Pitch (music)

Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies. Pitch can be determined only in sounds that have a frequency, clear and stable enough to distinguish from noise. Pitch is a major auditory attribute of musical tones, along with duration and timbre. Pitch may be quantified as a frequency; the study of pitch and pitch perception has been a central problem in psychoacoustics, has been instrumental in forming and testing theories of sound representation and perception in the auditory system. Pitch is an auditory sensation in which a listener assigns musical tones to relative positions on a musical scale based on their perception of the frequency of vibration. Pitch is related to frequency, but the two are not equivalent. Frequency is an scientific attribute that can be measured. Pitch is each person's subjective perception of a sound wave.

However, this does not mean that most people won't agree on which notes are higher and lower. The oscillations of sound waves can be characterized in terms of frequency. Pitches are associated with, thus quantified as, frequencies, by comparing the sounds being assessed against sounds with pure tones. Complex and aperiodic sound waves can be assigned a pitch by this method. According to the American National Standards Institute, pitch is the auditory attribute of sound according to which sounds can be ordered on a scale from low to high. Since pitch is such a close proxy for frequency, it is entirely determined by how the sound wave is making the air vibrate and has nothing to do with the intensity, or amplitude, of the wave; that is, "high" pitch means rapid oscillation, "low" pitch corresponds to slower oscillation. Despite that, the idiom relating vertical height to sound pitch is shared by most languages. At least in English, it is just one of many deep conceptual metaphors; the exact etymological history of the musical sense of high and low pitch is still unclear.

There is evidence that humans do perceive that the source of a sound is higher or lower in vertical space when the sound frequency is increased or reduced. In most cases, the pitch of complex sounds such as speech and musical notes corresponds nearly to the repetition rate of periodic or nearly-periodic sounds, or to the reciprocal of the time interval between repeating similar events in the sound waveform; the pitch of complex tones can be ambiguous, meaning that two or more different pitches can be perceived, depending upon the observer. When the actual fundamental frequency can be determined through physical measurement, it may differ from the perceived pitch because of overtones known as upper partials, harmonic or otherwise. A complex tone composed of two sine waves of 1000 and 1200 Hz may sometimes be heard as up to three pitches: two spectral pitches at 1000 and 1200 Hz, derived from the physical frequencies of the pure tones, the combination tone at 200 Hz, corresponding to the repetition rate of the waveform.

In a situation like this, the percept at 200 Hz is referred to as the missing fundamental, the greatest common divisor of the frequencies present. Pitch depends to a lesser degree on the sound pressure level of the tone at frequencies below 1,000 Hz and above 2,000 Hz; the pitch of lower tones gets lower as sound pressure increases. For instance, a tone of 200 Hz, loud seems one semitone lower in pitch than if it is just audible. Above 2,000 Hz, the pitch gets higher; these results were obtained in the pioneering works by S. Stevens and W. Snow. Investigations, i.e. by A. Cohen, had shown that in most cases the apparent pitch shifts were not different from pitch‐matching errors; when averaged, the remaining shifts followed the directions of Stevens' curves but were small Theories of pitch perception try to explain how the physical sound and specific physiology of the auditory system work together to yield the experience of pitch. In general, pitch perception theories can be divided into temporal coding.

Place theory holds that the perception of pitch is determined by the place of maximum excitation on the basilar membrane. A place code, taking advantage of the tonotopy in the auditory system, must be in effect for the perception of high frequencies, since neurons have an upper limit on how fast they can phase-lock their action potentials. However, a purely place-based theory cannot account for the accuracy of pitch perception in the low and middle frequency ranges. Moreover, there is some evidence that some non-human primates lack auditory cortex responses to pitch despite having clear tonotopic maps in auditory cortex, showing that tonotopic place codes are not sufficient for pitch responses. Temporal theories offer an alternative that appeals to the temporal structure of action potentials the phase-locking and mode-locking of action potentials to frequencies in a stimulus; the precise way this temporal structure helps code for pitch at higher levels is still debated, but the processing seems to be based on an autocorrelation of action potentials in the auditory nerve.

However, it has long been noted that a neural mechanism that may accomplish a delay—a necessary opera

72 Miles

72 Miles - Ek Pravas is a Marathi film directed by Rajiv Patil and produced under Grazing Goat Pictures and co-produced by Twinkle Khanna and Ashwini Yardi. The film is set in the time of 50's and 60's about journey of a 13-year-old young boy who ran away from his hostel and how this young boy matures with time when he meets a lady and her kids. Deepak Rane was the line producer for this film A young boy decides to escape from his boarding school. Chased by bullies, robbed by drunken gamblers, a young boy starts his journey towards Kolhapur; the people who seem pleasant, invite him to ride with them turn into horrifying monsters as soon as they learn of his surname, a scheduled caste. Beaten to a pulp by the high-castes, the boy is rescued by a woman, on her way to Shigaon with her sick infant son, three other children; the journey continues as the young boy moves on with his journey, learns the true sorrows of poverty. In this journey, the infant and his age brother lose their lives; this journey of the silent, introvert boy, makes him mature and this boy educates himself and becomes a writer and writes his own story of the journey.

Ashok: Chinmay Sant Radhakka: Smita Tambe Bayji: Shravani Solaskar Ranu: Chinmay Kambli Bhimi:- Esha Mane Akshay kumar:-Rajiv patil 72 Miles on IMDb

Short Hills Wildlife Management Area

Short Hills Wildlife Management Area is a 4,232-acre Wildlife Management Area in Rockbridge and Botetourt counties, Virginia. It covers 10 miles of ridgeline along the Short Hills range. Short Hills Wildlife Management Area was acquired by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries in July 2010, after the land was first secured by two non-governmental conservation organizations. Half of the WMA was purchased by the Virginia Outdoors Foundation, who paid $3 million for a portion of the tract before donating the land to VDGIF; the other half was first purchased by the Wildlife Foundation of Virginia. Although the acquisition was praised by conservation groups due to the parcel's protection of wildlife habitat and water resources, some members of the public vocally criticized the purchase due to the land's rugged nature and limited accessibility for public walk-in hunting; the long and narrow area includes a single one-mile stretch of land bordering public roads. The majority of Short Hills WMA is located in Rockbridge County with the remainder in Botetourt County.

It covers 10 miles of ridges along the Short Hills range, which reaches a maximum elevation of 3,143 feet. The landscape includes 3,482 acres of mixed pine and hardwood forests, as well as 750 acres of former open farmland; the area includes rocky karst topography. The headwaters of Cedar Creek, which flows through the nearby Natural Bridge rock formation, are located within the WMA; the area is owned and maintained by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, is open to the public for hunting, trapping and primitive camping. Access for persons 17 years of age or older requires a valid hunting or fishing permit, or a WMA access permit; as of 2017, public access points remain limited to a one-mile stretch of Plank Road that borders the area. A small parking area off Plank Road has been developed for public use. List of Virginia Wildlife Management Areas Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries: Short Hills Wildlife Management Area