Pitchfork is an American online magazine launched in 1995 by Ryan Schreiber, based in Chicago and owned by Condé Nast. Being developed during Schreiber's tenure in a record store at the time, the magazine developed a reputation for its extensive focus on independent music, but has since expanded to a variety of coverage on both indie and popular music; the site concentrates on new music, but Pitchfork journalists have reviewed reissues and box sets. Since 2016, it has published retrospective reviews of classic or otherwise important albums every Sunday; the site has published "best-of" lists—such as the best albums of the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, the best songs of the 1960s—as well as annual features detailing the best albums and tracks of each year since 1999. In late 1995, Ryan Schreiber, a recent high school graduate, created the magazine in Minneapolis. Influenced by local fanzines and KUOM, who had no previous writing experience, aimed to provide the Internet with a updated resource for independent music.
Called Turntable, the site was updated monthly with interviews and reviews. In May 1996, the site began publishing daily and was renamed Pitchfork, alluding to Tony Montana's tattoo in Scarface. In early 1999, Schreiber relocated Pitchfork to Illinois. By the site had expanded to four full-length album reviews daily, as well as sporadic interviews and columns, it had begun garnering a following for its extensive coverage of underground music and its writing style, unhindered by the conventions of journalism. In October, the site added a daily music news section. Pitchfork has launched a variety of subsidiary websites. Pitchfork.tv, a website displaying videos related to many independent music acts, launched in April 2008. It features bands that are found on Pitchfork. In July 2010, Pitchfork announced Altered Zones, a blog aggregator devoted to underground and do it yourself music. On May 21, 2011, Pitchfork announced a partnership with Kill Screen, in which Pitchfork would publish some of their articles.
Altered Zones was closed on November 30. On December 26, 2012, Pitchfork launched Nothing Major, a website that covered visual arts such as fine art and photography. Nothing Major closed in October 2013. On October 13, 2015, Condé Nast announced. Following the sale, Schreiber remained as editor-in-chief. On March 13, 2016, Pitchfork was redesigned. According to an announcement post during the redesign, they said: In August 2018, Pitchfork's longtime executive editor Mark Richardson stepped down, he began writing for the site in 1998 and was employed full-time in 2007. On September 18, 2018, founder Ryan Schreiber stepped down as the site's top editor, he was replaced by Puja Patel as editor-in-chief on October 15, 2018. On January 8, 2019, Schreiber announced. In January 2019, Condé Nast announced it would put all its titles, including Pitchfork, behind a paywall by the end of the year; this did not come to fruition. Pitchfork's opinions have gained increased cultural currency; some publications have cited Pitchfork in having played a part in "breaking" artists such as Arcade Fire, Sufjan Stevens, Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, The Go!
Team, Junior Boys, The Books, Broken Social Scene, Cold War Kids, Wolf Parade, Tapes'n Tapes, Titus Andronicus although the site's true impact on their popularity remains a source of frequent debate. Conversely, Pitchfork has been seen as being a negative influence on some indie artists; as suggested in a Washington Post article in April 2006, Pitchfork's reviews can have a significant influence on an album's popularity if it had only been available to a limited audience or had been released on an independent record label. A dismissive 0.0 review of former Dismemberment Plan frontman Travis Morrison's Travistan album led to a large sales drop and a virtual college radio blacklist. On the other hand, "an endorsement from Pitchfork—which dispenses its approval one-tenth of a point at a time, up to a maximum of 10 points—is valuable, indeed."Examples of Pitchfork's impact include: Arcade Fire is among the bands most cited to have benefited from a Pitchfork review. In a 2005 Chicago Tribune article, a Merge Records employee states, "After the Pitchfork review, went out of print for about a week because we got so many orders for the record."
Bon Iver was catapulted to mainstream and critical success after a 2007 Pitchfork review of the album For Emma, Forever Ago. Pitchfork was the only publication to have included the album on a 2007 end-of-the-year list, while over sixteen popular publications included the re-release on their 2008 lists. In the summer of 2011, Pitchfork noted Bon Iver's self titled release as "Best New Music," and chose the release as the Best Album of 2011. Pitchfork's critical acclamation of Bon Iver is seen as lifting the artist to commercial mainstream success, which culminated with his Grammy Award for Best New Artist and Best Alternative Music Album. Time nominated Bon Iver as Person of the Year in 2012, noting the 2007 Pitchfork review as the "indie cred" that "led to mainstream success." Clap Your Hands Say Yeah member Lee Sargent has discussed the impact of Pitchfork's influence on their self-titled debut album, saying, "The thing about a publication like Pitchfork is that they can decide when that happens.
You know what I mean? They can say,'We're going to speed up the process and this is going to happen...now!' And it was a kick in the
The Teatro San Cassiano or Teatro di San Cassiano in Venice was the first public opera house when it opened in 1637. The theater was a stone building owned by the Venetian Tron family, took its name from the neighbourhood where it was located, the parish of San Cassiano near the Rialto, it was considered'public' as it was directed by an impresario, or general manager, for the paying public rather than for nobles exclusively. The original theater, the first public theatre for spoken plays, was built in 1581; this structure succumbed to fire in 1629, was soon after rebuilt by the owner, the Tron family. The first operas of the commercially run venture were La Maga Fulminata; these were produced in 1637 and 1638 by Benedetto Ferrari and Francesco Manelli. Ferrari and company stayed until 1639 when the business was acquired by a new company managed by entrepreneur Francesco Caletti-Bruni, with financial backing from Venetian nobleman Cavalli. Caletti-Bruni composed most of the operas performed here in the six years from 1639 to 1645.
After the 1650s the theater was surpassed by others, its number of performances declined. Impresario Marco Faustini managed the Teatro San Cassiano from 1657 to 1660. Towards the end of the 17th century, Venice became the opera capital of the world as another ten opera houses had opened. At this point the Teatro San Cassiano could count first performances of 37 operas; the last performances were held in 1807 and it was demolished in 1812 due to recurring fires. The operatic period dramma in musica coincided with the early years of the commercial San Cassiano and was influenced by its composers. Music of Venice Opera houses and theatres of Venice Commedia dell'arte Baroque music and orchestras Teatro di San Cassiano: from 1637-1718 Francesco Caletti-Bruni and the San Cassiano
Sunil Kumar Ahuja, M. D. is a professor of Medicine, Immunology & Biochemistry at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and an expert on the role of immunogenetics on HIV pathogenesis. Dr. Ahuja is the Director of the Veterans Administration Research Center for AIDS and HIV-1 Infection, his most recent work, first published in the 2005 issue of Science, involves the ethnic group-specific role of CCR5 haplotype and CCL3L1 gene copy number on the progression of HIV to AIDS. Sunil Ahuja received his medical degree from the Armed Forces Medical College India in 1983. Following work towards a M. Sc. degree from the University of Alberta in Canada, Dr. Ahuja had his internship and residency at the SUNY Health Science Center at Brooklyn. Sunil Ahuja's research has been published in many high-profile peer-reviewed journals, including Science, The New England Journal of Medicine, Nature Medicine, Nature Immunology and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Sunil Ahuja has been the recipient of many honors and awards, including being named in 2001 the Elizabeth Glaser Scientist and the Burroughs Wellcome Clinical Scientist in Translational Research.
In 2005 he was the recipient of the MERIT award from the National Institutes of Health. Less than 5% of NIH-funded researchers receive this award. In February 2008 Dr. Ahuja was listed as one of 35 people that will shape our future by Texas Monthly magazine; some of Sunil Ahuja's work has been questioned by the scientific community. In July 2008 Sunil Ahuja's group reported that Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines influenced HIV/AIDS susceptibility; this finding was questioned by four groups of scientists, reporting the failure to replicate. Sunil Ahuja replied to the questioning in the same issue of Cell Host & Microbe