.
The Viridian Movement helped to spawn the popular bright green environmental weblog Worldchanging, worldChanging contributors include many of the original members of the Viridian curia. Sterling has a habit of coining neologisms to describe things that he believes will be common in the future, in the December 2005 issue of Wired magazine, Sterling coined the term buckyjunk. Buckyjunk refers to future, difficult-to-recycle consumer waste made of carbon nanotubes, in his 2005 book Shaping Things he coined the term design fiction which refers to a type of speculative design which focuses on world building. In July 1989, in SF Eye #5, he was the first to use the slipstream to refer to a type of speculative fiction between traditional science fiction and fantasy and mainstream literature. In December 1999 he coined the term Wexelblat disaster, for a disaster caused when a natural disaster triggers a secondary, in his book Zeitgeist, he introduced the term Major consensus narrative as an explanatory synonym for truth.
In August 2004 he suggested a type of device that, through pervasive RFID and GPS tracking, can track its history of use
The term cristendom existed in Old English, but it had the sense now taken by Christianity. The current sense of the word of lands where Christianity is the dominant religion emerges in Late Middle English, English Christianity equalling German Christentum, French christianisme. The reason is the fragmentation of Western Christianity at that time both in theological and in political respect. Christendom as a term is thus meaningful in the context of the Middle Ages, and arguably during the European wars of religion. The Christian world is known collectively as the Corpus Christianum. The Christian polity, embodying a less secular meaning, can be compatible with the idea of both a religious and a body, Corpus Christianum. The Corpus Christianum can be seen as a Christian equivalent of the Muslim Ummah, the word Christendom is used with its other meaning to frame-true Christianity. In its most broad term, it refers to the worlds Christian majority countries, unlike the Muslim world, which has a geo-political and cultural definition that provides a primary identifier for a large swath of the world, Christendom is more complex.
For example, the Americas and Europe are considered part of Christendom and it is less geographically cohesive than the Muslim world, which stretches almost continuously from North Africa to South Asia. There is a common and nonliteral sense of the word that is much like the terms Western world, when Thomas F. Connolly said, There isnt enough power in all Christendom to make that airplane what we want. In the beginning of Christendom, early Christianity was a spread in the Greek/Roman world and beyond as a 1st-century Jewish sect. The post-apostolic period concerns the time roughly after the death of the apostles when bishops emerged as overseers of urban Christian populations, the earliest recorded use of the terms Christianity and Catholic, dates to this period, the 2nd century, attributed to Ignatius of Antioch c. Early Christendom would close at the end of persecution of Christians after the ascension of Constantine the Great and the Edict of Milan in AD313. Christendom has referred to the medieval and renaissance notion of the Christian world as a sociopolitical polity, in this period, members of the Christian clergy wield political authority.
This model of relations was accepted by various Church leaders. The Church gradually became an institution of the Empire. Emperor Theodosius I made Nicene Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica of 380, the Byzantine Empire was the last bastion of Christendom. Christendom would take a turn with the rise of the Franks, on Christmas Day 800 AD, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne resulting in the creation of another Christian king beside the Christian emperor in the Byzantine state
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against ones nation or sovereign. Historically, treason covered the murder of specific social superiors, Treason against the king was known as high treason and treason against a lesser superior was petty treason. A person who commits treason is known in law as a traitor, orans Dictionary of the Law defines treason as a citizens actions to help a foreign government overthrow, make war against, or seriously injure the. In many nations, it is often considered treason to attempt or conspire to overthrow the government. At times, the term traitor has been used as a political epithet, in a civil war or insurrection, the winners may deem the losers to be traitors. In certain cases, as with the Dolchstoßlegende, the accusation of treason towards a group of people can be a unifying political message. Treason is considered to be different and on occasions a separate charge from treasonable felony in many parts of the world. In English law, high treason was punishable by being hanged and quartered or burnt at the stake and those penalties were abolished in 1814,1790 and 1973 respectively.
The penalty was used by monarchs against people who could reasonably be called traitors, many of them would now just be considered dissidents. His treachery is considered so notorious that his name has long been synonymous with traitor, christian theology and political thinking until after the Enlightenment considered treason and blasphemy as synonymous, as it challenged both the state and the will of God. Kings were considered chosen by God, and to ones country was to do the work of Satan. Many nations laws mention various types of treason, Crimes Related to Insurrection is the internal treason, and may include a coup detat. Crimes Related to Foreign Aggression is the treason of cooperating with foreign aggression positively regardless of the national inside and outside, Crimes Related to inducement of Foreign Aggression is the crime of communicating with aliens secretly to cause foreign aggression or menace. Depending on a country, conspiracy is added to these, in Japan, the application of Crimes Related to Insurrection was considered about Aum Shinrikyo cult which caused religious terrorism. A person is not guilty of treason under paragraphs, or if their assistance or intended assistance is purely humanitarian in nature, the only permissible penalty for treason is life imprisonment.
Section 24AA of the Crimes Act 1914 creates the offence of treachery. The Treason Act 1351, the Treason Act 1795 and the Treason Act 1817 form part of the law of New South Wales, Section 16 provides that nothing in Part 2 repeals or affects anything enacted by the Treason Act 1351. This section reproduces section 6 of the Treason Felony Act 1848, the offence of treason was created by section 9A of the Crimes Act 1958
Edward England, born Edward Seegar was a famous African coast and Indian Ocean pirate captain from 1717 to 1720. The ships he sailed on included the Pearl and the Fancy and his flag was the classic Jolly Roger — almost exactly as Black Sam Bellamy used — with a skull above two crossed bones on a black background. Born in Wales as Edward Seegar sometime around 1685 He was probably raised as a Catholic and was said to be an educated man, Seegar changed his surname to England when he turned pirate. England made his way to Jamaica and during the War of Spanish Succession he served as a privateer and he was captured by the pirate captain Christopher Winter and forced to join the crew. Winter most likely took England to the base on Nassau. England took part in Henry Jennings assault on the Spanish salvage camp at Palma de Ayz, stealing £87,000 in gold, England is next reported as Charles Vanes quartermaster, in March 1718. Vanes sloop, the Lark was captured by the Royal Navy, but England, England was granted captaincy of his own ship in mid-1718.
England decided not to accept the pardon along with Vane and a few others, along the way he and the crew took several ships. One of the ships was the Cadogan from Bristol, captained by a man named Skinner, some of Englands crew knew Skinner and recognized him instantly because he never paid them for their work previously. According to Charles Johnson, the member said, ″Ah. Captain Skinner is it you, I am much in your debt, next they simply executed the captain by shooting him in the head with a flintlock pistol. Given the crew of the Cadogan was without a captain, England offered them a choice to join his crew, aboard the crew was Howell Davis who refused to sign the articles of the pirates. Howell said he would die than become a pirate, however England refused to kill him. This began the start of Davis pirate career, Davis would go on to spawn the career of Bartholomew Roberts as well and the careers of many other pirates. After some time and his crew captured a larger brig or frigate named the Pearl, taking the ship as their own, they renamed it the Royal James and went off in search of plunder in Africa in the spring of 1719.
Between the River Gambia and the Cape Coast the pirates seized and looted ten ships, after looting the ten ships, England made John Taylor the captain of his next prize, the Victory. After looting two additional ships and the decided to make port in a small African town. However the pirates grew increasingly belligerent and conflicts arose with the locals over the treatment of women, soon a fight broke out, resulting in the pirates burning the entire town and departing
Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag
Assassins Creed IV, Black Flag is a 2013 action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft. It is the sixth installment in the Assassins Creed series. Its historical timeframe precedes that of Assassins Creed III, though its modern-day sequences succeed IIIs own. Black Flag was first released on the PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, and Nintendo Wii U in October 2013 and a month on the PlayStation 4, Microsoft Windows, the framing story is set in the 21st century and describes the player as an Abstergo agent. The attempted establishment of a Republic of Pirates utopia is a significant plot element, multiplayer returns, albeit with only land-based modes and settings. The game spans across the Caribbean with the three cities of Havana and Kingston along with numerous islands, sunken ships. Players have the option to harpoon large sea animals and hunt land animals, for the first time in the series, naval exploration is a major part of an Assassins Creed game, where Edward Kenway captains the Jackdaw, a brig he captures from a Spanish fleet.
Assassins Creed IV, Black Flag was positively received upon release and it has sold more than 11 million copies to date. Critics praised the open world gameplay, numerous side-quests, graphics. The light-hearted pirate theme and engaging story were well received by critics, the modern day story however, received a slightly more mixed response, while criticism fell on aspects of the historical story missions which were considered repetitive. The game received awards and nominations, including winning the Spike VGX2013 award for Best Action Adventure Game. It was followed by Assassins Creed Unity and Assassins Creed Rogue, set during the French Revolution and Seven Years War respectively, the game features three main cities, Havana and Nassau, which reside under Spanish and pirate influence, respectively. Assassins Creed IV has a open world feel, with missions similar to those found in Assassins Creed. The world opens up sooner in the game, as opposed to Assassins Creed III, in addition, the hunting system has been retained from Assassins Creed III, allowing the player to hunt on land, and fish in the water, with resources gathered used to upgrade equipment.
A new aspect in the game is the Jackdaw, the ship that the player captains, the Jackdaw is upgradeable throughout the game, and is easily accessible to the player when needed. In addition, a new underwater component has been added, the player has access to a spyglass, allowing the examination of distant ships, along with their cargo and strength. An updated form of the system introduced in Assassins Creed, Brotherhood has returned. Ubisoft removed this aspect of the system, believing it allowed players to bypass tense
Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar, and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Southeast Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar, and numerous smaller peripheral islands, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot, over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The islands diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the growing human population. The first archaeological evidence for human foraging on Madagascar dates to 2000 BC, human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and AD550 by Austronesian peoples arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo. These were joined around AD1000 by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa, other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life. The Malagasy ethnic group is divided into 18 or more sub-groups of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands.
Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by an assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles, the monarchy collapsed in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, since 1992, the nation has officially been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in an uprising in 2009, president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election deemed fair, Madagascar is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie and the Southern African Development Community. Madagascar belongs to the group of least developed countries, according to the United Nations and French are both official languages of the state.
The majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs, Christianity and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascars development strategy. As of 2017, the economy has been weakened by the 2009-2013 political crisis, in the Malagasy language, the island of Madagascar is called Madagasikara and its people are referred to as Malagasy. The islands appellation Madagascar is not of origin, but rather was popularized in the Middle Ages by Europeans. On St. Laurences Day in 1500, Portuguese explorer Diogo Dias landed on the island, polos name was preferred and popularized on Renaissance maps. At 592,800 square kilometres, Madagascar is the worlds 47th largest country, the country lies mostly between latitudes 12°S and 26°S, and longitudes 43°E and 51°E. Neighboring islands include the French territory of Réunion and the country of Mauritius to the east, as well as the state of Comoros, the nearest mainland state is Mozambique, located to the west
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship- or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties. Those who engage in acts of piracy are called pirates, the earliest documented instances of piracy were in the 14th century BC, when the Sea Peoples, a group of ocean raiders, attacked the ships of the Aegean and Mediterranean civilizations. Narrow channels which funnel shipping into predictable routes have long created opportunities for piracy, as well as for privateering and commerce raiding. Historic examples include the waters of Gibraltar, the Strait of Malacca, the Gulf of Aden, a land-based parallel is the ambushing of travelers by bandits and brigands in highways and mountain passes. While the term can include acts committed in the air, on land, or in major bodies of water or on a shore. It does not normally include crimes committed against people traveling on the vessel as the perpetrator.
Piracy or pirating is the name of a crime under customary international law. They use larger vessels, known as ships, to supply the smaller motorboats. The international community is facing challenges in bringing modern pirates to justice. In the 2000s, a number of nations have used their naval forces to protect ships from pirate attacks. The English pirate is derived from the Latin term pirata and that from Greek πειρατής, brigand, in turn from πειράομαι, I attempt, from πεῖρα, the meaning of the Greek word peiratēs literally is one who attacks. The word is cognate to peril. The term is first attested to c, spelling was not standardised until the eighteenth century, and spellings such as pirrot and pyrat were used until this period. It may be reasonable to assume that piracy has existed for as long as the oceans were plied for commerce, the earliest documented instances of piracy are the exploits of the Sea Peoples who threatened the ships sailing in the Aegean and Mediterranean waters in the 14th century BC.
In classical antiquity, the Phoenicians and Tyrrhenians were known as pirates, the ancient Greeks condoned piracy as a viable profession, it apparently was widespread and regarded as an entirely honourable way of making a living. References are made to its perfectly normal occurrence many texts including in Homers Iliad and Odyssey, by the era of Classical Greece, piracy was looked upon as a disgrace to have as a profession. In the 3rd century BC, pirate attacks on Olympos brought impoverishment, among some of the most famous ancient pirateering peoples were the Illyrians, a people populating the western Balkan peninsula. Constantly raiding the Adriatic Sea, the Illyrians caused many conflicts with the Roman Republic and it was not until 229 BC when the Romans finally decisively beat the Illyrian fleets that their threat was ended