Punjab Province (British India)
Punjab spelled Panjab, was a province of British India. Most of the Punjab region was annexed by the East India Company in 1849, was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British control. In 1858, the Punjab, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown; the province comprised five administrative divisions, Jullundur, Lahore and Rawalpindi and a number of princely states. In 1947, the partition of India led to the province being divided into East Punjab and West Punjab, in the newly created Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan respectively; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata for example, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers", was translated to Persian as Punjab after the Muslim conquests; the name Punjab is a compound of two Persian words Panj and āb and was introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India and more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire.
Punjab means " Five Waters" referring to the rivers: Jhelum, Ravi and Beas. All are tributaries of the Chenab being the largest. Geographically, the province was a triangular tract of country of which the Indus River and its tributary the Sutlej formed the two sides up to their confluence, the base of the triangle in the north being the Lower Himalayan Range between those two rivers. Moreover, the province as constituted under British rule included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Tibet. On the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna and Tons separated it from the United Provinces. In total Punjab had an area of 357 000 km square about the same size as modern day Germany, being one of the largest provinces of the British Raj.
It encompassed the present day Indian states of Punjab, Chandigarh and Himachal Pradesh and the Pakistani regions of the Punjab, Islamabad Capital Territory and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In 1901 the frontier districts beyond the Indus were separated from Punjab and made into a new province: the North-West Frontier Province. On 21 February 1849, the East India Company decisively defeated the Sikh Empire at the Battle of Gujrat bringing to an end the Second Anglo-Sikh War. Following the victory, the East India Company annexed the Punjab on 2 April 1849 and incorporated it within British India; the province whilst nominally under the control of the Bengal Presidency was administratively independent. Lord Dalhousie constituted the Board of Administration by inducting into it the most experienced and seasoned British officers; the Board was led by Sir Henry Lawrence, who had worked as British Resident at the Lahore Durbar and consisted of his younger brother John Lawrence and Charles Grenville Mansel. Below the Board, a group of acclaimed officers collectively known as Henry Lawrence's "Young Men" assisted in the administration of the newly acquired province.
The Board was abolished by Lord Dalhousie in 1853. Recognising the cultural diversity of the Punjab, the Board maintained a strict policy of non-interference in regard to religious and cultural matters. Sikh aristocrats were given patronage and pensions and groups in control of historical places of worship were allowed to remain in control. In 1858, under the terms of the Queen's Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Punjab, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown. Delhi was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to the Punjab in 1859; the British colonial government took this action to punish the city for the important role that the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, the city as a whole played in the 1857 Rebellion. Sir John Lawrence Chief Commissioner, was appointed the first Lieutenant-Governor on 1 January 1859. In 1866, the Judicial Commissioner was replaced by a Chief Court; the direct administrative functions of the Government were carried by the Lieutenant-Governor through the Secretariat, comprising a Chief Secretary, a Secretary and two Under-Secretaries.
They were members of the Indian Civil Service. The territory under the Lieutenant consisted of 29 Districts, grouped under 5 Divisions, 43 Princely States; each District was under a Deputy-Commissioner. Each District was subdivided into between three and seven tehsils, each under a tahsildar, assisted by a naib tahsildar. In 1885 the Punjab administration began an ambitious plan to transform over six million acres of barren waste land in central and western Punjab into irrigable agricultural land; the creation of canal colonies was designed to relieve demographic pressures in the central parts of the province, increase productivity and revenues, create a loyal support amongst peasant landholders. The colonisation resulted in an agricultural revolution in the province, rapid industrial growth, the resettlement of over one million Punjabis in the new areas. A number of towns were created or saw significant development in the colonies, such as Lyallpur and Montgomery. Colonisation led to the canal irrigated area of the Punj
The British Empire comprised the dominions, protectorates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2, 24% of the Earth's total land area; as a result, its political, legal and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories. During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, in the process established large overseas empires.
Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, England and the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England and following union between England and Scotland in 1707, Great Britain, the dominant colonial power in North America, it became the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent after the East India Company's conquest of Mughal Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence caused Britain to lose some of its oldest and most populous colonies. British attention soon turned towards Asia and the Pacific. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century. Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was described as Pax Britannica, a period of relative peace in Europe and the world during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman.
In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain. The British Empire expanded to include most of India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. Alongside the formal control that Britain exerted over its own colonies, its dominance of much of world trade meant that it controlled the economies of many regions, such as Asia and Latin America. During the 19th century, Britain's population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, which caused significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the British government under Benjamin Disraeli initiated a period of imperial expansion in Egypt, South Africa, elsewhere. Canada and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century and the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied upon its empire.
The conflict placed enormous strain on the military and manpower resources of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent after World War I, Britain was no longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in East and Southeast Asia were occupied by Japan. Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire; the Suez Crisis confirmed Britain's decline as a global power. The transfer of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked for many the end of the British Empire. Fourteen overseas territories remain under British sovereignty. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states.
The United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The foundations of the British Empire were laid when Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Cabot sailed in 1497, five years after the European discovery of America, but he made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland, mistakenly believing that he had reached Asia, there was no attempt to found a colony. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was heard of his ships again. No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century. In the meantime, the 1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals had declared "that this realm of England is an Empire".
The subsequent Protestant Reformation turned Catholic Spain into implacable enemies. In 1562, the English Crown encouraged the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against Spanish and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic slave tr
Qom is the seventh metropolis and the seventh largest city in Iran. Qom is the capital of Qom Province, it is located 140 km to the south of Tehran. At the 2016 census its population was 1,201,158, it is situated on the banks of the Qom River. Qom is considered holy by Shiʿa Islam, as it is the site of the shrine of Fatimah bint Musa, sister of Imam Ali ibn Musa Rida; the city is the largest center for Shiʿa scholarship in the world, is a significant destination of pilgrimage, with around twenty million pilgrims visiting the city every year, the majority being Iranians but other Shi'a Muslims from all around the world. Qom is famous for a Persian brittle toffee known as Sohan, considered a souvenir of the city and sold by 2,000 to 2,500 “Sohan” shops. Qom has developed into a lively industrial centre owing in part to its proximity to Tehran, it is a regional centre for the distribution of petroleum and petroleum products, a natural gas pipeline from Bandar Anzali and Tehran and a crude oil pipeline from Tehran run through Qom to the Abadan refinery on the Persian Gulf.
Qom gained additional prosperity when oil was discovered at Sarajeh near the city in 1956 and a large refinery was built between Qom and Tehran. Qom, the capital of Qom province, is located 125 kilometers south on a low plain; the shrine of Fatimeh Masumeh, the sister of Imam Reza, is located in this city, considered by Shiʿa Muslims holy. The city is located in the boundary of the central desert of Iran. At the 2011 census its population was 1,074,036, comprising 528,332 women. Qom is counted as one of the focal centers of the Shiʿah both around the globe. Since the revolution, the clerical population has risen from around 25,000 to more than 45,000 and the non-clerical population has more than tripled to about 700,000. Substantial sums of money in the form of alms and Islamic taxes flow into Qom to the ten Marja'-e taqlid or "Source to be Followed" that reside there; the number of seminary schools in Qom is now over fifty, the number of research institutes and libraries somewhere near two hundred and fifty.
Its theological center and the Fatima Masumeh Shrine are prominent features of Qom. Another popular religious site of pilgrimage outside the city of Qom but now more of a suburb is called Jamkaran. Qom's proximity to Tehran has allowed the clerical establishment easy access to monitor the affairs and decisions of state. Many Grand Ayatollahs possess offices in both Qom. Southeast of Qom is the ancient city of Kashan. Directly south of Qom lie the towns of Delijan, Naraq, Pardisan City and Jasb; the surrounding area to the east of Qom is populated by Tafresh and Ashtian and Jafarieh. Qom has a hot desert climate with low annual rainfall due to remoteness from the sea and being situated in the vicinity of the subtropical anticyclone aloft. Summer weather is hot and rainless, whilst in winter weather can vary from warm to – when Siberian air masses are driven south across the Elburz Mountains by blocking over Europe – frigid. An example of the latter situation was in January 2008 when minima fell to −23 °C or −9.4 °F on the 15th, whilst earlier similar situations occurred in January 1964 and to a lesser extent January 1950, January 1972 and December 1972.
The present town of Qom in Central Iran dates back to ancient times. Its pre-Islamic history can be documented, although the earlier epochs remain unclear. Excavations at Tepe Sialk indicate that the region had been settled since ancient times, more recent surveys have revealed traces of large inhabited places south of Qom, dating from the 4th and 1st millennium BC. While nothing is known about the area from Elamite and Achaemenid times, there are significant archeological remains from the Seleucid and Parthian epochs, of which the ruins of Khurha are the most famous and important remnants, their dating and function have instigated long and controversial debates and interpretations, for they have been interpreted and explained variously as the remains of a Sasanian temple, or of a Seleucid Dionysian temple, or of a Parthian complex. Its true function is still a matter of dispute, but the contributions by Wolfram Kleiss point to a Parthian palace that served as a station on the nearby highway and was used until Sasanian times.
The published results of the excavations carried out in 1955 by Iranian archeologists have, revived the old thesis of a Seleucid religious building. Besides Khurha, mentioned as Khor Abad at Qomi in the 9th century, the region has turned up a few other remnants from this epoch, including the four Parthian heads found near Qom, now kept in the National Museum of Iran in Tehran. Qomi names Parthian personalities as founders of villages in the Qom area; the possible mention of Qom in the form of Greek names in two ancient geographical works remains doubtful. The Sasanian epoch offers many archeological findings and remnants, besides the fact that various sources mention Qom; the most interesting building from an archeological point of view is the Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar in Qom itself, long thought to have served religious purposes, while more recent research points to an administrative use. The wider surroundings of Qom contain numerous traces from palaces, religious and administrative buildings; some of these are mentioned by Qomi, who names many more fire temples in the urban area of present
John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence
John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence, known as Sir John Lawrence, Bt. between 1858 and 1869, was an English-born Ulsterman who became a prominent British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. Lawrence was born in Richmond, North Yorkshire, he was the youngest son born into an Ulster-Scots family, his mother being from County Donegal while his father was from Coleraine. Lawrence spent his early years in Derry, a city in the Province of Ulster in the northern part of Ireland, was educated at Foyle College and Wraxhall School in Bath, his father had served in India as a soldier in the British Army and his elder brothers included George Lawrence and Henry Lawrence. At the age of sixteen, despite wishing for a military career like his brothers, his father enrolled him at the East India Company College, believing a career as a civil servant offered better prospects, he attended Haileybury for two years, where by his own admission he was neither idle nor industrious, yet he won prizes in history, political economy and Bengali.
Lawrence entered the Bengal Civil Service and in September 1829 he set sail for India with his brother Henry. On arrival he settled at Fort William where he was expected to pass examinations in local vernacular. Having mastered Persian and Urdu, Lawrence's first job was as a magistrate and tax collector in Delhi. After four years in Delhi he was transferred to Panipat and two years hence was placed in charge of Gurgaon district. In 1837, Lawrence was made a settlement officer at Etawah. Whilst doing the role he was close to death, he spent three months in Calcutta to convalesce but having failed to recover he returned to England in 1840. The following year, whilst in County Donegal he met and married his wife Harriette in August 1841; the couple spent six months travelling Europe until news from the First Anglo-Afghan War led to them returning to England, back to India in the autumn of 1842. On his return to India, Lawrence was appointed a Civil and Sessions Judge in Delhi, given responsibility over Karnal.
During the First Anglo-Sikh War between 1845-46, Sir Henry Hardinge sent orders for Lawrence to assist the armed forces. He played a key role ahead of the Battle of Sobraon, ensuring supplies and guns were collected and transferred to the battle; the East India Company's victory at Sobraon brought the war to an end, his brother Henry was made the Resident at Lahore. Sir Henry Hardinge appointed Lawrence to govern the newly-annexed Jullundur district and Hill-States regions of the Punjab. In that role he was known for his administrative reforms, for subduing the hill tribes, for his attempts to end the custom of suttee, he attempted to tackle the issue of female infanticide threatening the Bedi's with confiscation of their lands if they didn't give up the practice. His assistant Robert Cust described Lawrence's interviews with native land-holders as follows: "John Lawrence was full of energy - his coat off, his sleeves turned up above his elbows and impressing upon his subjects his principles of a just state demand...thou shall not burn thy widow, thou shall not kill thy daughters.
Another assistant, Lewin Bowring, described how he had a rough tongue with the local chiefs, who had a wholesome dread of him. He was described as far abler than his brother at details, but was not held in as much affection by the chiefs. On 30 March 1849, the Punjab was proclaimed a province of British India. A Board of Administration was formed to govern the province, led by Henry Lawrence, with John Lawrence assisting alongside Charles Grenville Mansel. In the role he was responsible for numerous reforms of the province, including the abolition of internal duties, establishment of a common currency and postal system, encouraged the development of Punjabi infrastructure, earning him the sobriquet of "the Saviour of the Punjab". Lawrence was eager to raise money for public works and to raise improve infrastructure after half a century of conflict, however was driven to make ends meet and to deliver a surplus. After three years, revenue had increased by fifty percent and the Punjab was delivering a surplus of over one million pounds sterling.
Lawrence oversaw an extension of the Grand Trunk Road from Delhi to Peshawar, the construction of a highway from Lahore to Multan, the Bari Doab Canal which provided a boon to cultivators in the area. Despite being successful in its output, the Board of Administration saw tensions over Henry's policy of retaining the support of the local aristocracy, with John arguing that the policy was too extravagant and hurting finances. In December 1852, with the success of the Board of Administration ensured, both John and Henry offered their resignation, both with a view of take up the vacant Residency at Hyderabad. Lord Dalhousie feeling the necessity of a Board of Administration was no longer required, sought to replace it with a Chief Commissioner. Dalhousie made John the first Chief Commissioner of the Punjab; as Chief Commissioner, Lawrence carried on the policies from before - public works were extended and education encouraged and surveying completed. He granted greater authority to villages, upheld the decisions of village headsmen.
In addition, Lawrence now had responsibility for managing the mercurial group of assistants recruited by his brother known as Henry Lawrence's "Young Men". In February 1856, John returned to Calcutta to wish farewell to the departing Lord Dalhousie, retiring to England; as a parting gift, Dalhouse recommended Lawrence for a K. C. B.. Whilst in Calcutta, John would meet Henry for the last
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir, the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract. In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and of Buddhism. In 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Shah Mir dynasty. Kashmir was part of the Mughal Empire from 1586 to 1751, thereafter, until 1820, of the Afghan Durrani Empire; that year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir.
The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy of the British Crown, lasted until the partition of India in 1947, when the former princely state of the British Indian Empire became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India and China. The word Kashmir was referred to as káśmīra; the Nilamata Purana describes the Valley's origin from the waters, a lake called Sati-saras. A popular, but uncertain, local etymology of Kashmira is. An alternative, but uncertain, etymology derives the name from the name of the Hindu sage Kashyapa, believed to have settled people in this land. Accordingly, Kashmir would be derived from either kashyapa-meru; the word has been referenced to in a Hindu scripture mantra worshipping the Hindu goddess Sharada and is mentioned to have resided in the land of kashmira,or which might have been a reference to the Sharada Peeth. The Ancient Greeks called the region Kasperia, identified with Kaspapyros of Hecataeus of Miletus and Kaspatyros of Herodotus.
Kashmir is believed to be the country meant by Ptolemy's Kaspeiria. The earliest text which directly mentions the name Kashmir is in Ashtadhyayi written by a Sanskrit grammarian Pāṇini during 5th century BC. Pāṇini called the people of Kashmir as Kashmirikas; some other early references to Kashmir can be be found in Mahabharata in Sabha Parva and in puranas like Matsya Purana, Vayu Purana, Padma Purana and Vishnu Purana and Vishnudharmottara Purana. Huientsang, the Buddhist scholar and Chinese traveller called Kashmir as kia-shi-milo, while some other Chinese accounts referred Kashmir as ki-pin and ache-pin. Cashmere is an archaic spelling of present-Kashmir, in some countries it is still spelled this way. In the Kashmiri language, Kashmir itself is known as Kasheer. During ancient and medieval period, Kashmir has been an important centre for the development of a Hindu-Buddhist syncretism, in which Madhyamaka and Yogachara were blended with Shaivism and Advaita Vedanta; the Buddhist Mauryan emperor Ashoka is credited with having founded the old capital of Kashmir, now ruins on the outskirts of modern Srinagar.
Kashmir was long to be a stronghold of Buddhism. As a Buddhist seat of learning, the Sarvastivada school influenced Kashmir. East and Central Asian Buddhist monks are recorded as having visited the kingdom. In the late 4th century CE, the famous Kuchanese monk Kumārajīva, born to an Indian noble family, studied Dīrghāgama and Madhyāgama in Kashmir under Bandhudatta, he became a prolific translator who helped take Buddhism to China. His mother Jīva is thought to have retired to Kashmir. Vimalākṣa, a Sarvāstivādan Buddhist monk, travelled from Kashmir to Kucha and there instructed Kumārajīva in the Vinayapiṭaka. Karkoṭa Empire was a powerful Hindu empire, it was founded by Durlabhvardhana during the lifetime of Harsha. The dynasty marked the rise of Kashmir as a power in South Asia. Avanti Varman ascended the throne of Kashmir on 855 CE, establishing the Utpala dynasty and ending the rule of Karkoṭa dynasty. According to tradition, Adi Shankara visited the pre-existing Sarvajñapīṭha in Kashmir in the late 8th century or early 9th century CE.
The Madhaviya Shankaravijayam states this temple had four doors for scholars from the four cardinal directions. The southern door of Sarvajna Pitha was opened by Adi Shankara. According to tradition, Adi Shankara opened the southern door by defeating in debate all the scholars there in all the various scholastic disciplines such as Mīmāṃsā, Vedanta and other branches of Hindu philosophy. Abhinavagupta was one of India's greatest philosophers and aestheticians, he was considered an important musician, dramatist, exegete and logician – a polymathic personality who exercised strong influences on Indian culture. He was born in the Kashmir Valley in a family of scholars and mystics and studied all the schools of philosophy and art of his time under the guidance of as many as fifteen teachers and gurus. In his long life he completed over 35 works, the largest and most famous of, Tantrāloka, an encyclopaedic treatise on all the philosophical and practical aspects of Trika and Kaula. Another one of his important contributions was in the field of philosophy of
Tokat is the capital city of Tokat Province of Turkey in the mid-Black Sea region of Anatolia. It is located at the confluence of the Tokat River with the Yeşilırmak. In the 2009 census, the city of Tokat had a population of 129,879; the city was established in the Hittite era. During the time of King Mithradates VI of Pontus, it was one of his many strongholds in Asia Minor. Known as Evdokia, ecclesiastically it was incorporated into the western part of the Byzantine Greek Empire of Trebizond. After the Battle of Manzikert the town, like most of Asia Minor, came under the control of the Seljuk Turks. After the death of Sultan Suleiman ibn Qutulmish in 1086, the Emir Danishmend Gazi took control of the area, operating from his power base in the town of Sivas, it would be many decades before the Seljuks re-took control of that region, in the reign of Kilij Arslan II. After the Battle of Köse Dağ, Seljuk hold over the region was lost, local Emirs such as the Eretna took power until the rise of the Ottomans.
Under Seljuk Muslim rule, Tokat remained a centre of Pontic Greek culture and the Greek Orthodox church. Anglican priest and famous Bible translator Henry Martyn died 1812 in Tokat while he was on his way from Shiraz back to England and was buried in the Armenian cemetery. In 1859 was established as a residential diocese of the Armenian Catholic Eparchy of Tokat on territory without a proper Ordinary of its Eastern Catholic particular church sui iurus; the only recorded residential incumbent Eparch of Tokat was Arsenio Avak-Wartan Angiarakian, emeritate as Titular Archbishop of Tarsus. On 30 May 1892 the diocese was suppressed and its territory reassigned to the Armenian Catholic Eparchy of Sebaste. In 1972 the diocese was nominally restored as Titular bishopric of Tokat, but is vacant after a single incumbent, of the lowest rank, Titular Bishop Vartan Achkarian, Auxiliary Eparch of the patriarchal province Cilicia of the Armenians, Bishop of Curia of the Armenians, Auxiliary Eparch of Beirut of the Armenians.
Tokat has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate with considerable continental influences. Copper was mined in the area. Gaziosmanpaşa University is one of Turkey's newer tertiary institutions, founded in 1992, it was named after the local hero Gazi Osman Paşa. Football is the most popular sport: in the older districts above the city center children kick balls around in the evenings in the smallest streets; the city's football club is Tokatspor. Basketball, tennis, cable skiing, horse riding, go karting, martial arts and many other sports are played. Cycling and jogging are only common along the sea front, where recreational fishing is popular. Foods distinctive to Tokat include Tokat kebabı and Zile pekmezi, the latter being served in a wooden pot. Tokat kebabı consists of sliced lamb, potatoes, green bell peppers and tomatoes; the slices are baked with cloves of garlic. Zile pekmezi is a grape-molasses confection, prepared from a variety of small green grapes, which are pressed and evaporated to a thick syrup by boiling.
Egg-whites are beaten into the syrup until it forms a pale marshmallow-like paste. It is sold commercially in tubs; the most important landmark is Tokat Castle, an Ottoman citadel with 28 towers on a rocky hill overlooking the town. Vlad the Impaler was imprisoned in one of its dungeons. Other sights include the remains of several Greek Orthodox churches and a cathedral, the Garipler Mosque dating to the 12th century, the Ali Paşa Mosque, the Gök Medrese, constructed in 1270, it was founded as a school of theology, is now converted into a museum, housing archaeological finds from the area. The Latifoglu Konak, a late 18th-century Ottoman residence, is an example of Baroque architecture; the two-story building has been converted into a small museum. Much of the furniture in the kitchen, visitors' rooms with bath and toilet, master's room, harem is original. Ballıca Cave is a small cave situated at 6 km southeast of Tokat Province. Karapet Tokhatetsi, Armenian catholicos of the Holy See of Cilicia Minas Tokhatetsi, Armenian scribe, satirist Apkar Tebir Tokhatetsi, Armenian printer and typographer Avetik Tokhatetsi, Armenian bishop, patriarch of Constantinople and Jerusalem Gazi Osman Paşa, Ottoman commander Mehmet Emin Tokadi Hazretleri, Sufi saint of Istanbul Krikor Balakian, Armenian bishop Mıgırdiç Tokatlıyan Prominent hotelier Cahit Külebi, Turkish poet Engin Günaydın, Turkish actor and comedian Hüseyin Akbaş, Turkish World and Olympic Champion in wrestling Seda Sayan, Turkish pop folk singer, actress and TV variety-show hostess Aziz Kocaoğlu, mayor and politician.
Tokat is twinned with: Tokat Airport Tokat Tokat Province Rûm Eyalet Tokat at kultur.gov.tr Tokat web news