The durian is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio. There are 30 recognised Durio species, at least nine of which produce edible fruit, with over 100 named varieties in Indonesia, 300 in Thailand and 100 in Malaysia. Durio zibethinus is the only species available in the international market: other species are sold in their local regions, it is native to Sumatra. Named in some regions as the "king of fruits", the durian is distinctive for its large size, strong odour, thorn-covered rind; the fruit can grow as large as 30 centimetres long and 15 centimetres in diameter, it weighs one to three kilograms. Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to brown, its flesh pale yellow to red, depending on the species; some people regard the durian as having a pleasantly sweet fragrance, whereas others find the aroma overpowering with an unpleasant odour. The smell evokes reactions from deep appreciation to intense disgust, has been described variously as rotten onions and raw sewage.
The persistence of its odour, which may linger for several days, has led to the fruit's banishment from certain hotels and public transportation in southeast Asia. By contrast, the nineteenth-century British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described its flesh as "a rich custard flavoured with almonds"; the flesh can be consumed at various stages of ripeness, it is used to flavour a wide variety of savoury and sweet desserts in southeast Asian cuisines. The seeds can be eaten when cooked. First used around 1580, the name "durian" is derived from the Old Malay language word dûriḥ, a reference to the numerous prickly thorns of the rind, together with the noun-building suffix -an. Durio sensu lato has 30 recognised species. Durio sensu stricto comprises 24 of these species; the 6 additional species included in Durio s.l. are now considered by some to comprise their own genus, Boschia. Durio s.s. and Boschia have indistinguishable vegetative characteristics and many shared floral characteristics. The crucial difference between the two is that anther locules open by apical pores in Boschia and by longitudinal slits in Durio s.s.
These two genera form a clade, sister to another genus in the tribe Durioneae, Cullenia. These three genera together form a clade, characterised by modified anthers; the genus Durio is placed by some taxonomists in the family Bombacaceae, or by others in a broadly defined Malvaceae that includes Bombacaceae, by others in a smaller family of just seven genera Durionaceae. Durio is included in Bombacaceae because of the presence of monothecate anthers, as opposed to the bithecate anthers common to the rest of the mallows. However, the first studies to examine mallow phylogeny using molecular data found that the tribe Durioneae should be placed in the subfamily Helicteroideae of an expanded Malvaceae; the authors of these studies hypothesise that monothecate anthers have most evolved convergently in Durioneae and in the Malvatheca clade. Durian trees are large; the leaves are elliptic to oblong and 10 -- 18 centimetres long. The flowers are produced in three to thirty clusters together on large branches and directly on the trunk with each flower having a calyx and five petals.
Durian trees have one or two flowering and fruiting periods per year, although the timing varies depending on the species and localities. A typical durian tree can bear fruit after five years; the durian fruit can hang from any branch, matures three months after pollination. The fruit can grow up to 30 centimetres long and 15 centimetres in diameter, weighs one to three kilograms, its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to brown, its flesh pale-yellow to red, depending on the species. Among the thirty known species of Durio, nine of them have been identified as producing edible fruits: D. zibethinus, D. dulcis, D. grandiflorus, D. graveolens, D. kutejensis, Durio lowianus, D. macrantha, D. oxleyanus and D. testudinarius. There are many species for which the fruit has never been collected or properly examined, however, so other species with edible fruit may exist; the durian is somewhat similar in appearance to an unrelated species. D. zibethinus is the only species commercially cultivated on a large scale and available outside of its native region.
Since this species is open-pollinated, it shows considerable diversity in fruit colour and odour, size of flesh and seed, tree phenology. In the species name, zibethinus refers to Viverra zibetha. There is disagreement over whether this name, bestowed by Linnaeus, refers to civets being so fond of the durian that the fruit was used as bait to entrap them, or to the durian smelling like the civet. Durian flowers are large and feathery with copious nectar, give off a heavy and buttery odour; these features are typical of flowers pollinated by certain species of bats that eat nectar and pollen. According to research conducted in Malaysia in the 1970s, durians were pollinated exclusively by cave fruit bats; some scientists have hypothesised that the development of monothecate anthers and larger flowers (compared to those of the
Rosin called colophony or Greek pitch, is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components. It varies in color from yellow to black. At room temperature rosin is brittle, it chiefly consists of various resin acids abietic acid. The term "colophony" comes from colophonia resina, Latin for "resin from Colophon", an ancient Ionic city. Rosin is an ingredient in printing inks and laser printing paper, adhesives, paper sizing, soldering fluxes, sealing wax. Rosin can be used as a glazing agent in chewing gum, it is denoted by E number E915. A related glycerol ester can be used as an emulsifier in soft drinks. In pharmaceuticals, rosin forms an ingredient in several ointments. In industry, rosin is a flux used in soldering; the lead-tin solder used in electronics has 1 to 2% rosin by weight as a flux core, helping the molten metal flow and making a better connection by reducing the refractory solid oxide layer formed at the surface back to metal.
It is seen as a burnt or clear residue around new soldering. A mixture of pitch and rosin is used to make a surface against which glass is polished when making optical components such as lenses. Rosin is added in small quantities to traditional linseed oil/sand gap fillers, used in building work; when mixed with waxes and oils, rosin is the main ingredient of mystic smoke, a gum which, when rubbed and stretched, appears to produce puffs of smoke from the fingertips. Rosin is extensively used for its friction-increasing capacity in several fields: Players of bowed string instruments rub cakes or blocks of rosin on their bow hair so it can grip the strings and make them speak, or vibrate clearly. Extra substances such as beeswax, silver, tin, or meteoric iron are sometimes added to the rosin to modify its stiction/friction properties and the tone it produces. Powdered rosin can be applied to new hair, for example with a felt pad or cloth, to reduce the time taken in getting sufficient rosin onto the hair.
Rosin is applied to the bow before playing the instrument. Lighter rosin is preferred for violins and violas, in high-humidity climates, while darker rosins are preferred for cellos, for players in cool, dry areas. There are specific, distinguishing types for basses—for more see Bow. Violin rosin can be applied to the bridges in other musical instruments, such as the banjo and banjolele, in order to prevent the bridge from moving during vigorous playing. Ballet and Irish dancers are known to rub the tips and heels of their shoes in powdered rosin to reduce slippage on clean wooden dance floors or competition/performance stages, it is still used as such by boxers. Gymnasts and team handball players use it to improve grip. Rock climbers have used it in some locations, but it fouls the rock, so usage is now discouraged. Olympic weightlifters rub the soles of their weightlifting boots in rosin to improve traction on the platform, it is applied onto the starting line of drag racing courses used to improve traction.
Bull riders rub rosin on their glove for additional grip. Baseball pitchers and ten-pin bowlers may use a small cloth bag of powdered rosin for better ball control. Rosin can be applied to the hands in aerial acrobatics such as aerial silks and pole dancing to increase grip. Other uses are not based on friction: Fine art uses rosin for tempera emulsions and as painting-medium component for oil paintings, it is soluble in oil of turpentine and turpentine substitute, needs to be warmed. In a printmaking technique, aquatint rosin is used on the etching plate in order to create surfaces in gray tones. In archery, when a new bowstring is being made or waxed for maintenance purposes, rosin may be present in the wax mixture; this provides an amount of tackiness to the string to hold its constituent strands together and reduce wear and fraying. Dog groomers use powdered rosin to aid in removal of excess hair from deep in the ear canal; some brands of fly paper use a solution of rubber as the adhesive. Rosin is sometimes used as an ingredient in dubbing wax used in fly tying.
Rosin is used hot to de-encapsulate epoxy integrated circuits. Rosin can be mixed with beeswax and a small amount of linseed oil to affix reeds to reed blocks in accordions. Rosin potatoes can be cooked by dropping potatoes into boiling rosin and cooking until they float to the surface. Rosin and its derivatives exhibit wide-ranging pharmaceutical applications. Rosin derivatives show excellent film forming and coating properties, they are used for tablet film and enteric coating purpose. Rosins have been used to formulate microcapsules and nanoparticles. Glycerol and mannitol esters of rosin are used as chewing gum bases for medicinal applications; the degradation and biocompatibility of rosin and rosin-based biomaterials has been examined in vitro and ex vivo. Rosin is the resinous constituent of the oleo-resin exuded by various species of pine, known in commerce as crude turpentine; the separation of the oleo-resin into the essential oil and common rosin is accomplished by distillation in large copper stills.
The essential oil is carried off at a temperature of between 100 °C ° and 160 °C, leaving fluid rosin, run off through a tap at the bottom of the still, purified by passing through straining wadding. Rosin varies in color, according to the age of the tree from which the turpentine is drawn and the degree of heat applied in dis
RTÉ News and Current Affairs
RTÉ News and Current Affairs, is a major division of Raidió Teilifís Éireann and provides a range of national and international news and current affairs programming for RTÉ television and online and for the independent Irish language broadcaster TG4. It is, by far, the largest and most popular news source in Ireland – with 77% of the Irish public regarding it as their main source of both Irish and international news, it broadcasts in English and Irish Sign Language. The organisation is a source of commentary on current affairs; the division is based at the RTÉ Television Centre in Donnybrook, however, the station operates regional bureaux across Ireland and the world. On 1 January 1926, 2RN started broadcasting, it was Ireland's first radio station. On 24 May 1926, there was the first advertised news bulletin on 2RN. On 26 February 1927, the first daily news report was broadcast on the station. During the Second World War, referred to in Ireland as The Emergency, because of the Emergency Powers Act 1939, media censorship of radio broadcasts affected news bulletins.
Before all news bulletins were broadcast, the scripts of the bulletins were read over the phone to Head of the Government Information Bureau, Frank Gallagher. Censorship brought in under the Act was lifted on 11 May 1945. On 31 December 1961 Ireland's first national television station, Telefís Éireann, was launched. A new Television Complex was built at Donnybrook in Dublin and the news service was the first to move in. On 1 January 1962 Charles Mitchel read the first television news bulletin at 6:00 pm. Andy O'Mahony was the station's other chief newsreader in the early days of the new service; the new studios were still being completed, so construction work was heard during news bulletins. On Telefís Éireann's first full day of broadcasting Broadsheet made its debut; this programme provided a more detailed analysis of current affairs. There was a mixture of incisive and light-hearted items, unscripted studio interviews and filmed reports. Presented by John O'Donoghue, Brian Cleeve and Brian Farrell, some of these men would continue broadcasting with the station until the new century.
Telefís Éireann's first full day saw the first broadcast of the Nine O'Clock News, a half-hour bulletin including news, newsview and sports results. Broadsheet was broadcast for the last time in 1964, it was replaced by Frank Hall's Newsbeat, a news and current affairs programme that focused more on the light-hearted stories from around the country. In 1966 Maurice O'Doherty joined the newsroom as a newsreader; that same year the station's new flagship news programme was broadcast for the first time. Seven Days had a production team with people such as Eoghan Harris, Brian Cleeve, Brian Farrell, John O'Donoghue. In 1967 the programme merged with another and became 7 days; when Radio Éireann and Telefís Éireann merged, RTÉ News was expanded, providing coverage to new stations RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta and RTÉ Radio 2. In the 1970s News moved from the original White picture format to color on television. In the early 1980s, in the space of two years, there were three general elections; this demanded a larger schedule of current affairs.
New programmes Morning Today Tonight were launched. The current set of TV News programmes began in 1988. Seán Duignan and Eileen Dunne were the first presenters of Six-One, which began in October 1988 In 1991, RTÉ News appointed its first legal affairs correspondent, Kieron Wood. In the 1990s, the first Washington DC correspondent Mark Little was appointed, Teilifís na Gaeilge, RTÉ lyric fm and RTÉ.ie were established. In 1992 RTÉ launched. Other notable current affairs programmes from the 1990s include The Week in Politics & Oireachtas Report Much of RTÉ's News output remained the same throughout the start of the 21st Century. In 2003 RTÉ's news department was merged with its Current Affairs department to form RTÉ News and Current Affairs. In September 2003, all RTÉ news reports in English on all networks were rebranded to RTÉ News, ending the separate branding of News 2 and 2FM News. In December 2008, RTÉ News moved out of their usual studio 3 in the Television Centre at Donnybrook and moved into a temporary studio while work was carried out in studio 3 for the relaunch.
The new look was unveiled at the One O'Clock news programme on Monday 9 February 2009. Due to RTÉ cutbacks, instead of using satellite, reporters on foreign assignments were asked to send reports by internet link. RTÉ's Beijing bureau was closed in June 2009. 2009 brought major changes the current affairs schedule with the axing of the long-running Questions and Answers, replaced by The Frontline. The 2010s opened with what has since been commemorated as "one of the most memorable moments of Irish television" being shown on RTÉ's televised news bulletins. On 24 October 2012, RTÉ News & Current Affairs announced some major changes to its output from 2013. Prime Time relaunched with additional presenters Claire Byrne and George Lee; the Frontline was brought under the Prime Time brand with the programme now airing 3 times a week. In 2012, RTÉ announced it was moving some of its regional newsrooms to local Institute of Technology as a cost saving arrangement; the affected areas are Sligo, Galway and Waterford.
RTÉ will retain the Limerick bureaux. In January 2013, RTÉ launched a new morning news programme Morning Edition which airs weekdays between 09:00–11:00 on RTÉ One and RTÉ Ne
A torch is a stick with combustible material at one end, ignited and used as a light source. Torches have been used throughout history, are still used in processions and religious events, in juggling entertainment. In some countries, the word "torch" is used as the term for a battery-operated portable light. From the Old French "torche" meaning "twisted thing", hence "torch formed of twisted tow dipped in wax" from Vulgar Latin *torca, alteration of Late Latin torqua, variant of classical Latin torques "collar of twisted metal", from torquere "to twist". Torch construction has varied through history depending on the torch's purpose. Torches were constructed of a wooden stave with one end wrapped in a material, soaked in a flammable substance. In ancient Rome some torches were made of sulfur mixed with lime; this meant. Modern procession torches are made from coarse hessian soaked in wax. A wooden handle is used, a cardboard collar is attached to deflect any wax droplets, they are an easy and cheap way to hold a flame aloft in a parade or to provide illumination in any after-dark celebration.
Modern torches suitable for juggling are made of a wooden-and-metal or metal-only stave with one end wrapped in a Kevlar wick. This wick is soaked in a flammable liquid paraffin; the torch is a common emblem of both hope. Thus the Statue of Liberty "Liberty Enlightening the World", lifts her torch. Crossed reversed torches were signs of mourning that appear on Greek and Roman funerary monuments—a torch pointed downwards symbolizes death, while a torch held up symbolizes life and the regenerative power of flame; the torch is a symbol used by political parties, for instance by both Labour and the Conservatives in the UK, the Malta Labour Party. In the seals of schools in the Philippines, the torch symbolizes the vision of education to provide enlightenment to all the students. A torch carried in relay by runners is used to light the Olympic flame which burns without interruption until the end of the Games; these torches and the relay tradition were introduced in the 1936 Summer Olympics by Carl Diem, the chairman of the event because during the duration of the Ancient Olympic Games in Olympia, a sacred flame burnt inside of the temple of Hera, kept in custody by her priestess.
Juggling torches are used as a prop in toss juggling: they can be flipped into the air in an end-over-end motion while being juggled, in the same manner as juggling clubs or juggling knives, but because of their sound and'trail of flame', they can appear much more impressive to audiences. To a skilled juggler, there is only a slight chance of being burned. In former times, liturgical torches were carried in Eucharistic processions to give light; the Church adopted their use for Solemn High Masses. According to Adrian Fortescue, the more correct form of liturgical torches are non-freestanding. However, today in the Vatican, tall candles in ornate candle-stick holders have replaced the former type; the torches are carried by torchbearers, who leave after Communion. Anglicans of the High Church and some Lutherans use torches in some of their liturgical celebrations as well; the association of a torch with love may date to the Greek and Roman tradition of a wedding torch, lit in the bride's hearth on her wedding night used to light the hearth in her new home.
Such a torch is associated with the Greek god of marriage Hymen. The idiom to carry a torch means to love or to be romantically infatuated with someone when such feelings are not reciprocated, it is used to characterize a situation in which a romantic relationship has ended, but where one partner still loves the other. It is considered by some to still in wide usage. A torch song is a sentimental love song in which a female singer laments an unrequited love. List of light sources Sconce Picture of non-freestanding torches Antique Liturgical Torches in Procession Picture of non-freestanding torches Antique Liturgical Torches in Procession
Breadfruit is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry and jackfruit family believed to be a domesticated descendant of Artocarpus camansi originating in New Guinea, the Maluku Islands, the Philippines. It was spread to Oceania via the Austronesian expansion, it was further spread to other tropical regions of the world during the Colonial Era. British and French navigators introduced a few Polynesian seedless varieties to Caribbean islands during the late 18th century. Today it is grown in some 90 countries throughout South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Caribbean, Central America and Africa, its name is derived from the texture of the moderately ripe fruit when cooked, similar to freshly baked bread and having a potato-like flavor. The trees have been planted in tropical regions, including lowland Central America, northern South America, the Caribbean. In addition to the fruit serving as a staple food in many cultures, the light, sturdy timber of breadfruit has been used for outriggers and houses in the tropics.
Breadfruit is related to Artocarpus camansi of New Guinea, the Maluku Islands, the Philippines, Artocarpus blancoi of the Philippines, Artocarpus mariannensis of Micronesia, all of which are sometimes referred to as "breadfruit". It is closely related to Artocarpus heterophyllus. According to DNA fingerprinting studies, the wild seeded ancestor of breadfruit is the breadnut, native to New Guinea, the Maluku Islands, the Philippines, it was one of the canoe plants spread by Austronesian voyagers around 3,000 years ago into Micronesia and Polynesia, where it is not native. A. camansi was domesticated and selectively bred in Polynesia, giving rise to the seedless Artocarpus altilis. Micronesian breadfruit show evidence of hybridization with the native Artocarpus mariannensis, while most Polynesian and Melanesian cultivars do not; this indicates that Micronesia was colonized separately from Polynesia and Melanesia through two different migration events which came into contact with each other in eastern Micronesia.
Sir Joseph Banks and others saw the value of breadfruit as a productive food in 1769, when stationed in Tahiti as part of the Endeavour expedition commanded by Captain James Cook. The late-18th-century quest for cheap, high-energy food sources for slaves in British colonies prompted colonial administrators and plantation owners to call for the plant to be brought to the Caribbean; as president of the Royal Society, Banks provided a cash bounty and gold medal for success in this endeavor, lobbied his friends in government and the Admiralty for a British Naval expedition. In 1787, William Bligh was appointed captain of HMS Bounty, ordered to proceed to the South Pacific to collect the plants. In 1791, Bligh commanded a second expedition with Providence and Assistant, which collected seedless breadfruit plants in Tahiti and transported these to St. Helena, in the Atlantic, St. Vincent and Jamaica in the West Indies. Although Bligh won the Royal Society medal for his efforts, the introduction was not successful, as most slaves refused to eat the new food.
Breadfruit trees grow to a height of 26 m. The large and thick leaves are cut into pinnate lobes. All parts of the tree yield latex, useful for boat caulking; the trees are monoecious, with male and female flowers growing on the same tree. The male flowers emerge first, followed shortly afterward by the female flowers; the latter grow into capitula. Pollination occurs by fruit bats, but cultivated varieties produce fruit without pollination; the compound, false fruit develops from the swollen perianth, originates from 1,500-2,000 flowers visible on the skin of the fruit as hexagon-like disks. Breadfruit is one of the highest-yielding food plants, with a single tree producing up to 200 or more grapefruit-sized fruits per season, requiring limited care. In the South Pacific, the trees yield 50 to 150 fruits per year round, oval or oblong weighing 0.25–6 kg. Productivity varies between dry areas. Studies in Barbados indicate a reasonable potential of 16–32 short tons per hectare; the ovoid fruit has a rough surface, each fruit is divided into many achenes, each achene surrounded by a fleshy perianth and growing on a fleshy receptacle.
Most selectively bred cultivars have seedless fruit, whereas seeded varieties are grown for their edible seeds. Breadfruit is propagated using root cuttings. Breadfruit is related to the breadnut, from which it might have been selected, it is noticeably similar in appearance to its relative of the jackfruit. Breadfruit has hundreds of varieties and thousands of common names varying according to its geographic distribution, is cultivated in some 90 countries; the related Artocarpus camansi can be distinguished from A. altilis by having spinier fruits with numerous seeds. Artocarpus mariannensis can be distinguished by having dark green elongated fruits with darker yellow flesh, as well as entire or shallowly lobed leaves. Breadfruit is an equatorial lowland species, it is found at elevations of 1,550 metres. Preferred soils are neutral to either sand, sandy loam, loam or sandy clay loam. Breadfruit is able to grow in coral sands and saline soils; the breadfruit is ultra-tropical, requiring a temperature range of 16–38 °C and an annual rainfall of 200–250 cm.
Breadfruit is 7
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects. Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants or from secretions of other insects, by regurgitation, enzymatic activity, water evaporation. Bees store honey in wax structures called a honeycomb; the variety of honey produced by honey bees is the best-known, due to its worldwide commercial production and human consumption. Honey is collected from wild bee colonies, or from hives of domesticated bees, a practice known as beekeeping or apiculture. Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, has about the same relative sweetness as sucrose, it has attractive chemical properties for a distinctive flavor when used as a sweetener. Most microorganisms do not grow in honey, so sealed honey does not spoil after thousands of years. Honey provides 46 calories in a serving of one tablespoon. Honey is regarded as safe. Honey use and production have a long and varied history as an ancient activity.
Several cave paintings in Cuevas de la Araña, depict humans foraging for honey at least 8,000 years ago. Honey is produced by bees collecting nectar for use as sugars consumed to support metabolism of muscle activity during foraging or to be stored as a long-term food supply. During foraging, bees access part of the nectar collected to support metabolic activity of flight muscles, with the majority of collected nectar destined for regurgitation and storage as honey. In cold weather or when other food sources are scarce and larval bees use stored honey as food. By contriving for bee swarms to nest in human-made hives, people have been able to semidomesticate the insects and harvest excess honey. In the hive or in a wild nest, the three types of bees are: a single female queen bee a seasonally variable number of male drone bees to fertilize new queens 20,000 to 40,000 female worker beesLeaving the hive, a foraging bee collects sugar-rich flower nectar, sucking it through its proboscis and placing it in its proventriculus, which lies just dorsal to its food stomach.
The honey stomach holds about 40 mg of nectar, or 50% of the bee's unloaded weight, which can require over a thousand flowers and more than an hour to fill. The nectar begins with a water content of 70 to 80%. Salivary enzymes and proteins from the bee's hypopharyngeal gland are added to the nectar to begin breaking down the sugars, raising the water content slightly; the forager bees return to the hive, where they regurgitate and transfer nectar to the hive bees. The hive bees use their honey stomachs to ingest and regurgitate the nectar, forming bubbles between their mandibles until it is digested; the bubbles create a large surface area per volume and a portion of the water is removed through evaporation. Bee digestive enzymes hydrolyze sucrose to a mixture of glucose and fructose, break down other starches and proteins, increasing the acidity; the bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion for as long as 20 minutes, passing the nectar from one bee to the next, until the product reaches the honeycombs in storage quality.
It is placed in honeycomb cells and left unsealed while still high in water content and natural yeasts which, would cause the sugars in the newly formed honey to ferment. Bees are some of the few insects that can generate large amounts of body heat, thus the hive bees regulate the hive temperature, either heating with their bodies or cooling with water evaporation, to maintain a constant temperature in the honey-storage areas around 35 °C; the process continues as hive bees flutter their wings to circulate air and evaporate water from the honey to a content around 18%, raising the sugar concentration beyond the saturation point and preventing fermentation. The bees cap the cells with wax to seal them; as removed from the hive by a beekeeper, honey has a long shelf life and will not ferment if properly sealed. Another source of honey is from a number of wasp species, such as Brachygastra lecheguana and Brachygastra mellifica, which are found in South and Central America; these species are known to produce honey.
Some wasps, such as Polistes versicolor consume honey themselves, alternating between feeding on pollen in the middle of their lifecycles and feeding on honey, which can better provide for their energy needs. Honey is collected from domesticated beehives. On average, a hive will produce about 65 pounds of honey per year. Wild bee nests are sometimes located by following a honeyguide bird. To safely collect honey from a hive, beekeepers pacify the bees using a bee smoker; the smoke triggers a feeding instinct, making them less aggressive and the smoke obscures the pheromones the bees use to communicate. The honeycomb is removed from the hive and the honey may be extracted from that, either by crushing or by using a honey extractor; the honey is usually filtered to remove beeswax and other debris. Before the invention of removable frames, bee colonies were sacrificed to conduct the harvest; the harvester would replace the entire colony the next spring. Since the invention of removable frames, the principles of husbandry led most beekeepers to ensure that their bees have enough stores to survive the winter, either by leaving some honey in the beehive or by providing the colony with a honey substitute such as sugar water or crystalline sugar.
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