In cricket, roundarm bowling is a bowling style that was introduced in the first quarter of the 19th century and largely superseded underarm bowling by the 1830s. Using a roundarm action, the bowler has their arm extended about 90 degrees from their body at the point where they release the ball. Roundarm fell into decline after 1864 when the current style of bowling was legalised. The spread of roundarm in the 1820s was a reaction to the growing predominance of batsmen over the age-old underarm style of bowling. Its adherents argued that the legalisation of roundarm was essential to restore the balance between batting and bowling, high-scoring matches were still comparatively rare owing to vagaries in pitch conditions. The idea of roundarm is sometimes attributed to Christiana Willes, sister of Kent cricketer John Willes, elevating the arm to just above waist height, she bowled without interference from her attire. Roundarm was said to have devised in the 1790s by Tom Walker. Walker was an opening batsman who had a solid defensive technique and was notoriously difficult to dismiss.
He was a more than useful bowler who was looking for ways to improvise. Legend has it that he and some of his players in the Hambledon Era used to practise in a barn during the winters. Walker worked out that he could generate more bounce and variation of pace if he bowled with his arm away from his body and soon realised that these deliveries gave the batsman added problems. He tried to use the style in important matches but was no-balled and had to return to his usual underarm lobs and he tried, without success, to have it accepted in senior cricket. On 15 July 1822, in the MCC v Kent match at Lords and he had been trying at various times to introduce the style since 1807. Being no-balled on this occasion was the straw, for Willes reportedly threw the ball away and withdrew from the match, literally going straight to his horse. He refused to again in any important fixture. Although Willes had quit the game, he had made his point and others were willing to pick his ball up, in 1826, Sussex had the best team in England and were acclaimed as the Champion County in some quarters.
Their success owed much to the prowess of two top-class bowlers William Lillywhite and Jem Broadbridge, both of whom were champions of the style, when they could get away with it. Lillywhite was one of the great bowlers and was nicknamed the Nonpareil
In cricket, an umpire is a person who has the authority to make judgements on the cricket field, according to the laws of cricket. A cricket umpire is not to be confused with the referee who usually presides only over international matches and makes no decisions affecting the outcome of the game. Traditionally, cricket matches have two umpires on the field, one standing at the end where the bowler delivers the ball, since 2002, the ICC has two panels of umpires, namely the Elite Panel of Umpires and the larger International Panel of Umpires. Professional matches have a referee, who complements the role of the umpires. The match referee makes no decisions relevant to the outcome of the game, the ICC appoints a match referee from its Elite Panel of Referees to adjudicate Test matches and One Day Internationals. Minor cricket matches will often have trained umpires, the independent Association of Cricket Umpires and Scorers, formed in 1955, used to conduct umpire training within the UK. It however merged to form the ECB Association of Cricket Officials on 1 January 2008, a new structure of cricket umpiring and scoring qualifications has now been put into place and the ACO provides training and examinations for these.
Cricket Australia has introduced an accreditation scheme and eventually all umpires will be required to achieve the appropriate level of accreditation. The ages of umpires can vary enormously as some are former players, in accordance with the tradition of cricket, most ordinary, local games will have two umpires, one supplied by each side, who will fairly enforce the accepted rules. When a ball is being bowled, one stands behind the stumps at the non-strikers end. The second takes the position that he gives him the best view of the play. Through long tradition, this is usually square leg – in line with the popping crease, if the square-leg umpire elects to stand at point, he is required to inform both the batsmen, the captain of the fielding team, and his colleague. He may move to the point position in the if the setting sun prevents a clear view of the popping crease at his end. It is up to the umpires to keep out of the way of both the ball and the players. In particular, if the ball is hit and the attempt an run, the umpire behind the stumps will generally retreat to the side.
At the end of each over, the two umpires will exchange roles, because the bowlers end alternates between overs, this means they only move a short distance. For certain decisions during a match, the umpire may refer to the Third Umpire if there is one appointed. During play, the umpire at the end makes the decisions
A cricket ball is a hard, solid ball used to play cricket. A cricket ball consists of cork covered by leather, and manufacture is regulated by law at first-class level. The manipulation of a ball, through employment of its various physical properties, is a staple component of bowling and dismissing batsmen. In test cricket, professional games that spread over a multitude of days, and almost the entirety of amateur cricket. Training balls of white and pink are common, during cricket matches, the quality of the ball changes to a point where it is no longer usable, and during this decline its properties alter and thus can influence the match. Injuries and fatalities have been caused by cricket balls during matches, the hazards posed by cricket balls were a key motivator for the introduction of protective equipment. British Standard BS5993 specifies the details, quality. A cricket ball is made with a core of cork, which is layered with tightly wound string, the equator of the ball is stitched with string to form the balls prominent seam, with six rows of stitches.
The remaining two joins between the pieces are stitched internally. Lower-quality balls with a two-piece covering are popular for practice, the nature of the cricket ball slightly varies with its manufacturer. Cricket balls are red, and red balls are used in Test cricket. Manufacturers claim that white and red balls are manufactured using the methods and materials. Before October 2007, except during 1992 and 1996 World Cups, only one ball was used during an innings of an ODI, pink balls were developed in the 2000s to enable Tests and first-class matches played at night. It has performed well enough in testing and first-class cricket to be approved for use in international cricket, other colours were experimented with, such as yellow and orange, for improved night visibility, but pink proved to be the preferred option. As of 2014, the used in Test match cricket in England has a recommended retail price of 100 pounds sterling. In test match cricket this ball is used for a minimum of 80 overs, in professional one day cricket, at least two new balls are used for each match.
There are three main manufacturers of ball used in international matches, Dukes and SG. The manufacturer of the red used for Tests varies depending on location, India uses SG, England and the West Indies use Dukes
The Hambledon Club was a social club that is famous for its organisation of 18th century cricket matches. By the late 1770s it was the foremost cricket club in England, the origin of the club, based near Hambledon in rural Hampshire, is unclear but it had certainly been founded by 1768. From the mid-1760s, Hambledons stature grew till by the late 1770s it was the foremost cricket club in England. In spite of its remoteness, it had developed into a private club of noblemen and country gentry. Although some of these played in matches, professional players were mainly employed. The club produced several players including John Small, Thomas Brett, Richard Nyren, David Harris, Tom Taylor, Billy Beldham. It was the inspiration for the first significant cricket book, The Cricketers of My Time by John Nyren, the Hambledon Club was essentially social and, as it was multi-functional, not really a cricket club as such. Rather it is seen as an organiser of matches, arguments have taken place among historians about whether its teams should be termed Hampshire or Hambledon.
A study of the sources indicates that the nomenclature changed frequently, the subject is complicated by a reference to the Kent versus Hampshire & Sussex match at Guildford Bason on 26 &28 August 1772. According to the source, Hampshire & Sussex was synonymous with Hambledon Club and it is interesting that Sussex cricket was not very prominent during the Hambledon period and this could have been because Hambledon operated a team effectively representing two counties. Certainly there were Sussex connections at Hambledon such as John Bayton, Richard Nyren, William Barber, in 1782 the club moved from its original ground at Broadhalfpenny Down to Windmill Down, about half a mile away towards the village of Hambledon. The Bat and Ball Inn had been requisitioned as a dump by the military. Ridge Meadow is still the home of Hambledon C. C. today, on 29 August 1796, fifteen people attended a meeting and amongst them, according to the official minutes, was Mr Thos Pain, Authour of the rights of Man.
It was certainly a joke for Thomas Paine was under sentence of death for treason, the last meeting was held on 21 September 1796 where the minutes read only that No Gentlemen were present. The club had a round of six toasts,6. The Immortal Memory of Madge 1, the enigmatic Madge is a what, not a who. Indeed, it is believed to be a common, but crude, a description of the revival and, the whole history of the Hambledon Club can be read in The Glory Days of Cricket by Ashley Mote. The original ground is at Broadhalfpenny Down, opposite the Bat and Ball Inn, in Hyden Farm Lane, near Clanfield, where now the Broadhalfpenny Brigands Cricket Club play
In cricket, the stumps are the three vertical posts that support the bails and form the wicket. Stumping or being stumped is a method of dismissing a batsman, the umpire calling stumps means the play is over for the day. The stumps are three vertical posts which support two bails, the stumps and bails are usually made of wood, most commonly ash, and together form a wicket at each end of the pitch. The overall width of each wicket is 9 inches, each stump is 28 inches tall with maximum and minimum diameters of 1 1⁄2 inches and 1 3⁄8 inches. They have a spike at one end for inserting into the ground, in junior cricket the items have lesser dimensions. Each stump is referred to by a name, Off stump is the stump on the off side of the wicket. Middle stump is the stump, the middle of the three stumps. Leg stump is the stump on the on side of the wicket and these names are relative to the batsman, so a right-handed batsmans leg stump becomes the off stump when a left-handed player is batting. In modern professional play, the stumps are often branded with a sponsors logo, although they are too far away from spectators to be seen, such logos are visible on television coverage.
For professional matches, often one or more of the stumps is hollow and this is aligned vertically, but can view through a small window on the side of the stump via a mirror. The so-called stump-cam gives a view of play for action replays. A new innovation are stumps and bails embedded with red LEDs, LED stumps were first used at the 2014 ICC World Twenty20, and have since become commonplace in major white-ball matches like ODIs or franchise T20 leagues. Stumps is used as a term to mean the end of a days play, the umpires called stumps means that the umpires have declared play over for the day. At the end of a session, i. e. before lunch or tea, the umpires will remove the bails, at the end of the days play, the umpires will remove the stumps
Non-international England cricket teams
The key factor is that they were non-international and there is a significant difference between them and the official England cricket team which takes part in international fixtures. Conceptually, there is evidence of this sort of team being formed, or at least mooted and they have always been occasional elevens but, have invariably been strong sides. A typical example would be a selection consisting of leading players drawn from several county teams, the challenge excluded members of Croydon Cricket Club, with whom London were in dispute. It is possible that challenges of this sort had been issued previously, in the 1730s, any eleven men in England would in practice have come from the southeastern counties only, e. g. Berkshire, Hampshire, Middlesex, Sussex. The majority of teams were simply labelled England and sometimes the term all-England was used loosely in a generic sense but, strictly speaking. The all England term per se was first used in reports of two Kent v England matches in 1739.
The first was at Bromley Common on Monday,9 July, described as the unconquerable county, won by a very few notches. The second match was at the Artillery Ground in Bunhill Fields and this game was drawn and a report includes the phrase eleven picked out of all England. Top-level cricket at that time, was limited to the southeastern counties, before these matches, there were instances of teams representing a number of counties. On Thursday,28 August 1729, a match between Edwin Steads XI and Sir William Gages XI was held at Penshurst Park, near Tunbridge Wells in Kent, the match had the alternative title of Kent v Surrey, Sussex & Hampshire. It was 11-a-side and played for 100 guineas with some thousands watching and it seems to have been the first known innings victory as Gage got in one hand, as the former did in two hands, so the Kentish men threw it up. A contemporary report states that turned the scale of victory, which for years past has been generally on the Kentish side. Given a 1728 reference to the superiority of Kent in the 1720s, after 1739, England became a generic term used to denote numerous teams over the next two hundred years.
They invariably have important match status, depending on the quality and/or status of their opponents, the all-England teams were given names like The Rest, which more accurately describes them vis-à-vis their opponents. CricketArchive lists 29 matches involving teams called England or The Rest between 1739 and 1778 and these are all important matches but only one, England v Kent in 1744, has a scorecard. The earliest important match that has been designated first-class by CA was between a Hampshire county team and one called England on Broadhalfpenny Down at Hambledon in Hampshire on 24 June 1772. CAs list of England XI matches begins five years before Test cricket started and he kept the surplus for himself. The AEE continued for years to showcase the best players of the day
Scoring in cricket matches involves two elements – the number of runs scored and the number of wickets lost by each team. The scorer is someone appointed to all runs scored, all wickets taken and, where appropriate. In professional games, in compliance with the Laws of Cricket, the scorers have no say in whether runs or extras are scored, wickets taken or overs bowled. So that the umpire knows that they have seen each signal, while it is possible to keep score using a pencil and plain paper, scorers often use pre-printed scoring books, and these are commercially available in many different styles. Simple score books allow the recording of each batsmans runs, their scores and mode of dismissal, the analyses, the team score. More sophisticated score books allow for the recording of more detail, sometimes details of occurrences between deliveries, or incidental details like the weather, are recorded. In early times runs scored were sometimes recorded by carving notches on a stick – this root of the use of the slang term notches for runs.
In contrast, scoring in the game has become a specialism. For instance, cricket authorities often require information about such as the rate at which teams bowled their overs. The media ask to be notified of records, for many important matches, unofficial scorers keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists allowing the official scorers to concentrate undisturbed. In the English county game, the scorers keep score on a computer that updates a central server, the official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires mistakes these may be corrected after the event. The ECBs Association of Cricket Officials provides training for scorers, there are predominantly two methods that scorers use to record a game and computerised. The manual method uses a scorecard and a pen, the scorecard is colloquially known as The Book. Using the book, the scorer fills out two main sections per ball, the analysis and the batting analysis. Each section helps track the number of balls bowled in an over, any extras, most software used for cricket scoring uses a form at the front end with buttons for the scorer to press to record ball by ball events.
Additional functions include being able to draw a line denoting where the ball went from the batting crease and this gives additional charts tracking bowling placement and shot selection which can be used at the coaching level. This additional information, does not form part of the role of a scorer. It has been known for scorers to use both methods in conjunction with one another, in case the computer goes down or runs out of battery, addition to computer software, mobile applications are being used lately
Francis Hayman RA was an English painter and illustrator who became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768, and its first librarian. Born in Exeter, Hayman begun his career as a scene painter in Londons Drury Lane theatre before establishing a studio in St Martins Lane. A versatile artist influenced by the French Rococo style, he achieved some note during the 1740s through decorative paintings executed for the boxes at Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens in London. Hayman was a successful portraitist and history painter and he illustrated Pamela, a novel by Samuel Richardson, Miltons Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained, Smollets translation of Don Quixote, and other well-known works. His pupils included Mason Chamberlin, Nathaniel Dance-Holland, Thomas Seton and Lemuel Francis Abbott, with Joshua Reynolds, Hayman was actively involved in the formation of the Society of Artists, a forerunner of the Royal Academy, during the early 1760s. London, Elder & Co. pp. 296–7, the Surrender of Montreal to General Amherst de Francis Hayman et l’identité impériale britannique Mens, revue dhistoire intellectuelle et culturelle, Volume 12, numéro 1, automne 2011, p. 91-135.
Francis Hayman online Portrait of Hayman by Joshua Reynolds
Cricket fielding position can be broken down into offside and legside parts of the field. A fielder or fieldsman may field the ball with any part of his person, most of the rules covering fielders are in Law 41 of the Laws of cricket. In the early days of Test cricket, fielding was not a priority, with the advent of One Day International matches, fielding became more professional as saving runs became more important. With only 11 players in a team, one of whom is the bowler, which positions are filled by players and which remain vacant is a tactical decision made by the captain of the fielding team. The captain may move players between fielding positions at any time except when a bowler is in the act of bowling to a batsman, there are a number of named basic fielding positions, some of which are employed very commonly and others that are used less often. However, fielding positions are not fixed, and fielders can be placed in positions that differ from the basic positions, words such as backward, forward, or square can further indicate the angle.
The image shows the location of most of the fielding positions based on a right-handed batsman. The area to the left of a batsman is called the leg side or on side. If the batsman is left-handed, the leg and off sides are reversed, some fielding positions are used offensively. That is, players are put there with the aim being to catch out the batsman rather than to stop or slow down the scoring of runs. These positions include Slip meant to catch balls that just edge off the bat, Fly slip, Leg slip, Leg gully, the short and silly positions. Short leg, known as bat pad, is a position specifically intended to catch balls that unintentionally strike the bat and leg pad, other positions worth noting include, Wicket-keeper Long stop, who stands behind the wicket-keeper towards the boundary. This position is sometimes referred to as very fine leg. Sweeper, a name for deep cover, deep extra cover or deep midwicket, usually defensive. Cow corner, a jocular term for the position on the boundary between deep midwicket and long on. A position on the leg side 45° behind square, defending the single, an alternative description for backward short leg or short fine leg.
Also the bowler, after delivering the ball, must avoid running on the pitch so usually ends up fielding near silly mid on or silly mid off, but somewhat closer to the pitch. Saving one or On the single As close as the needs to be to prevent the batsmen from running a quick single
The wicket-keeper in the sport of cricket is the player on the fielding side who stands behind the wicket or stumps being guarded by the batsman currently on strike. The wicket-keeper is the member of the fielding side permitted to wear gloves. The wicket-keeper may wear a helmet with a face guard to help protect from injury. It is essentially a specialist role, the role of the keeper is governed by Law 40 of the Laws of Cricket. Initially, during the bowling of the ball the wicket-keeper crouches in a squatting position. Australian wicket-keeper Sammy Carter was the first to squat on his haunches rather than bend over from the waist, sometimes the keeper is in the best position to catch a ball which has been hit high in the air. More catches are taken by wicket-keepers than by any other fielding position, the keeper can stump the batsman by using the ball to remove the bails from the stumps, if the batsman is out of his crease after a delivery has passed the stumps into keepers hands. The keeper must dislodge the bail and the batsman is out, when the ball is hit into the outfield, the keeper moves close to the stumps to catch the return throw from a fielder and, if possible, to run out a batsman.
The more skilled the keeper, the faster the bowling to which he is able to stand up, wicket-keeping is a specialist discipline and it requires training consistent with the level expected of a specialist batsman or bowler. However, the keeper is expected to possess reasonable batting skill. They typically bat at number 7 in first class cricket, wicket-keepers who are capable of batting at the top of the order are known informally as keeper/batsmen and is more typically seen in limited overs cricket. Since there is room for one keeper in a cricket side. One such selection dilemma was that faced by England selectors in the 1990s between Jack Russell and Alec Stewart, the keeper may have a captaincy role. Uniquely, they are involved in every delivery of an innings. They can frequently be heard encouraging the bowler, and may indulge in the practice of sledging the batsman with well timed comments about their skill, appearance or personal habits. The Indian wicket-keeper batsman MS Dhoni is a notable wicket-keeper captain who captained India in 331 matches across three formats, next best being Mushfiqur Rahim of Bangladesh.
The keeper is the only allowed to touch the ball with protective equipment. The protection offered by the gloves is not always adequate, the England keeper Alan Knott sometimes placed steaks inside his gloves for added cushioning
In cricket, overarm bowling refers to a delivery in which the bowlers hand is above shoulder height. When cricket originated all bowlers delivered the ball underarm where the hand is below waist height. The Laws of Cricket at that time directed that such a delivery be called a no ball, in 1845, the law was strengthened by removing the benefit of doubt from the bowler in height of hand questions, the umpires view of the incident being final. Even so, it was only a matter of time before confrontation occurred, the problem was that many umpires were themselves bowlers and believed that the bowler should be allowed to bowl with a fully raised hand. The watershed was reached on 26 August 1862 at The Oval when Surrey hosted All-England, play continued next day, but Lillywhite diplomatically withdrew and was replaced by another umpire. MCC responded to this crisis with rather more haste than they had to roundarm, law 10 was rewritten to allow the bowler to bring his arm through at any height providing he kept it straight and did not throw the ball.
The 1864 origin has been challenged, see First-class cricket