Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument
The Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument is a national monument protecting the Missouri Breaks of central Montana, United States. It is managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Called "The Breaks" by locals, it is a series of badland areas characterized by rock outcroppings, steep bluffs and grassy plains. Created by Proclamation by President William J. Clinton on January 17, 2001, it encompasses 495,502 acres, most of which were managed by the U. S. government. The adjacent Missouri River was designated a Wild and Scenic River in 1976 and forms a western boundary while the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge is to the east; the Breaks country was a model for many of the paintings done by painter Charles M. Russell. French trappers found the area in the late 18th century peopled by Native American tribes such as the Blackfoot, Northern Cheyenne, Assiniboine, Gros Ventre, Plains Cree and Plains Ojibwa; the Lewis and Clark Expedition passed through the Breaks in 1805 and were the first to document the region through notes and drawings, their sighting and documentation of bighorn sheep in the Breaks region was the first time this species was recorded in North America by white explorers.
Much of the Breaks region has remained as it was when Clark's party first saw it. "The confluence of the Judith and Missouri Rivers was the setting for important peace councils in 1846 and 1855. In 1877, the Nez Perce crossed the Missouri and entered the Breaks country in their attempt to escape to Canada; the Cow Island Skirmish occurred in the Breaks and was the last encounter prior to the Nez Perce's surrender to the U. S. Army at the Battle of Bear Paw just north of the monument." A full management plan is still under development due to various private inholdings and lease agreements between private citizens and the federal government. While conservationists would like to see some of the Breaks monument lands become designated as Wilderness, local ranchers and farmers under long standing lease agreements with the federal government, who graze upwards of 10,000 head of cattle annually within the new monument, are concerned that the monument status may adversely affect their livelihood and the economies of local towns.
Under the proposed management plan from the Department of the Interior, although the resources of the monument will be given better protection, "currently permitted livestock grazing, hunting and similar activities will not be affected, nor will private property and state land within the boundary of the proposed monument, as well as other valid existing rights."In 2013, the U. S. Court of Appeals ruled that the Bureau of Land Management's management plan violated historic site laws with their practices; the National Trust for Historic Preservation cited the site as one of ten historic sites saved in 2013. The Breaks is home to at least 60 mammal hundreds of bird species. Willows and shrubs are found along the Missouri River banks while sagebrush and short grass prairie are dominant elsewhere. Montana Wilderness Association "Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument". U. S. Bureau of Land Management. Retrieved 2018-07-15. "Upper Missouri Breaks National Monument". The Wilderness Society. Archived from the original on 2006-07-10.
Retrieved 2006-08-13. "Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument". Montana Wildlife Federation. Retrieved 2011-08-11. Map Bureau of Land Management Friends of the Missouri Breaks
Glacier National Park (U.S.)
Glacier National Park is an American national park located in northwestern Montana, on the Canada–United States border, adjacent to the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. The park encompasses over 1 million acres and includes parts of two mountain ranges, over 130 named lakes, more than 1,000 different species of plants, hundreds of species of animals; this vast pristine ecosystem is the centerpiece of what has been referred to as the "Crown of the Continent Ecosystem," a region of protected land encompassing 16,000 square miles. The region that became Glacier National Park was first inhabited by Native Americans. Upon the arrival of European explorers, it was dominated by the Blackfeet in the east and the Flathead in the western regions. Under pressure, the Blackfeet ceded the mountainous parts of their treaty lands in 1895 to the federal government. Soon after the establishment of the park on May 11, 1910, a number of hotels and chalets were constructed by the Great Northern Railway.
These historic hotels and chalets are listed as National Historic Landmarks and a total of 350 locations are on the National Register of Historic Places. By 1932 work was completed on the Going-to-the-Sun Road designated a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark, which provided greater accessibility for automobiles into the heart of the park; the mountains of Glacier National Park began forming 170 million years ago when ancient rocks were forced eastward up and over much younger rock strata. Known as the Lewis Overthrust, these sedimentary rocks are considered to have some of the finest examples of early life fossils on Earth; the current shapes of the Lewis and Livingston mountain ranges and positioning and size of the lakes show the telltale evidence of massive glacial action, which carved U-shaped valleys and left behind moraines which impounded water, creating lakes. Of the estimated 150 glaciers which existed in the park in the mid-19th century, only 25 active glaciers remained by 2010.
Scientists studying the glaciers in the park have estimated that all the active glaciers may disappear by 2030 if current climate patterns persist. Glacier National Park has all its original native plant and animal species. Large mammals such as grizzly bears and mountain goats, as well as rare or endangered species like wolverines and Canadian lynxes, inhabit the park. Hundreds of species of birds, more than a dozen fish species, a few reptile and amphibian species have been documented; the park has numerous ecosystems ranging from prairie to tundra. The easternmost forests of western redcedar and hemlock grow in the southwest portion of the park. Large forest fires are unusual in the park. Glacier National Park borders Waterton Lakes National Park in Canada—the two parks are known as the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park and were designated as the world's first International Peace Park in 1932. Both parks were designated by the United Nations as Biosphere Reserves in 1976, in 1995 as World Heritage sites.
In April 2017, the joint park received a provisional Gold Tier designation as Waterton-Glacier International Dark Sky Park through the International Dark Sky Association, the first transboundary dark sky park. According to archeological evidence, Native Americans first arrived in the Glacier area some 10,000 years ago; the earliest occupants with lineage to current tribes were the Flathead and Kootenai and Cheyenne. The Blackfeet arrived around the beginning of the 18th century and soon dominated the eastern slopes of what became the park, as well as the Great Plains to the east; the park region provided the Blackfeet shelter from the harsh winter winds of the plains, allowing them to supplement their traditional bison hunts with other game meat. Today, the Blackfeet Indian Reservation borders the park in the east, while the Flathead Indian Reservation is located west and south of the park; when the Blackfeet Reservation was first established in 1855 by the Lame Bull Treaty, it included the eastern area of the current park up to the Continental Divide.
To the Blackfeet, the mountains of this area Chief Mountain and the region in the southeast at Two Medicine, were considered the "Backbone of the World" and were frequented during vision quests. In 1895 Chief White Calf of the Blackfeet authorized the sale of the mountain area, some 800,000 acres, to the U. S. government for $1.5 million, with the understanding that they would maintain usage rights to the land for hunting as long as the ceded stripe will be public land of the United States. This established the current boundary between the reservation. While exploring the Marias River in 1806, the Lewis and Clark Expedition came within 50 miles of the area, now the park. A series of explorations after 1850 helped to shape the understanding of the area that became the park. In 1885 George Bird Grinnell hired noted explorer James Willard Schultz to guide him on a hunting expedition into what would become the park. After several more trips to the region, Grinnell became so inspired by the scenery that he spent the next two decades working to establish a national park.
In 1901 Grinnell wrote a description of the region in which he referred to it as the "Crown of the Continent". His efforts to protect the land make him the premier contributor to this cause. A few years after Grinnell first visited, Henry L. Stimson and two companions, including a Blackfoot, climbed the steep east face of Chief Mountain in 1892. In 1891 the Great Northern Railway crossed the Continental Divide at Marias Pass 5,213 feet, along the sout
Custer County, Montana
Custer County is a county located in the U. S. state of Montana. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 11,699, its county seat is Miles City. The county was named for George Armstrong Custer. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,793 square miles, of which 3,783 square miles is land and 9.9 square miles is water. At the 2000 United States Census, there were 11,696 people, 4,768 households and 3,089 families residing in the county; the population density was 3 per square mile. There were 5,360 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.02% White, 0.09% Black or African American, 1.27% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. 1.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 34.3 % were of 12.0 % Norwegian, 8.4 % English, 8.3 % Irish and 5.4 % American ancestry. 96.8% spoke English, 1.5% Spanish and 1.2% German as their first language.
There were 4,768 households of which 30.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.10% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.20% were non-families. 29.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.94. 25.10% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 17.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 95.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median household income was $30,000 and the median family income was $38,779. Males had a median income of $27,857 compared with $18,343 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,876. About 10.10% of families and 15.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.10% of those under age 18 and 9.10% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 11,699 people, 5,031 households, 3,014 families residing in the county. The population density was 3.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,560 housing units at an average density of 1.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.5% white, 1.7% American Indian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.5% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 33.6% were German, 18.3% were Irish, 14.3% were American, 14.1% were Norwegian, 10.6% were English. Of the 5,031 households, 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.1% were non-families, 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 42.1 years.<refdp1/>
The median income for a household in the county was $38,913 and the median income for a family was $49,011. Males had a median income of $37,535 versus $26,576 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,676. About 12.4% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.8% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over. Agriculture and cattle raising provide the bulk of Custer County economy. Miles City serves as the center of commerce in an area extending for 100 miles in every direction; as of 2009 the county's largest employers were Holy Rosary Healthcare, Sanjel USA, Stockman Bank, Walmart. Miles City Ismay List of cemeteries in Custer County, Montana List of lakes in Custer County, Montana List of mountains in Custer County, Montana National Register of Historic Places listings in Custer County, Montana
Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge
Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge is a 2,800-acre National Wildlife Refuge along the Bitterroot River in southwestern Montana, U. S. Established in 1964 as Ravalli NWR, it was renamed in 1978 in honor of the late Senator Lee Metcalf, a native of Montana; the refuge was set aside for the protection of migratory bird species. About 235 species of birds have been documented with over 100 nesting there. Additionally, 37 species of mammals, 17 species of reptiles and amphibians have been documented; the refuge's wildlife viewing area covers 160 acres of wetlands and riparian woodland. It includes two nature trails and a paved, wheelchair-accessible trail from the parking lot to the picnic area; the viewing area is equipped with a viewing and fishing structure, outdoor restroom facilities, an information kiosk. One of the nature trails, the Lee Metcalf Wildlife Viewing Trail, was designated as a National Recreation Trail. Media related to Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge at Wikimedia Commons Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge
Pompeys Pillar National Monument
Pompeys Pillar National Monument is a rock formation located in south central Montana, United States. Designated a National Monument on January 17, 2001, managed by the U. S. Bureau of Land Management, it consists of only 51 acres, making it one of the smallest National Monuments in the U. S, it was designated a National Historic Landmark on July 25, 1965. The new Pompeys Pillar Interpretive Center opened in 2006. Exhibits in the 5,700-square foot center relate the journey of Captain William Clark and his detachment, including Sacagawea and her son Pomp, down the Yellowstone River Valley in 1806; the pillar itself stands 150 feet above the Yellowstone River and consists of sandstone from the late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, 75 – 66 million years ago. The base of the pillar is 1 acre; the pillar features an abundance of Native American petroglyphs, as well as the signature of William Clark, co-leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Clark's inscription is the only remaining physical evidence found along the route, followed by the expedition.
The inscription consists of his signature and the date, July 25, 1806. Clark wrote that he climbed the sandstone pillar and "had a most extensive view in every direction on the Northerly Side of the river", he named the outcropping after Jean Baptiste Charbonneau—the son of expedition member Sacagawea—whom he nicknamed "Pompy". His original name for it was "Pompys Tower". Situated 25 miles northeast of Billings, along Interstate 94, the pillar gets 50,000 visitors annually. Archeological evidence suggests that the outcropping has been witness to 11,000 years of human involvement in the area. In addition to the pictographs and the signature of William Clark, hundreds of other people have carved their initials into the rock, including early pioneers to the area. Pompey's Pillar, Montana List of National Historic Landmarks in Montana National Register of Historic Places listings in Yellowstone County, Montana "Pompeys Pillar National Monument Official Website". U. S. Bureau of Land Management. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
"Pompeys Pillar National Monument". National Landscape Conservation System. Retrieved 2006-08-13. "Pompeys Pillar National Monument". The Wilderness Society. Archived from the original on 2006-07-10. Retrieved 2006-08-13. "Pompeys Pillar National Monument". Pompeys Pillar Historical Association. Retrieved 2006-08-13
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail is a route across the United States commemorating the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 to 1806. It is part of the National Trails System of the United States, it extends for some 3,700 miles from Wood River, Illinois, to the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon. The trail is administered by the National Park Service, but sites along the trail are managed by federal land management agencies, local and private organizations; the trail is not a hiking trail, but provides opportunities for hiking and horseback riding at many locations along the route. The trail is the second longest of the 23 National National Historic Trails. Beginning at the Camp Dubois recreation in Illinois, it passes through portions of Missouri, Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota, Idaho and Washington; the official headquarters for the trail is located at the National Park Service Midwest Regional Headquarters, in Omaha, Nebraska. The visitor center features exhibits about the explorers and their historic trip, as well as information about sites along the trail.
In 1948 the National Park Service proposed a "Lewis and Clark Tour-way" along the Missouri River from St. Louis to Three Forks, Montana. Jay "Ding" Darling proposed the development of the expedition route as a recreational trail. Following a 1966 report by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, the National Trails System Act of 1968 listed the route for study as a possible National Scenic Trail. In 1978 the law was amended by the National Parks and Recreation Act to provide for a new category of trail, National Historic Trails, one of, to be the Lewis and Clark trail. From 2003 to 2006, the National Park Service commemorated the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition with the Corps of Discovery II traveling exhibit. Bassman, John H.. A navigation companion for the Lewis & Clark Trail. Volume 1, camp locations and daily summaries of expedition activities. United States: John H. Bassman. National Park Service. Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Comprehensive Plan for Management and Use. United States: United States Department of the Interior.
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation Lewis and Clark Trust lewisandclarktrail.org
National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units