Motion Picture Production Code
The Motion Picture Production Code was the set of industry moral guidelines, applied to most United States motion pictures released by major studios from 1930 to 1968. It is popularly known as the Hays Code, after Will H. Hays, the president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America from 1922 to 1945. Under Hays' leadership, the MPPDA known as the Motion Picture Association of America, adopted the Production Code in 1930, began rigidly enforcing it in mid-1934; the Production Code spelled out what was acceptable and what was unacceptable content for motion pictures produced for a public audience in the United States. From 1934 to 1954, the code was identified with Joseph Breen, the administrator appointed by Hays to enforce the code in Hollywood; the film industry followed the guidelines set by the code well into the late 1950s, but during this time, the code began to weaken due to the combined impact of television, influence from foreign films, controversial directors pushing boundaries, intervention from the courts, including the Supreme Court.
In 1968, after several years of minimal enforcement, the Production Code was replaced by the MPAA film rating system. In 1922, after several risqué films and a series of off-screen scandals involving Hollywood stars, the studios enlisted Presbyterian elder Will H. Hays to rehabilitate Hollywood's image. Hollywood in the 1920s was badgered by a number of widespread scandals, such as the murder of William Desmond Taylor and alleged rape of Virginia Rappe by popular movie star Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, which brought widespread condemnation from religious and political organizations. Many felt. Political pressure was increasing, with legislators in 37 states introducing one hundred movie censorship bills in 1921. Faced with the prospect of having to comply with hundreds, thousands, of inconsistent and changed decency laws in order to show their movies, the studios chose self-regulation as the preferable option. Hays was paid the then-lavish sum of $100,000 a year. Hays, Postmaster General under Warren G. Harding and former head of the Republican National Committee, served for 25 years as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, where he "defended the industry from attacks, recited soothing nostrums, negotiated treaties to cease hostilities".
The move mimicked the decision Major League Baseball had made in hiring judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as League Commissioner the previous year to quell questions about the integrity of baseball in the wake of the 1919 World Series gambling scandal. In 1924, Hays introduced a set of recommendations dubbed "The Formula", which the studios were advised to heed, asked filmmakers to describe to his office the plots of pictures they were planning on making; the Supreme Court had decided unanimously in 1915 in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio that free speech did not extend to motion pictures, while there had been token attempts to clean up the movies before—such as when the studios formed the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry in 1916—little had come of the efforts. New York became the first state to take advantage of the Supreme Court's decision by instituting a censorship board in 1921. Virginia followed suit the following year, with eight individual states having a board by the advent of sound film, but many of these were ineffectual.
By the 1920s, the New York stage—a frequent source of subsequent screen material—had topless shows, performances filled with curse words, mature subject matters, sexually suggestive dialogue. Early in the sound system conversion process, it became apparent that what might be acceptable in New York would not be so in Kansas. Moviemakers were looking at the possibility that many states and cities would adopt their own codes of censorship, requiring a multiplicity of versions of movies made for national distribution. Self-censorship seemed a preferable outcome. In 1927, Hays suggested to studio executives. Irving G. Thalberg of Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Sol Wurtzel of Fox, E. H. Allen of Paramount responded by collaborating on a list they called the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls", based on items that were challenged by local censor boards; this list consisted of eleven subjects best avoided and twenty-six to be handled carefully. The list was approved by the Federal Trade Commission, Hays created the Studio Relations Committee to oversee its implementation.
The controversy surrounding film standards came to a head in 1929. The Code enumerated a number of key points known as the "Don'ts" and "Be Carefuls": Resolved, That those things which are included in the following list shall not appear in pictures produced by the members of this Association, irrespective of the manner in which they are treated: Pointed profanity – by either title or lip – this includes the words "God", "Lord", "Jesus", "Christ", "hell", "damn", "Gawd", every other profane and vulgar expression however it may be spelled.
Ann Lee Doran was an American character actress best known as the mother of Jim Stark in Rebel Without a Cause. She was an early member of the Screen Actors Guild and served on the board of the Motion Picture & Television Fund for 30 years; the daughter of Carrie A. Barnett and John R. Doran, her mother was a silent-film actress whose professional name was Rose Allen. Ann Doran was born in Amarillo and attended high school in San Bernardino, California. Doran began acting at the age of four. In a featured role, Doran appeared in more than five hundred motion pictures and one thousand episodes of television series, such as the American Civil War drama Gray Ghost. Doran worked as a stand-in bit player incidental supporting player. By 1938, she was under contract to Columbia Pictures, where the company policy was to use the members of its stock company as as possible. Thus, Doran appears in Columbia's serials, short subjects, B features, major feature films, she appears in many of his productions.
Most of these appearances were supporting roles, although she did play leads in Columbia's Charley Chase comedies of 1938-40 and in one Charles Starrett western feature, the Sam Nelson-directed Rio Grande. Columbia filmed two boy-and-his-dog stories with juvenile star Ted Donaldson in 1945-46; when the Donaldson films became a full-fledged series in 1947, Doran was cast as Donaldson's mother in the next six films. Her steady, sensible maternal roles led to her being cast as James Dean's mother in Rebel Without a Cause. Doran played Charlotte McHenry, the housekeeper on Shirley,:962 Agnes Haskell, Eddie Haskell's mother and in a separate appearance Mrs. Bellamy, in Leave It to Beaver and Mrs. Kingston, the housekeeper, on Longstreet.:621-622Doran guest starred on many television programs, including three appearances in the role of Bonnie Landis in the CBS legal drama, The Public Defender, starring with fellow Texan Reed Hadley. She appeared in the religion anthology series Crossroads in the 1956 episode "The White Carnation", along with Elinor Donahue, James Best and J. Carrol Naish.
In 1952, she appeared in an episode of The Lone Ranger entitled "Hidden Fortune". Doran was cast in the CBS children's Western My Friend Flicka, the story of a boy and his horse on a Wyoming ranch, she appeared in episodes of Ray Milland's CBS sitcom Meet Mr. McNutley and Kenneth Tobey's syndicated aviation adventure series, Whirlybirds. Doran guest-starred on CBS's Perry Mason in "The Case of the Prodigal Parent", "The Case of the Lurid Letter" and "The Case of the Drowsy Mosquito". Rawhide Millie Darius "Incident of the Challenge". Doran was cast twice in 1959-1960 in episodes of the ABC/Warner Bros. Western series Colt.45, starring Wayde Preston. In 1960, she was cast as Martha Brown, the mother of horse rider Velvet Brown in the NBC family drama National Velvet.:746 She made one appearance on ABC's McHale's Navy as Mrs. Martha "Pumpkin" Binghampton, wife of Captain Binghampton. Three years she appeared in the first episode of the ABC western series The Legend of Jesse James as Zerelda James Samuel, the mother of Jesse and Frank James.
She appeared on the program M*A*S*H as Nurse Meg Cratty, who runs an orphanage in Korea. In the Season Four episode "The Kids", Cratty and her charges bunked with the M*A*S*H unit to avoid snipers. Doran died at age 89 on September 19, 2000, in California. Following her death, her remains were scattered off at sea, she bequeathed $400,000 to the Motion Picture Country House, the retirement home for the movie industry. July 28, 2016 was designated as Ann Doran Day in Texas. Ann Doran on IMDb Ann Doran at the TCM Movie Database Ann Doran at AllMovie All Time Rebel Interview
John Beach Litel was an American film and television actor. Litel was born in Wisconsin. During World War I, Litel was twice decorated for bravery. Back in the U. S. after the war, Litel enrolled in the American Academy of Dramatic Arts and began his stage career. His Broadway credits include Sweet Aloes, Hell Freezes Over, Life's Too Short, Strange Gods, Before Morning, Lilly Turner, Ladies of Creation, Back Seat Drivers, The Half Naked Truth, The Beaten Track and Irene. In 1929, he began appearing in films. Part of the "Warner Bros. Stock Company" beginning in the 1930s, he appeared in dozens of Warner Bros. films and was in over 200 films during his entire career. He played supporting roles such as hard-nosed cops and district attorneys, he was Nancy Drew's Attorney Father, Carson Drew in four films in 1938 and 1939. Among his other films are They Drive by Night, Knute Rockne, All American, They Died with Their Boots On, Scaramouche, his final film role was in Nevada Smith. In the second season of the Disney series Zorro, he played the Governor of California in several episodes.
During 1960 and 1961, he was seen as Dan Murchison in nine episodes of the ABC western television series, Stagecoach West, starring Wayne Rogers and Robert Bray. He appeared in many other series as well, including the role of Captain David Rowland in the episode "Don't Get Tough with a Sailor" on the ABC/Desilu western series The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp starring Hugh O'Brian. In the story line, Rowland, a former captain in the United States Navy, is a wealthy Arizona Territory rancher who operates his own law and private jail near the Mexican border, he appeared as Mr. Crenshaw in the episode "The Giant Killer" of the ABC/Warner Brothers western series Sugarfoot with Will Hutchins in the title role. In the segment, Patricia Barry plays the widowed Doreen Bradley who, with the assistance of Sugarfoot, exposes to a grateful town the corruption and cowardice of Lou Stoner, a leading candidate for a territorial governorship. Others in the segment are Dorothy Provine, Russ Conway, child actor Jay North.
Litel appeared as Bob Cummings's boss Mr. Thackery in the TV series The Bob Cummings Show in the early/mid-1950s. Cummings played Robert S. Beanblossom on the show. Litel died at the Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles in 1972. John Litel on IMDb John Litel at the Internet Broadway Database John Litel at Find a Grave
Carson City (film)
Carson City is a 1952 American Western film directed by Andre DeToth and starring Randolph Scott, Lucille Norman, Raymond Massey. Based on a story by Sloan Nibley, the film is about a railroad construction engineer whose plans to build a railroad line between Nevada's Carson City and Virginia City are met with hostility by the locals, who feel the trains will attract outlaws. Filmed on location at Iverson Ranch, Bell Ranch, Bronson Canyon in Griffith Park, Carson City was Warner Bros.' First film shot in WarnerColor. Mine owner William Sharon keeps having his gold shipments held up by a gang of bandits. Sharon hires banker Charles Crocker, who happens to have connections in the Central Pacific Railroad, to build a spur line from Virginia City to Carson City, so that the gold can be shipped by rail. Silent Jeff Kincaid is the railroad engineer. However, there is opposition to the railroad, chiefly from Big Jack Davis, he doesn’t own a working mine. Davis is the brains behind the gang holding up Sharon’s shipments.
The technique is to hold up the stagecoach and provide food and champagne for the passengers, who don’t care that the gold is robbed. Kincaid vows to rid Carson City of the bandits. In the climax, Kincaid has to contend with a suspicious landslide which kills some of his workers, trapping others, a gold bullion heist. Randolph Scott as Silent Jeff Kincaid Lucille Norman as Susan Mitchell Raymond Massey as A. J.'Big' Jack Davis Richard Webb as Alan Kincaid James Millican as Jim Squires Larry Keating as William Sharon George Cleveland as Henry Dodson William Haade as Hardrock Haggerty Don Beddoe as Zeke Mitchell Thurston Hall as Charles Crocker Vince Barnett as Henry Iverson Ranch, 1 Iverson Lane, Los Angeles, California, USA Bell Ranch, Santa Susana, California, USA Bronson Canyon, Griffith Park, 4730 Crystal Springs Drive, Los Angeles, California, USA Though it is never mentioned by name, the Virginia and Truckee Railroad, which ran from Reno to Carson City, may have served as the inspiration for this story.
One branch of the real-world railroad ran from Carson City to Virginia City. The railroad as a whole was built to serve the silver mines of Nevada Virginia City's Comstock Lode; the section that ran from Carson City to Virginia City was restored and reopened in 2009, as a heritage railroad. Carson City on IMDb Carson City at the TCM Movie Database Carson City at AllMovie
Madeleine Marie Stowe is an American actress. She appeared on television before her breakthrough role in the 1987 crime-comedy film Stakeout, she went on to star in the films Revenge, Unlawful Entry, The Last of the Mohicans, Bad Girls, China Moon, 12 Monkeys, The General’s Daughter, We Were Soldiers. For her role in the 1993 independent film Short Cuts, she won the National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actress; as of 2015, Stowe's most recent film appearance was in the 2003 thriller Octane. From 2011 to 2015, she starred as Victoria Grayson, the main antagonist of the ABC drama series Revenge. For this role, she was nominated for the 2012 Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama. Stowe, the first of three children, was born at the Queen of Angels Hospital, in Los Angeles and raised in Eagle Rock, a suburb of Los Angeles, her father, Robert Stowe, was a civil engineer from Oregon, while her mother, came from a prominent family in Costa Rica. One of Stowe's maternal great-great-grandfathers, politician José Joaquín Mora Porras, was a younger brother of President Juan Rafael Mora Porras, who governed Costa Rica from 1849 to 1859.
Another maternal great-great-grandfather, Bruno Carranza, was President of that country in 1870. One of Stowe's maternal great-grandfathers was a German immigrant to Costa Rica. Stowe's father suffered from multiple sclerosis, she accompanied him to his medical treatments. Stowe aspired to become a concert pianist, taking lessons between the ages of ten and eighteen, she explained that playing the piano was a means to escape having to socialize with other children her age. Her Russian-born music teacher, Sergei Tarnowsky, had faith in Stowe teaching her from his deathbed. Following his death at the age of 92, she quit commenting, "I just felt it was time to not be by myself anymore." Not being interested in her college classes, she volunteered to do performances at the Solaris, a Beverly Hills theater, where a movie agent saw her in a play and got her several offers of appearances in TV and films. In 1978, she made her debut in an episode in the police drama series Baretta, followed by a string of TV work with guest appearances on The Amazing Spider-Man, Barnaby Jones and Little House on the Prairie.
In 1978, she played a leading role as Mary in The Nativity. She starred in two NBC miniseries: Beulah Land and The Gangster Chronicles, which starred Brian Benben, her future husband, she starred in several television films, such as Amazons and Blood & Orchids. In 1987, Stowe appeared in her first breakthrough role in the feature film Stakeout with Richard Dreyfuss and Emilio Estevez; the film debuted at No.1 at the box office. She co-starred with Mark Harmon in the comedy Worth Winning, with Kevin Costner in the 1989 thriller Revenge, opposite Jack Nicholson in 1990 in The Two Jakes, she played a leading role in the 1991 independent film Closet Land. In 1992, she appeared opposite Kurt Russell in the crime drama Unlawful Entry; that same year, Stowe played Cora Munro in The Last of the Mohicans, which starred Daniel Day-Lewis. Her critically acclaimed performance in the film, which grossed more than $75 million worldwide, elevated Stowe from supporting player to an A-list movie star; the next year, director Robert Altman cast Stowe in the award-winning ensemble cast movie Short Cuts, where she gave one of her most acclaimed screen performances as the wife of a compulsively lying and adulterous police officer played by Tim Robbins.
She won the National Society of Film Critics Awards for Best Supporting Actress, a Golden Globe Award and a Volpi Cup for Best Ensemble Cast for her performance in the movie. She made a cameo appearance in Stakeout's sequel Another Stakeout; the following year, Stowe played a leading role as a blind musician in the thriller Blink, in the neo-noir thriller China Moon, in the Western Bad Girls. The year after that, she was a sympathetic psychiatrist in the financially successful and critically lauded science-fiction movie 12 Monkeys. Stowe received a Saturn Awards nomination for this performance. In 1994 Stowe was named one of People magazine's "50 Most Beautiful People in the World". In 1995, Stowe was chosen by Empire as one of the "100 Sexiest Stars in Film History". Stowe postponed her acting career in 1996 to concentrate on her family life, she settled for several years with her daughter May and husband Brian Benben. In 1998, she came back with The Proposition and Playing by Heart, The General's Daughter, opposite John Travolta in 1999.
In 2001, she starred in the science-fiction box office bomb Impostor. In 2002, she played Julia Moore in the war film We Were Soldiers with Mel Gibson, the box office flop action-comedy Avenging Angelo opposite Sylvester Stallone. In 2003, she starred in the thriller Octane as Senga Wilson, a single mother trying to save her teenage daughter from a bizarre cult obsessed with blood and cars. Stowe's onscreen appearances rarefied in the 2000s, she stated in an interview: "I never thought, "I’m retiring," but I didn’t feel that "thing" revving in me. I was much more focused on May, it was frustrating at times, but now I see how she’s turned out, I wouldn’t have it any other way." She occasionnally appeared in some TV productions, such as Saving Milly, an adaptation of Morton Kondracke's book
Crime films, in the broadest sense, are a cinematic genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre involve various aspects of crime and its detection. Stylistically, the genre may overlap and combine with many other genres, such as drama or gangster film, but include comedy, and, in turn, is divided into many sub-genres, such as mystery, suspense or noir. Crime films are based on real events or are adaptations of plays or novels. For example, the 1957 film version of Witness for the Prosecution is an adaptation of a 1953 stage play of that name, in turn based on Agatha Christie's short story published in 1933; the film version was remade in 1982, there have been other adaptations. However, each of these media has its own advantages and limitations, which in the case of cinema is the time constraint. Witness for the Prosecution is a classic example of a "courtroom drama". In a courtroom drama, a charge is brought against one of the main characters, who claims to be innocent.
Another major part is played by the lawyer representing the defendant in court and battling with the public prosecutor. He or she may enlist the services of a private investigator to find out what happened and who the real perpetrator is. However, in most cases it is not clear at all whether the accused is guilty of the crime or not—this is how suspense is created; the private investigator storms into the courtroom at the last minute in order to bring a new and crucial piece of information to the attention of the court. This type of literature lends itself to the literary genre of drama focused more on dialogue and little or no necessity for a shift in scenery; the auditorium of the theatre becomes an extension of the courtroom. When a courtroom drama is filmed, the traditional device employed by screenwriters and directors is the frequent use of flashbacks, in which the crime and everything that led up to it is narrated and reconstructed from different angles. In Witness for the Prosecution, Leonard Vole, a young American living in England, is accused of murdering a middle-aged lady he met in the street while shopping.
His wife hires the best lawyer available because she is convinced, or rather she knows, that her husband is innocent. Another classic courtroom drama is U. S. playwright Reginald Rose's Twelve Angry Men, set in the jury deliberation room of a New York Court of Law. Eleven members of the jury, aiming at a unanimous verdict of "guilty", try to get it over with as as possible, and they would succeed in achieving their common aim if it were not for the eighth juror, who, on second thoughts, considers it his duty to convince his colleagues that the defendant may be innocent after all, who, by doing so, triggers a lot of discussion and anger. A hybrid of action films and crime films and a subgenre of action films as well. Most films of this kind fall in the category of heist films, prison films and sometimes cop and gangster films. Car chases and shootouts are featured. Example include Police Story, The Dark Knight, Baby Driver, Master and Heat. A hybrid of crime and comedy films. Mafia comedy looks at organized crime from a comical standpoint.
Humor comes from the incompetence of the criminals and/or black comedy. Examples include Analyze This, The Pope of Greenwich Village, Lock and Two Smoking Barrels, In Bruges, Mafia!, Tower Heist and Pain & Gain. A combination of crime and drama films. Examples include such films as Straight Badlands. A thriller in which the central characters are involved in crime, either in its investigation, as the perpetrator or, less a victim. While some action films could be labelled as such for having criminality and thrills, the emphasis in this genre is the drama and the investigative/criminal methods. Examples include Untraceable, The Silence of the Lambs, Seven, Memories of Murder, The Call, Running Scared. A genre of Indian cinema revolving around dacoity; the genre was pioneered by Mehboob Khan's Mother India. Other examples include Gunga Jumna and Bandit Queen. A genre popular in the 1940s and 1950s fall into the crime and mystery genres. Private detectives hired to solve a crime are in such films as The Maltese Falcon, The Big Sleep, Kiss Me Deadly, L.
A. Confidential, The Long Goodbye, Chinatown. Neo-noir refers to modern films influenced by film noir such as Sin City. A genre of film that focuses on gangs and organized crime. Examples include Goodfellas, The Godfather, Casino; this film deals with a group of criminals attempting to perform a theft or robbery, as well as the possible consequences that follow. Heist films that are lighter in tone are called "Caper films". Examples include The Killing, Oceans 11, Dog Day Afternoon, Reservoir Dogs, The Town. A Hong Kong action cinema crime film genre; the genre was pioneered by John Woo's A Better Tomorrow and Ringo Lam's City on Fire, starring Chow Yun-fat. Elements of the genre can be seen in Hollywood crime films since the 1990s, such as the work of John Woo and Quentin Tarantino. Film dealing with African-American urban issues and culture, they do not always revolve around crime, but criminal activity features in the storyline. Examples include Menace II Boyz n the Hood. Not concerned with the actual crime so much as the trial in the aftermath.
A typical plot would involve a lawyer trying to prove the innocence of his or her cli
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per