St Lucia, Queensland
St Lucia is a suburb within the City of Brisbane, Australia 6 kilometres southwest of the Brisbane CBD. The suburb sits on a peninsula, bounded on the north and south by a bend in the Brisbane river; the eastern third of the suburb is occupied by the main campus of The University of Queensland. The flat area on the northern side is medium to high density residential including numerous high-rise apartments on the river-front; the more hilly area in the centre and south is low-density residential. The south-west is occupied by the Saint Lucia golf links. St Lucia is a residential suburb and is regarded as one of the most affluent suburbs in Brisbane. For many years it was the third most expensive suburb behind Hamilton and Ascot and is still one of the top five most expensive suburbs in Brisbane today; the area was part of Indooroopilly and part of Toowong. Known as Indooroopilly Pocket, for a short time it was called Toowong South and part of the area was hived off as Lang Farm. Sugar plantations were established in the area in the 1860s.
William Alexander Wilson, born in St Lucia in the West Indies, purchased the Coldridge Plantation in 1882 and renamed it St Lucia Sugar Plantation. It was subdivided in 1883 for housing and the name was transferred to the subdivision. St Lucia is a green, leafy suburb with a variety of housing including apartment complexes and detached Federation styles and Queenslanders. St Lucia has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 12 Upland Road: Great Court, University of Queensland 38 Upland Road: Union College 99 Sir Fred Schonnel Drive: Vida and Jayne Lahey's House 396 Swann Road: Langer HouseAlthough never heritage-listed, one of St Lucia's most iconic homes was once the so-called The Pink Palace at 272 Swann Rd until it was demolished in 2015. St Lucia is home to a diverse range of individuals; the student population of St Lucia is high in dwellings in the immediate vicinity of the university, but the suburb is home to wealthy professionals and families. Houses and apartments in close proximity to the Brisbane River attract price tags in the millions.
In the 2016 census, St Lucia had a population of 12,574 people, an increase from 11,195 in the 2011 census. The median age of the St Lucia population was 15 years below the Australian median. Children aged under 15 years made up 8.6% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 8.3% of the population. The most notable difference was in the group aged between 15–24 years. 46.2% of people living in St Lucia were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 66.7%. 55.1% of people spoke only English at home. The most common response for religion in St Lucia was No Religion, followed by Catholicism %, "Not stated", Islam. In St Lucia, just over half of all households were family households, 21.7% were single person households and 28.3% were group households. The median weekly household income was $1,385, similar to the national median of $1,438; the University of Queensland is the main attraction of St Lucia, with the university, residential colleges covering a large proportion of the suburb.
Ironside State School, opened in 1870 is located on Hawken Drive and is the only primary school in the suburb. Several small shopping precincts are located throughout the suburb but otherwise the suburb is residential. St Lucia Golf Links is an 18-hole pay-and-play public golf course located on the corner of Indooroopilly Road and Carawa Street, St Lucia; the golf course is one of Brisbane's oldest and has hosted several Queensland Open and PGA tournaments. The layout suits golfers of all levels. By Bus, St Lucia can be accessed from the western suburbs and Brisbane CBD, with routes terminating at the University of Queensland. There is a NightLink service, a safety initiative which provides buses with security on board all night Fridays and Saturdays; the Eleanor Schonell Bridge, a dedicated bus/pedestrian/bicycle bridge, connects the University with Dutton Park and carries buses from the southern suburbs, CBD and Royal Brisbane Hospital to the Lakes Bus Station on St Lucia campus. By Ferry, The CityCat stops at two terminals in St Lucia, the Guyatt Park CityCat Terminal and University of Queensland Terminal.
By Bicycle, St Lucia has bicycle routes that utilise the residential streets between the University of Queensland and Toowong. By Road, St Lucia has three major thoroughfares; these are Sir Fred Schonell Drive and The Esplanade. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: St Lucia
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records, known from its inception from 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world. The brainchild of Sir Hugh Beaver, the book was co-founded by brothers Norris and Ross McWhirter in Fleet Street, London in August 1954; the book itself holds a world record, as the best-selling copyrighted book of all time. As of the 2019 edition, it is now in its 64th year of publication, published in 100 countries and 23 languages; the international franchise has extended beyond print to include museums. The popularity of the franchise has resulted in Guinness World Records becoming the primary international authority on the cataloguing and verification of a huge number of world records. On 10 November 1951, Sir Hugh Beaver the managing director of the Guinness Breweries, went on a shooting party in the North Slob, by the River Slaney in County Wexford, Ireland.
After missing a shot at a golden plover, he became involved in an argument over, the fastest game bird in Europe, the golden plover or the red grouse. That evening at Castlebridge House, he realized that it was impossible to confirm in reference books whether or not the golden plover was Europe's fastest game bird. Beaver knew that there must be numerous other questions debated nightly in pubs throughout Ireland and abroad, but there was no book in the world with which to settle arguments about records, he realised that a book supplying the answers to this sort of question might prove successful. Beaver's idea became reality when Guinness employee Christopher Chataway recommended University friends Norris and Ross McWhirter, running a fact-finding agency in London; the twin brothers were commissioned to compile what became The Guinness Book of Records in August 1954. A thousand copies were given away. After the founding of The Guinness Book of Records at 107 Fleet Street, the first 198-page edition was bound on 27 August 1955 and went to the top of the British best seller lists by Christmas.
The following year, it launched in the US, sold 70,000 copies. Since Guinness World Records has gone on to become a record breaker in its own right; because the book became a surprise hit, many further editions were printed settling into a pattern of one revision a year, published in September/October, in time for Christmas. The McWhirters continued to compile it for many years. Both brothers had an encyclopedic memory. Ross McWhirter was assassinated by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in 1975. Following Ross' assassination, the feature in the show where questions about records posed by children were answered was called Norris on the Spot. Guinness Superlatives Limited was formed in 1954 to publish the first book. Sterling Publishing owned the rights to the Guinness book in the US for decades; the group was owned by Guinness PLC and subsequently Diageo until 2001, when it was purchased by Gullane Entertainment. Gullane was itself purchased by HIT Entertainment in 2002. In 2006, Apax Partners purchased HiT and subsequently sold Guinness World Records in early 2008 to the Jim Pattison Group, the parent company of Ripley Entertainment, licensed to operate Guinness World Records' Attractions.
With offices in New York City and Tokyo, Guinness World Records' global headquarters remain in London, while its museum attractions are based at Ripley headquarters in Orlando, Florida, US. Recent editions have focused on record feats by person competitors. Competitions range from obvious ones such as Olympic weightlifting to the longest egg tossing distances, or for longest time spent playing Grand Theft Auto IV or the number of hot dogs that can be consumed in three minutes. Besides records about competitions, it contains such facts such as the heaviest tumour, the most poisonous fungus, the longest-running soap opera and the most valuable life-insurance policy, among others. Many records relate to the youngest people to have achieved something, such as the youngest person to visit all nations of the world; each edition contains a selection of the records from the Guinness World Records database, as well as select new records, with the criteria for inclusion changing from year to year. The retirement of Norris McWhirter from his consulting role in 1995 and the subsequent decision by Diageo Plc to sell The Guinness Book of Records brand have shifted the focus of the books from text-oriented to illustrated reference.
A selection of records are curated for the book from the full archive but all existing Guinness World Records titles can be accessed by creating a login on the company's website. Applications made by individuals for existing record categories are free of charge. There is an administration fee of $5 to propose a new record title. A number of spin-off books and television series have been produced. Guinness World Records bestowed the record of "Person with the most records" on Ashrita Furman of Queens, NY in April 2009. At that time, he held 100 records. In 2005, Guinness designated 9 November as International Guinness World Records Day to encourage breaking of world records. In 2006, an esti
RTÉ News and Current Affairs
RTÉ News and Current Affairs, is a major division of Raidió Teilifís Éireann and provides a range of national and international news and current affairs programming for RTÉ television and online and for the independent Irish language broadcaster TG4. It is, by far, the largest and most popular news source in Ireland – with 77% of the Irish public regarding it as their main source of both Irish and international news, it broadcasts in English and Irish Sign Language. The organisation is a source of commentary on current affairs; the division is based at the RTÉ Television Centre in Donnybrook, however, the station operates regional bureaux across Ireland and the world. On 1 January 1926, 2RN started broadcasting, it was Ireland's first radio station. On 24 May 1926, there was the first advertised news bulletin on 2RN. On 26 February 1927, the first daily news report was broadcast on the station. During the Second World War, referred to in Ireland as The Emergency, because of the Emergency Powers Act 1939, media censorship of radio broadcasts affected news bulletins.
Before all news bulletins were broadcast, the scripts of the bulletins were read over the phone to Head of the Government Information Bureau, Frank Gallagher. Censorship brought in under the Act was lifted on 11 May 1945. On 31 December 1961 Ireland's first national television station, Telefís Éireann, was launched. A new Television Complex was built at Donnybrook in Dublin and the news service was the first to move in. On 1 January 1962 Charles Mitchel read the first television news bulletin at 6:00 pm. Andy O'Mahony was the station's other chief newsreader in the early days of the new service; the new studios were still being completed, so construction work was heard during news bulletins. On Telefís Éireann's first full day of broadcasting Broadsheet made its debut; this programme provided a more detailed analysis of current affairs. There was a mixture of incisive and light-hearted items, unscripted studio interviews and filmed reports. Presented by John O'Donoghue, Brian Cleeve and Brian Farrell, some of these men would continue broadcasting with the station until the new century.
Telefís Éireann's first full day saw the first broadcast of the Nine O'Clock News, a half-hour bulletin including news, newsview and sports results. Broadsheet was broadcast for the last time in 1964, it was replaced by Frank Hall's Newsbeat, a news and current affairs programme that focused more on the light-hearted stories from around the country. In 1966 Maurice O'Doherty joined the newsroom as a newsreader; that same year the station's new flagship news programme was broadcast for the first time. Seven Days had a production team with people such as Eoghan Harris, Brian Cleeve, Brian Farrell, John O'Donoghue. In 1967 the programme merged with another and became 7 days; when Radio Éireann and Telefís Éireann merged, RTÉ News was expanded, providing coverage to new stations RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta and RTÉ Radio 2. In the 1970s News moved from the original White picture format to color on television. In the early 1980s, in the space of two years, there were three general elections; this demanded a larger schedule of current affairs.
New programmes Morning Today Tonight were launched. The current set of TV News programmes began in 1988. Seán Duignan and Eileen Dunne were the first presenters of Six-One, which began in October 1988 In 1991, RTÉ News appointed its first legal affairs correspondent, Kieron Wood. In the 1990s, the first Washington DC correspondent Mark Little was appointed, Teilifís na Gaeilge, RTÉ lyric fm and RTÉ.ie were established. In 1992 RTÉ launched. Other notable current affairs programmes from the 1990s include The Week in Politics & Oireachtas Report Much of RTÉ's News output remained the same throughout the start of the 21st Century. In 2003 RTÉ's news department was merged with its Current Affairs department to form RTÉ News and Current Affairs. In September 2003, all RTÉ news reports in English on all networks were rebranded to RTÉ News, ending the separate branding of News 2 and 2FM News. In December 2008, RTÉ News moved out of their usual studio 3 in the Television Centre at Donnybrook and moved into a temporary studio while work was carried out in studio 3 for the relaunch.
The new look was unveiled at the One O'Clock news programme on Monday 9 February 2009. Due to RTÉ cutbacks, instead of using satellite, reporters on foreign assignments were asked to send reports by internet link. RTÉ's Beijing bureau was closed in June 2009. 2009 brought major changes the current affairs schedule with the axing of the long-running Questions and Answers, replaced by The Frontline. The 2010s opened with what has since been commemorated as "one of the most memorable moments of Irish television" being shown on RTÉ's televised news bulletins. On 24 October 2012, RTÉ News & Current Affairs announced some major changes to its output from 2013. Prime Time relaunched with additional presenters Claire Byrne and George Lee; the Frontline was brought under the Prime Time brand with the programme now airing 3 times a week. In 2012, RTÉ announced it was moving some of its regional newsrooms to local Institute of Technology as a cost saving arrangement; the affected areas are Sligo, Galway and Waterford.
RTÉ will retain the Limerick bureaux. In January 2013, RTÉ launched a new morning news programme Morning Edition which airs weekdays between 09:00–11:00 on RTÉ One and RTÉ Ne
A funnel is a tube or pipe, wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, used for guiding liquid or powder into a small opening. Funnels are made of stainless steel, glass, or plastic; the material used in its construction should be sturdy enough to withstand the weight of the substance being transferred, it should not react with the substance. For this reason, stainless steel or glass are useful in transferring diesel, while plastic funnels are useful in the kitchen. Sometimes disposable paper funnels are used in cases where it would be difficult to adequately clean the funnel afterwards. Dropper funnels called dropping funnels or tap funnels, have a tap to allow the controlled release of a liquid. A flat funnel, made of polypropylene, utilises living flexible walls to fold flat; the term "funnel" may refer to the chimney or smokestack on a steam locomotive and refers to the same on a ship. The term funnel is applied to other strange objects like a smoking pipe or a kitchen bin. There are many different kinds of funnels that have been adapted for specialized applications in the laboratory.
Filter funnels, thistle funnels, dropping funnels have stopcocks which allow the fluids to be added to a flask slowly. For solids, a powder funnel with a wide and short stem is more appropriate as it does not clog easily; when used with filter paper, filter funnels, Büchner and Hirsch funnels can be used to remove fine particles from a liquid in a process called filtration. For more demanding applications, the filter paper in the latter two may be replaced with a sintered glass frit. Separatory funnels are used in liquid-liquid extractions; the Tullgren funnel is used to collect arthropods from similar material. Glass is the material of choice for laboratory applications due to its inertness compared with metals or plastics. However, plastic funnels made of nonreactive polyethylene are used for transferring aqueous solutions. Plastic is most used for powder funnels that do not come into contact with solvent in normal use. To channel liquids or fine-grained substances into containers with a small opening.
Used for pouring liquids or powder through a small opening and for holding the filter paper in filtration. Used in transferring liquids in small containers; the inverted funnel is a symbol of madness. It appears in many Medieval depictions of the mad; the Cebuano word for inverted funnel is embodo. In popular culture, the Tin Woodman in L. Frank Baum's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz uses an inverted funnel for a hat, though, never mentioned in the story—it originated in W. W. Denslow's original illustrations for the book. In the East Coast of the United States, "beer funnel" is another term for "beer bong". "Funneling" a beer involves pouring an entire beer into a funnel attached to a tube, in which a person consumes the beer via the tube. In the computing world, a funnel is used as the icon for the filter functionality. Funneling Tundish, used in plumbing and continuous casting Media related to Funnel shaped objects at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Funnels at Wikimedia Commons
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895; the prizes in Chemistry, Peace and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The prizes are regarded as the most prestigious awards available in the fields of chemistry, peace activism and physiology or medicine. In 1968, Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, although not a Nobel Prize, has become informally known as the "Nobel Prize in Economics"; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes were awarded 590 times to 935 organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals.
The prize ceremonies take place annually in Sweden. Each recipient receives a gold medal, a diploma, a sum of money, decided by the Nobel Foundation. Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating; the prize is not awarded posthumously. A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people. Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, into a family of engineers, he was a chemist and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel invented ballistite; this invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth coming from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.
In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. As it was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature; the article made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, from a cerebral haemorrhage, he was 63 years old. Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, he composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, physiology or medicine and peace. Nobel bequeathed 94 % of 31 million SEK, to establish the five Nobel Prizes; because of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The executors of Nobel's will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organised the award of prizes.
Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organizations were designated; these were Karolinska Institute on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for. In 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved. According to his will and testament read in Stockholm on 30 December 1896, a foundation established by Alfred Nobel would reward those who serve humanity; the Nobel Prize was funded by Alfred Nobel's personal fortune. According to the official sources, Alfred Nobel bequeathed from the shares 94% of his fortune to the Nobel Foundation that now forms the economic base of the Nobel Prize; the Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organization on 29 June 1900. Its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Robert and Ludvig Nobel were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan, according to Swedish historian E. Bargengren, who accessed the Nobel family archives, it was this "decision to allow withdrawal of Alfred's money from Baku that became the decisive factor that enabled the Nobel Prizes to be established". Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal ad
University of Glasgow
The University of Glasgow is a public research university in Glasgow, Scotland. Founded by papal bull in 1451, it is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Along with the universities of Edinburgh, St. Andrews, the university was part of the Scottish Enlightenment during the 18th century. In common with universities of the pre-modern era, Glasgow educated students from wealthy backgrounds, however, it became a pioneer in British higher education in the 19th century by providing for the needs of students from the growing urban and commercial middle class. Glasgow University served all of these students by preparing them for professions: the law, civil service and the church, it trained smaller but growing numbers for careers in science and engineering. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £626.5 million of which £180.8 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £610.1 million. It is a member of Universitas 21, the Russell Group and the Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities.
The university was located in the city's High Street. Additionally, a number of university buildings are located elsewhere, such as the Veterinary School in Bearsden, the Crichton Campus in Dumfries. Alumni or former staff of the university include James Wilson, philosopher Francis Hutcheson, engineer James Watt and economist Adam Smith, physicist Lord Kelvin, surgeon Joseph Lister, seven Nobel laureates, three British Prime Ministers; the University of Glasgow was founded in 1451 by a charter or papal bull from Pope Nicholas V, at the suggestion of King James II, giving Bishop William Turnbull, a graduate of the University of St Andrews, permission to add a university to the city's Cathedral. It is the second-oldest university in Scotland after St Andrews and the fourth-oldest in the English-speaking world; the universities of St Andrews and Aberdeen were ecclesiastical foundations, while Edinburgh was a civic foundation. As one of the ancient universities of the United Kingdom, Glasgow is one of only eight institutions to award undergraduate master's degrees in certain disciplines.
The university has been without its original Bull since the mid-sixteenth century. In 1560, during the political unrest accompanying the Scottish Reformation, the chancellor, Archbishop James Beaton, a supporter of the Marian cause, fled to France, he took with him, for safe-keeping, many of the archives and valuables of the Cathedral and the university, including the Mace and the Bull. Although the Mace was sent back in 1590, the archives were not. Principal Dr James Fall told the Parliamentary Commissioners of Visitation on 28 August 1690, that he had seen the Bull at the Scots College in Paris, together with the many charters granted to the university by the monarchs of Scotland from James II to Mary, Queen of Scots; the university enquired of these documents in 1738, but was informed by Thomas Innes and the superiors of the Scots College that the original records of the foundation of the university were not to be found. If they had not been lost by this time, they went astray during the French Revolution when the Scots College was under threat.
Its records and valuables were moved for safe-keeping out of the city of Paris. The Bull remains the authority. Teaching at the university began in the chapterhouse of Glasgow Cathedral, subsequently moving to nearby Rottenrow, in a building known as the "Auld Pedagogy"; the university was given 13 acres of land belonging to the Black Friars on High Street by Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1563. By the late 17th century its building centred on two courtyards surrounded by walled gardens, with a clock tower, one of the notable features of Glasgow's skyline – reaching 140 feet in height – and a chapel adapted from the church of the former Dominican friary. Remnants of this Scottish Renaissance building parts of the main facade, were transferred to the Gilmorehill campus and renamed as the "Pearce Lodge", after Sir William Pearce, the shipbuilding magnate who funded its preservation; the Lion and Unicorn Staircase was transferred from the old college site and is now attached to the Main Building. John Anderson, while professor of natural philosophy at the university, with some opposition from his colleagues, pioneered vocational education for working men and women during the Industrial Revolution.
To continue this work in his will, he founded Anderson's College, associated with the university before merging with other institutions to become the University of Strathclyde in 1964. In 1973, Delphine Parrott became its first female professor, as Gardiner Professor of Immunology. In October 2014, the university court voted for the university to become the first academic institution in Europe to divest from the fossil fuel industry; the university is spread over a number of different campuses. The main one is the Gilmorehill campus, in Hillhead; as well as this there is the Garscube Estate in Bearsden, housing the Veterinary School, Ship model basin and much of the University's sports facilities, the Dental School in the city centre, the section of Mental Health and Well Being at Gartnavel Royal Hospital on Great Western Road, the Teaching and Learning Centre at the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital and the Crichton campus in Dumfries. The Imaging Ce
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton was an Irish physicist and Nobel laureate for his work with John Cockcroft with "atom-smashing" experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930s, so became the first person in history to split the atom. Ernest Walton was born in Abbeyside, County Waterford to a Methodist minister father, Rev John Walton and Anna Sinton. In those days a general clergyman's family moved once every three years, this practice carried Ernest and his family, while he was a small child, to Rathkeale, County Limerick and to County Monaghan, he attended day schools in counties Down and Tyrone, at Wesley College Dublin before becoming a boarder at Methodist College Belfast in 1915, where he excelled in science and mathematics. In 1922 Walton won scholarships to Trinity College, Dublin for the study of mathematics and science, would go on to be elected a Foundation Scholar in 1924, he was awarded master's degrees from Trinity in 1926 and 1927, respectively. During these years at college, Walton received numerous prizes for excellence in physics and mathematics, including the Foundation Scholarship in 1924.
Following graduation he was awarded an 1851 Research Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 and was accepted as a research student at Trinity College, under the supervision of Sir Ernest Rutherford, Director of Cambridge University's Cavendish Laboratory. At the time there were four Nobel Prize laureates on the staff at the Cavendish lab and a further five were to emerge, including Walton and John Cockcroft. Walton was awarded his PhD in 1931 and remained at Cambridge as a researcher until 1934. During the early 1930s Walton and John Cockcroft collaborated to build an apparatus that split the nuclei of lithium atoms by bombarding them with a stream of protons accelerated inside a high-voltage tube; the splitting of the lithium nuclei produced helium nuclei. This was experimental verification of theories about atomic structure, proposed earlier by Rutherford, George Gamow, others; the successful apparatus – a type of particle accelerator now called the Cockcroft-Walton generator – helped to usher in an era of particle-accelerator-based experimental nuclear physics.
It was this research at Cambridge in the early 1930s that won Walton and Cockcroft the Nobel Prize in physics in 1951. Walton was associated with the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies for over 40 years, e,g. serving long periods on the board of the School of Cosmic Physics and on the Council of the Institute. Following the 1952 death of John J. Nolan, the inaugural chairman of the School of Cosmic Physics, Walton assumed the role, served in that position until 1960, when he was succeeded by John H. Poole. Ernest Walton returned to Ireland in 1934 to become a Fellow of Trinity College Dublin in the physics department, in 1946 was appointed Erasmus Smith's Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy. Walton's lecturing was considered outstanding as he had the ability to present complicated matters in simple and easy-to-understand terms, his research interests were pursued with limited resources, yet he was able to study, in the late 1950s, the phosphorescent effect in glasses, secondary-electron emissions from surfaces under positive-ion bombardment, radiocarbon dating and low-level counting, the deposition of thin films on glass.
Although he retired from Trinity College Dublin in 1974, he retained his association with the Physics Department at Trinity up to his final illness. His was a familiar face in the tea-room. Shortly before his death he marked his lifelong devotion to Trinity by presenting his Nobel medal and citation to the college. Ernest Walton died in Belfast on 25 June 1995, aged 91, he is buried in Dublin. Ernest Walton married Freda Wilson, daughter of an Irish Methodist minister, on 23 August 1934, they had five children, Dr Alan Walton, Mrs Marian Woods, Professor Philip Walton, Professor of Applied Physics, National University of Ireland, Jean Clarke and Winifred Walton. He was a longtime member of the board of governors of Dublin. Raised as a Methodist, Walton has been described as someone, committed to the Christian faith, he gave lectures about the relationship of science and religion in several countries after he won the Nobel Prize, he encouraged the progress of science as a way to know more about God:"One way to learn the mind of the Creator is to study His creation.
We must pay God the compliment of studying His work of art and this should apply to all realms of human thought. A refusal to use our intelligence is an act of contempt for Him who gave us that intelligence" Walton held an interest in topics about the government and the Church and after his death, the organisation Christians in Science Ireland established the Walton Lectures on Science and Religion. David Wilkinson and Denis Alexander have given Walton Lectures in Trinity College Dublin. Walton and John Cockcroft were recipients of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Physics for their "work on the transmutation of the atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles", they are credited with being the first to disintegrate the lithium nucleus by bombardment with accelerated protons and identifying helium nuclei in the products in 1930. More they had built an apparatus which showed that nuclei of various lightweight elements could be split by fast-moving protons. Walton and Cockcroft received the Hughes Medal o