In baseball, a foul ball is a batted ball that: Settles on foul territory between home and first base or between home and third base, or Bounds past first or third base on or over foul territory, or First falls on foul territory beyond first or third base, or While on or over foul territory, touches the person of an umpire or player, or any object foreign to the natural ground. By interpretation, a batted ball that touches a batter while in his batter's box is foul regardless of whether it is over foul territory. A foul fly shall be judged according to the relative position of the ball and the foul line, including the foul pole, not as to whether the fielder is on foul or fair territory at the time he touches the ball. Additionally, ballpark ground rules may specify that batted balls striking certain fixed objects such as railings, nets, or a roof if present are foul balls. Foul territory or foul ground is defined as that part of the playing field outside the first and third base lines extended to the fence and perpendicularly upwards.
Note: the foul lines and foul poles are not part of foul territory. In general, when a batted ball is ruled a foul ball, the ball is dead, all runners must return to their time-of-pitch base without liability to be put out, the batter returns to home plate to continue his turn at bat. A strike is issued for the batter. If the batter has two strikes against him when he hits a foul ball, a strike is not issued unless the ball was bunted to become a foul ball, in which case a third strike is issued and a strikeout recorded for the batter and pitcher. A strike is, recorded for the pitcher for every foul ball the batter hits, regardless of the count. If any member of the fielding team catches a foul ball before it touches the ground or lands outside the field perimeter, the batter is out. However, the caught ball is in base runners may attempt to advance. A foul ball is different from a foul tip, in which the ball makes contact with the bat, travels directly to the catcher's hands, is caught. In this case, the ball remains live and a strike is added to the batter's count.
If a foul tip is strike three, the batter is out. On rare occasions, such as in extra innings or the ninth inning of a tie game when a runner is on third base, with less than two outs, fielders have been known to let long foul flies drop rather than risk losing the game on a sacrifice fly. Sometimes, in that situation, a fielder will not try to catch a ball, close to the foul line in the hope that the ball will go foul at the last second. In different situations, a foul ball may be considered a positive or negative outcome of a pitch or swing; when there are zero or one strikes, a foul ball counts as a strike. However, a foul ball may reveal to the batter that he has timed a pitch well and need only make adjustment to the location of his swing on the next such pitch. Foul balls with two strikes are considered positive for the batter, since he thus avoids strike three on a difficult pitch. Foul balls with two strikes increase the pitcher's pitch count, adding to his/her fatigue, thus providing some small advantage to the offense.
A strategy of swinging on any ball to try to produce additional fouls and prolong an at-bat is used against strong pitchers to try to drive them from the game sooner. Baseball Rule, legal doctrine from 1913 court case that prevents spectators from holding teams liable for injuries from foul balls
Charles Howard Hinton
Charles Howard Hinton was a British mathematician and writer of science fiction works titled Scientific Romances. He was interested in higher dimensions the fourth dimension, he is known for coining the word "tesseract" and for his work on methods of visualising the geometry of higher dimensions. Hinton's father, James Hinton, was a advocate of polygamy. Hinton taught at Cheltenham College while he studied at Balliol College, where he obtained his B. A. in 1877. From 1880 to 1886, he taught at Uppingham School in Rutland, where Howard Candler, a friend of Edwin Abbott Abbott's taught. Hinton received his M. A. from Oxford in 1886. In 1880 Hinton married Mary Ellen, daughter of Mary Everest Boole and George Boole, the founder of mathematical logic; the couple had four children: George, Eric and Sebastian inventor of the Jungle gym. In 1883 he went through a marriage ceremony with Maud Florence, by whom he had had twin children, under the assumed identity of John Weldon, he was subsequently spent three days in prison, losing his job at Uppingham.
His father James Hinton was a radical advocate of polygamous relationships, according to Charles' mother James had once remarked to her: "Christ was the saviour of Men but I am the saviour of Women and I don't envy him a bit." In 1887 Charles moved with Mary Ellen to Japan to work in a mission before accepting a job as headmaster of the Victoria Public School. In 1893 he sailed to the United States on the SS Tacoma to take up a post at Princeton University as an instructor in mathematics. In 1897, he designed a gunpowder-powered baseball pitching machine for the Princeton baseball team's batting practice; the machine was versatile, capable of variable speeds with an adjustable breech size, firing curve balls by the use of two rubber-coated steel fingers at the muzzle of the pitcher. He introduced the machine to the University of Minnesota, where Hinton worked as an assistant professor until 1900, when he resigned to move to the U. S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C. At the end of his life, Hinton worked as an examiner of chemical patents for the United States Patent Office.
At age 54, he died unexpectedly of a cerebral hemorrhage on 30 April 1907. After Hinton's sudden death his wife, Mary Ellen, committed suicide in Washington, D. C. in May 1908. In an 1880 article entitled "What is the Fourth Dimension?", Hinton suggested that points moving around in three dimensions might be imagined as successive cross-sections of a static four-dimensional arrangement of lines passing through a three-dimensional plane, an idea that anticipated the notion of world lines. Hinton's explorations of higher space had a moral basis: Hinton argues that gaining an intuitive perception of higher space required that we rid ourselves of the ideas of right and left, up and down, that inheres in our position as observers in a three-dimensional world. Hinton calls the process "casting out the self", equates it with the process of sympathizing with another person, implies the two processes are mutually reinforcing. Hinton created several new words to describe elements in the fourth dimension.
According to the OED, he first used the word tesseract in 1888 in his book A New Era of Thought. He invented the words kata and ana to describe the additional two opposing fourth-dimensional directions. Hinton's Scientific romances, including "What is the Fourth Dimension?" and "A Plane World", were published as a series of nine pamphlets by Swan Sonnenschein & Co. during 1884–1886. In the introduction to "A Plane World", Hinton referred to Abbott's recent Flatland as having similar design but different intent. Abbott used the stories as "a setting wherein to place his lessons, but we wish in the first place to know the physical facts." Hinton's world existed along the perimeter of a circle rather than on an infinite flat plane. He extended the connection to Abbott's work with An Episode on Flatland: Or How a Plane Folk Discovered the Third Dimension. Hinton's advocacy of the tesseract as a means to perceive higher dimensions spawned a long lineage of science fiction and spiritual works that refer to the tesseract as a way to understand—or access—higher dimensions, including Charles Leadbeater's Clairvoyance, Claude Bragdon's A Primer of Higher Space, Algernon Blackwood's Victim of Higher Space, H. P. Lovecraft's The Shadow Out of Time, Robert Heinlein's "—And He Built a Crooked House—", Madeleine L'Engle's A Wrinkle in Time, Christopher Nolan's film Interstellar.
Hinton was one of the many thinkers. Hinton is mentioned in Borges' short stories "Tlön, Orbis Tertius", "There Are More Things" and "El milagro secreto": Hinton influenced P. D. Ouspensky's thinking. Many of ideas Ouspensky presents in "Tertium Organum" mention Hinton's works. Hinton's "scientific romance," the "Unlearner" is cited by John Dewey in "Art as Experience", chapter 3. Hinton is the main character of Carlos Atanes's play Un genio olvidado; the play was premiered on Madrid in May 2015 and published in May 2017. Hinton is mentioned several times in Alan Moore's graphic novel From Hell, his father, James Hinton, appears in chapters 4 and 10. He is mentioned twice in Aleister Crowley's novel Moonchild; the first
A baseball cap is a type of soft cap with a rounded crown and a stiff peak projecting in front. The front of the cap contains a design or a logo of sports team; the back of the cap may be "fitted" to the wearer's head size or it may have a plastic, Velcro, or elastic and zipper strip, adjuster so that it can be adjusted to fit different wearers. The baseball cap is a part of the traditional baseball uniform worn by players, with the brim pointing forward to shield the eyes from the sun. Since the 1980s varieties of the cap have become a common fashion accessory in the United States. In 1860, the Brooklyn Excelsiors wore the ancestor of the modern rounded-top baseball cap, which featured a long peak and a button on top, by 1900, the "Brooklyn style" cap became popular. During the 1940s, latex rubber became the stiffening material inside the hat and the modern baseball cap was born; the peak known in certain areas as the "bill" or "brim", was designed to protect a player's eyes from the sun. The peak was much shorter in the earlier days of the baseball hat.
The hat has become more structured, versus the overall "floppy" cap of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The baseball cap still is an important means by which to identify a team; the logo, mascot, or team's initial was placed on the cap. The cap was fashioned in the official colors of a particular team; the basic shape, including curved peak, is similar to some styles of 19th century sun bonnets. Fitted baseball caps — those without an adjuster — are sewn in six sections, may be topped with a matching fabric-covered button on the crown. Metal grommets or fabric eyelets are sewn or attached near the top of each of the six sections of fabric to provide ventilation. In some cases, the rear sections of the crown are made of net-like mesh material for extra ventilation; the peak is stiffened by a sewn-in piece of paperboard or stiff plastic. Baseball caps are made of many types of material and shaped in various styles for different purposes. Major and minor league baseball players wear classic-style caps made of wool with their team's simple logo and colors.
More there are brands that are using uncommon materials for snapback hats as for example wood brims. Baseball caps only came in standard hat sizes. Since the early 70's, they have been available in a one-size-fits-all form, with an adjustment strap in the back; the style called snapback, has become popular as fashion accessories. Advances in textiles have led to the "stretch-fit" hat, which uses Lycra or rubber to allow a hat to have a fitted style while still being "adjustable" within sizes; the front may be stiffened by buckram to display a logo more clearly. Another version of the baseball cap is a plastic mesh cap with a foam front imprinted with a company logo; this style is sometimes called a trucker cap or a "gimme cap" because it is given away for free as a promotional item. Dad hats are unstructured caps with low profile, curved brim, stripe on the back. There are high profile, adjustable. Adjustable hat - unstructured, low profile, curved brim, adjustable. Fitted hat - curved or flat brim, structured cap, high profile, unadjustable.
"Flexfit" hat - curved or flat brim, structured cap, high profile, adjustable by the use of elastic materials. Beginning with the 2014 season, MLB pitchers are permitted to wear a special reinforced cap to protect their heads from line drives. Athletes in other sports wear caps with their team's logo and colors as "sideline" caps. Other caps may have a maker's logo, such as Reebok, Nike or Carhartt. Golfers tend to prefer the sports visor form which does not cover the head but keeps the sun out of their eyes; some armed forces use baseball caps as part of their uniforms, including the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard. Used with the utility uniform and coveralls, the baseball cap has a command logo on the front to denote command affiliation. Baseball caps of a particular color are worn to denote a specific function of a person or particular job. For example, in the United States submarine force, red baseball caps are worn by drill monitors who facilitate and critique members of the boat's crew during drills.
In the United States Army, parachute riggers wear red baseball caps and parachute instructors wear black baseball caps as part of their uniform. In various squadrons of the United States Air Force's civilian auxiliary, squadron-distinctive baseball caps have been issued as headgear for the Battle Dress Uniform displaying squadron colors, squadron number, and/or squadron patch. Although the BDUs have their own cover, a patrol cap in M81 Woodland, some squadrons have opted for more distinctive covers. In many United States police forces, the baseball cap is worn as a more practical alternative to the traditional peaked cap or campaign hat, the latter of, used by Sheriff's departments and state police forces; this is more common on the West Coast, whereas in eastern states the traditional peaked cap is more prominent. A notable exception is the San Francisco Police Department, where peaked caps
A baseball park known as a ballpark or diamond, is a venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the surrounding spectator seating. While the diamond and the areas denoted by white painted lines adhere to strict rules, guidelines for the rest of the field are flexible; the term "ballpark" sometimes refers either to the entire structure, or sometimes to just the playing field. A home run where the player makes it around the bases, back to home plate, without the ball leaving the playing field is called an "inside-the-park" home run. Sometimes a home run ball passing over an outfield fence is said to have been hit "out of the ballpark", but that phrase more refers to a home run ball that cleared the stands, landing outside the building; the playing field is most called the "ballfield", though the term is used interchangeably with "ballpark" when referring to a small local or youth league facility. A baseball field can be referred to as a diamond; the infield is a rigidly structured diamond of dirt containing the three bases, home plate, the pitchers mound.
The space between the bases and home is a grass surface, save for the dirt mound in the center. Some ballparks, like Toronto's Rogers Centre, have grass or artificial turf between the bases, dirt only around the bases and pitcher's mound. Others, such as Koshien Stadium in Hyōgo Prefecture, have an dirt infield. Two white lines run out from the home plate area, aligned with third bases; these are the foul lines or base lines differentiated by referring to them as the first base line, or the third base line. If a ball hit by the batter lands outside of the space between these two lines, or rolls out of this space before reaching first or third base, the ball is "foul". If it lands between or on the lines, it is "fair". At the end of the lines are two foul poles, which help the umpires judge whether a ball is fair or foul; these "foul poles" are in fair territory, so a ball that hits them on the fly is a home run. On either side of home plate are the two batter's boxes This is. Behind home is the catcher's box, where the catcher and the home plate umpire stand.
Next to first and third base are two coaches' boxes, where the first and third base coaches guide the baserunners with gestures or shouts. As the baserunner faces away from the outfield when running from second base to third, they cannot see where the ball is, must look to the third base coach on whether to run, stop, or slide. Farther from the infield on either side are the dugouts, where the teams and coaches sit when they're not on the field, they are named such because, at the professional levels, this seating is below the level of the playing field so as to not block the view from prime spectator seating locations. In amateur parks, the dugouts may be above-ground wooden or CMU structures with seating inside, or benches behind a chain link fence. Beyond the infield and between the foul lines is a large grass outfield twice the depth of the infield; the playing field is bordered by fences of varying height. The infield fences are in foul territory, a ball hit over them isn't a home run. Sometimes, the outfield fence is made higher in certain areas to compensate for a close proximity to the batter.
In professional parks, the field is surrounded by an area 10 feet wide made of dirt or rubberized track surface called a "warning track". Used in Yankee Stadium in 1923 as an actual footrace track, it is now present in all major league ballparks; this change in terrain warns a fielder, watching a ball in the air, that the wall is near, avoiding possible injury. Beyond the outfield fence in professional parks is an area called the batter's eye. To ensure the batter can see the white ball, the batter's eye contains no seating, is a darker color; the batter's eye area can be anything from a dark wall to a grassy slope. Today, in Major League Baseball, a grandstand, surrounds the infield. How far this seating extends down the baselines or around the foul poles varies from park to park. In minor league parks, the grandstands are notably smaller, proportional to expected sizes of crowds compared with the major leagues; the seating beyond the outfield fence differs from the grandstand, though some multi-purpose or jewel box parks have the grandstand surround the entire field.
This area could contain inexpensive bleacher seats, smaller grandstands, or inclined seating. In local ballparks, there are simply a set or two of aluminum bleachers on the first-base and third-base sides. Distinctive from "goal games" such as football and basketball, which have fixed-size playing areas, the infield is the only rigidly laid-out part of the field. Like its English relative, there is significant flexibility in the shape and size of the rest of the playing area. To prevent "cheap" home runs, baseball leagues may specify a minimum distance from home plate to the outfield fences; the higher the skill level, the deeper the minimum dimensions must be, to prevent an excess of home runs. In the major leagues, a rule was passed in 1958 that compelled any new fields built after that point to have a minimum distance of 325 feet from home plate to the fences in left and right field, 400 feet to center.. This rule was passed to avoid situations like the Los Angeles Coliseum, 251 ft. down the left
In baseball, batting is the act of facing the opposing pitcher and trying to produce offense for one's team. A batter or hitter is a person; the three main goals of batters are to become a baserunner, to drive runners home, or to advance runners along the bases for others to drive home, but the techniques and strategies they use to do so vary. Hitting uses a motion, unique to baseball, one, used in other sports. Hitting is unique because unlike most sports movements in the vertical plane of movement hitting involves rotating in the horizontal plane. In general, batters try to get hits. However, their primary objective is to avoid making an out, helping their team to score runs. There are several ways, they may draw a walk if they receive and do not swing the bat at four pitches located outside the strike zone. In cases when there is a runner on third and fewer than two outs, they can attempt to hit a sacrifice fly to drive the runner in by allowing the runner on third to tag up and score; when there are fewer than two outs and runners on base, they can try to sacrifice bunt to advance the runner or, with a runner on first or with runners on first and third, they can try a hit and run play designed to advance the runner.
They might be hit by a pitch, reach on an error or—if first is empty or there are two outs—on a dropped third strike. The defense attempts to get the batter out; the pitcher's main role in this is to throw the ball in such a way that the batter either strikes out or cannot hit it cleanly so that the defense can get him or her out. Batting is cited as one of the most difficult feats in sports because it consists of hitting a small round ball moving at high velocity, with a thin round bat. In fact, if a batter can get a hit in three out of ten at bats, giving him a batting average of.300, he or she is considered a good hitter. In Major League Baseball, no batter has had over a.400 average at the end of the season since Ted Williams'.406 in 1941, no batter has hit over.367 in a lifetime—Ty Cobb hit.3664. In modern times, the statistic on-base plus slugging is seen as a more accurate measure of a player's ability as a batter. An OPS at or near 1.000 is considered to be the mark of an exceptional hitter.
A sustained OPS at or above 1.000 over a career is a feat only a few hitters have been able to reach. Batters vary in their approach at the plate; some are aggressive hitters swinging at the first pitch. Others are patient, attempting to work the pitch count in order to observe all the types of pitches a pitcher will use, as well as tire out the pitcher by forcing him to throw many pitches early. Contact hitters are more aggressive, swinging at pitches within the strike zone, whereas power hitters will lay off borderline strikes in order to get a pitch they can drive for extra bases. In preparation of hitting, every baseball player has their own particular warm-up routine. Warming up before the game is done as a team, at the amateur level, focuses on helping the hitter get in the correct mindset to hit the ball; the most notable drill used is the "Tee Drill", where you hit a ball off a baseball tee and correct any issues you found during previous games or practices. There are various hitting devices used during warm up in the "on deck circle" to try and increase the batter's bat velocity.
The over weighted supplemental devices include swinging multiple bats, Schutt Dirx, Pitcher's Nightmare, Power Fin, Standard 23 oz softball bat, heavier 26 oz softball bat, lighter 18 oz softball bat and Doughnut ring. Weighted warm-up devices are used because players feel that warming-up with heavier bats will help them increase bat velocity because after the warm-up with a heavier bat, the normal bat feels lighter and they feel they could swing it faster; the effect of these devices is not only mental, but it may be physical. Heavy warm up loads stimulate the neural system, allowing for increased muscle activation during lighter bat swings; the use of weighted bats is based on the theory of complex training where sets of heavier and lighter resistances are alternated to increase muscle performance. This theory revolves around the idea that muscle contractions are stronger after reaching near maximal contractions; the postactivation potentiation improves motor neuron pool excitability and increases the number of recruited motor units, both leading to greater power output.
The additional weight may help strengthen the muscles of the forearms and wrist thus increasing bat velocity, though some evidence suggests that the effect is psychological rather than biomechanical. The lineup or batting order is a list of the nine baseball players for a team in the order they will bat during the game. During the game the only way to change the lineup is via substitution, as batting out of turn is not allowed. Once the ninth person in the lineup finishes batting, the first person bats again. Lineups are designed to facilitate manufacturing runs. Depending on batters' skills, they might be placed in different parts of the lineup. Of course, when it comes down to it, all batters are attempting to create runs for the team; the player batting in a game is said to be at the plate, at bat, or up to bat. To keep the game moving at an orderly pace, the next batter due up waits to take his turn in a circle (actuall
In baseball, the bullpen is the area where relief pitchers warm-up before entering a game. A team's roster of relief pitchers is metonymically referred to as "the bullpen"; these pitchers wait in the bullpen if they have not yet played in a game, rather than in the dugout with the rest of the team. The starting pitcher makes his final pregame warm-up throws in the bullpen. Managers can call coaches in the bullpen on an in-house telephone from the dugout to tell a certain pitcher to begin his warm-up tosses; each team has its own bullpen consisting of two pitching rubbers and plates at regulation distance from each other. In most Major League Baseball parks, the bullpens are situated out-of-play behind the outfield fence. There are three MLB parks with bullpens in playable foul territory: Oracle Park, Oakland Coliseum and Tropicana Field; the origin of the term bullpen, as used in baseball, is debated, with no one theory holding unanimous, or substantial, sway. The term first appeared in wide use shortly after the turn of the 20th century and has been used since in its present meaning.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary the earliest recorded use of "bullpen" in baseball is in a 1924 Chicago Tribune article from October 5. The earliest known usage of the term "bull pen" relating to an area of a baseball field is in a The New York Times article from June 24, 1883; the earliest known relief pitching related usage of "bullpen" in The New York Times is in an article dated September 18, 1912. There are numerous examples—some historical, some speculative—about the possible origin of the term bullpen. During the Civil War in the United States, the notorious Andersonville prison camp was referred to, by the inmates, as a bullpen. Though conditions were a vast improvement over Richmond detention centers, problems grew in proportion to the number of inmates. By late summer 1864, the prison population made Andersonville one of the largest cities in the Confederacy. At its peak in August, the "bullpen", built to lodge up to 10,000 enlisted men, held 33,000 grimy, gaunt prisoners, each one crammed into a living area the size of a coffin.
Their only protection from the elements were "shebangs", hand built shelters low to the ground created by driving forked branches into the sandy soil four to eight feet apart and a piece of limb laid in the two forks creating the center pole. Planks or limbs were laid from the center pole to the ground creating what is known as a "lean-to"; the planks or limbs were covered with tent shelter halves, gum sheets, overcoats, or blankets as the owner could afford. If no woven material was available the shelter was covered in broad leaves giving the owner some shade but little protection from the rain; this wartime usage in the United States has occurred as as World War II. Tokio Yamane described conditions in Japanese relocation camps, referring to a "bull pen" within a stockade at Tule Lake, California. Prisoners in the stockade lived in wooden buildings which, although flimsy, still offered some protection from the severe winters of Tule Lake. However, prisoners in the "bull pen" were housed outdoors in tents without heat and with no protection against the bitter cold.
The bunks were placed directly on the cold ground, the prisoners had only one or two blankets and no extra clothing to ward off the winter chill. And, for the first time in our lives, those of us confined to the "bull pen" experienced a life and death struggle for survival, the unbearable pain from our unattended and infected wounds, the penetrating December cold of Tule Lake, a God Forsaken concentration camp lying near the Oregon border, I shall never forget that horrible experience. Temporary holding facilities for rebellious workers trying to organize into unions were referred to as bullpens; these military prisons were sometimes pens used for cattle which were pressed into service by stringing barbed wire, establishing a guarded perimeter, keeping large numbers of men confined in the enclosed space. These "bullpens" have been considered early versions of concentration camps, were used by the national guard during the Colorado Labor Wars of 1903-04, in Idaho in 1892 and 1899 during union miners' uprisings near Coeur d'Alene.
Author Emma Langdon described these as the first use of the bullpen in the West. In his autobiography Bill Haywood described Idaho miners held for...months of imprisonment in the bull-pen, a structure unfit to house cattle, enclosed in a high barbed-wire fence. Penned up in bullpens as a response to violence, many hundreds of union men had been imprisoned without trial. Peter Carlson wrote in his book Roughneck, Haywood traveled to the town of Mullan, where he met a man who had escaped from the bullpen; the makeshift prison was an old grain warehouse that crawled with vermin. Overcrowding was so severe that some two hundred prisoners had been removed from the warehouse and quartered in railroad boxcars. Charlie Siringo described the bull pen as"...a large stockade with a frame building in the center, for them to sleep and eat in." In the 1800s, jails and holding cells were nicknamed "bullpens", in respect of many police officers' bullish features – strength and a short temper. The bullpen symbolically represents the fenced in area of a "bull's pen", where bulls wait before being sent off to the slaughter.
The relief pitchers are the bulls and the bullpen represents their pen. The name may be a reference to rodeo bulls being held in a pen before being released into the main arena. Latecomers to ball games in the late 19th century were cordoned off into standing-room areas in foul territory; because the fans were herded like cattle, this area became known as the "bullpen", a designation, transf
A batting helmet is worn by batters in the game of baseball or softball. It is meant to protect the batter's head from errant pitches thrown by the pitcher. A batter, "hit by pitch," due to an inadvertent wild pitch or a pitcher's purposeful attempt to hit him, may be even fatally, injured. In 1905, Mogridge created the first crude protective head gear and was granted patent No. 780899 for a "head protector." This first attempt at a batting helmet was said to look like an "inflatable boxing glove that wrapped around the hitters head." Roger Bresnahan, Hall of Fame catcher, injured after being struck in the head with a pitch, developed a leather-batting helmet in 1908 which he began using. The helmets were not so much helmets, they did not protect the actual head of the batter but rather protected the temple region. In 1908, Chicago White Sox shortstop Freddy Parent wore a head protector of some sort and Chicago Cubs' first baseman-manager Frank Chance did the same thing in 1913, though Chance’s headgear was "little more than a sponge wrapped in a bandage."
In 1914, minor leaguer Joe Bosk, playing for the Utica Utes, wore a protector after being injured when he was struck in the head by a pitch in 1911. The first known case of a manager issuing head protectors to his players on a large scale was Philadelphia Phillies' manager Pat Moran who gave cork-cushioned hats to his players in 1921. Despite the fatal beaning of Ray Chapman in 1920, protective headgear was still used only in the major leagues. After Mickey Cochrane, a Hall of Fame catcher for the Detroit Tigers, suffered a career-ending and near-fatal skull fracture on May 25, 1937 on a pitch by New York Yankees' pitcher Bump Hadley, there was a strong call for batter helmets. Cochrane himself went on record saying that players should "absolutely" be required to wear protective helmets. Only one week after Cochrane's injury, on June 1, 1937, the Cleveland Indians and Philadelphia Athletics became the first teams to test helmets, using leather and polo helmets respectively. Managers of both teams decided to use batting practice as a test run for helmet use on their players, before a game between the two teams.
Though there is picture evidence of the polo helmets being worn in batting practice, there is no evidence of their being used or worn in a game. The first documented team to wear helmets in a game was the Des Moines Demons of the Western League, they used polo helmets but the idea did not stick, as they only wore the helmets for one game. The first professional baseball league to adopt the baseball helmet was the International League, which did so in 1939 when the list of official equipment used began to include a "safety cap or helmet". Buster Mills was the first player in the league to use a helmet; the idea of making helmets a required part of Major League Baseball was discussed by officials of the National League in a meeting at the 1940 MLB All-Star Game in Chicago. Ford Frick, president of the National League, showed the helmet he designed with the hopes that the league would adopt it. Though the National League at this meeting did not adopt it, Jackie Hayes became the first player to wear the helmet in a game on August 22, 1940.
In 1941, the National League adopted the use of a helmet, designed by George Bennett, a Johns Hopkins University brain surgeon, for use by all teams in spring training. On March 8, 1941 the Brooklyn Dodgers announced that the team’s players would be wearing the helmets during regular season games. On April 26, 1941 the Washington Senators joined the Dodgers as the only two teams to adopt the batting helmet for regular season use; the New York Giants on June 6 and the Chicago Cubs on June 24 joined the list of teams to adopt the use of protective helmets during games. Though many thought this would be the time when support would be strong enough to develop widespread usage, again tradition won out, it was not until 1953 that the Pittsburgh Pirates mandated their players wear helmets; the helmet required by Pittsburgh General Manager Branch Rickey was created by Charlie Muse and was based on the hard hats used by miners. Soon after, the Ottawa Citizen wrote that "Major League clubs are becoming quite interested in a new type of plastic protective cap, put on the market recently."
This became more prevalent when on August 1, 1954, Joe Adcock, a first baseman for the Milwaukee Braves, was struck with a pitch on his head. He was wearing a helmet and, though he was taken off the field on a stretcher, he was uninjured as his helmet took the brunt of the impact and was visibly dented. In the early 1950s, the governing body of Little League Baseball mandated the use of protective headgear during games for all players. In 1956 the National League followed suit and required the use of batting helmets by all players on all teams. After Little League Baseball announced a better helmet for the use of all players, the American League passed the rule, on March 1, 1958 which required all players to wear helmets. However, though unlike in the NHL in the same era, helmets were accepted, it was not until December 1970 that Major League Baseball enforced mandatory use of the batting helmet for all batters. Veteran players, were given the option of choosing to wear a helmet or not, as they were grandfathered into the rule.
The last Major League player who did not wear a helmet while batting was Bob Montgomery, who last played for the Boston Red Sox in 1979 Incidentally, the same year the NHL made helmets compulsory with a similar grandfather clause for veteran players. In 1960, Jim Lemon became the first player to wear the new Little League helmet in a Major League game; these helmets were made with earflaps on