Loiret is a department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of north-central France. The department is named after the river Loiret, a tributary of the Loire, and, located wholly within the department; the capital of the department is Orléans, about 110 km southwest of Paris. As well as being the regional capital, it is a historic city on the banks of the Loire, it has a large central area with many historic buildings and mansions, a cathedral dating back to the thirteenth century, rebuilt after being destroyed by Protestant forces in 1568. The Loire Valley is famous for its several châteaux. Loiret is one of the original 83 departments, created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790 by order of the National Constituent Assembly; the new departments were to be uniformly administered and equal to one another in size and population. It was created from the former province of Orléanais, too large to continue in its previous form; the Loire Valley was occupied in Palaeolithic times as attested by numerous archaeological sites in the department.
The Celts were here, bringing crafts and trades, the Romans occupied the area after the Gallic Wars. They built roads and founded cities such as Cenabum, on the site of present-day Orléans, Sceaux-du-Gâtinais. Around 451, the Huns were repelled before reaching Cenabum; the Franks reached the Clovis I reigned in the area. A time of peace and prosperity ensued during the reign of Charlemagne; the department of Loiret was in the province of Orléans in north central France, along with the departments of Loir-et-Cher and Eure-et-Loir now forms the region Centre-Val de Loire. To the north of Loiret lie the departments of Eure-et-Loir and Seine-et-Marne, to the east lies Yonne, to the southeast Nièvre, to the south Cher, to the west Loir-et-Cher; the department consists of flat low-lying land through which flows the River Loire. This river enters the department near Châtillon-sur-Loire in the southeast, flows northwestwards to Orleans where it turns to flow south west, leaving the department near Beaugency.
The Canal d'Orléans connects the Loire River at Orléans to a junction with the Canal du Loing and the Canal de Briare in the village of Buges near Montargis. The River Loire and these canals formed important trading routes before the arrival of the railways; the River Loiret, after which the department is named, is 12 km long and joins the Loire southwest of Orléans. Its source is at Orléans-la-Source, its mouth at Saint-Hilaire-Saint-Mesmin. Other rivers in the department, are the River Loing, a right-bank tributary of the Loire, the River Ouanne which flows into the Loing; the department has a total area of 6,757 km2 and is 119 km from west to east and 77 km from north to south. Large parts of the land are used for agriculture, these are separated by low wooded hills and some forested areas; the northwestern part of the department is in the wheat-growing region known as Beauce, an undulating plateau with some of France's best agricultural land. This area was popular with the French aristocracy in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period, there are many historic châteaux in the department including Château d'Augerville, Château de Bellegarde, Château de Gien, Château du Hallier, Château de Meung-sur-Loire, Château de Sully-sur-Loire and Château de Trousse-Barrière.
The part of the department south of the River Loire is known as the Sologne and is an area of heathland and marshland, interspersed by hills where vines are grown. The eastern part of the department was part of a province of that name; until the beginning of the 21st century, it used to be renowned for the production of saffron, but the crop could not be mechanised, production dwindled as the cost of production became too high. Of the 1,669,332 acres of land in the department, 975,000 acres are arable, 100,000 acres are vines, 60,000 acres are pasture, 280,000 acres are forested, 16,000 acres are plantations and orchards and 140,000 acres are unproductive moorland and heathland; the soil is in general productive. Other crops include fruit, asparagus and herbs. Vines are cultivated and wine produced, the area is noted for its fruit preservation. Bee-keeping takes place and honey is produced. Loiret has little industrial development, commerce is centred about the sale of corn, cattle, cider, flour, fish, salt and wool.
The only minerals extracted are stone, limestone and clay. The department benefits from its proximity to Paris. Orléans is connected to Paris via fast express trains; the A71 autoroute links Paris with Orléans and Clermont-Ferrand, the A10 autoroute links Paris with Orléans and Bordeaux, the Route nationale 20 links Paris with Orléans, Limoges and Spain. Orléans is associated with Joan of Arc; the Cathedral of Sainte-Croix was built in the Gothic style between 1278 and 1329, destroyed by Protestant forces in 1568, rebuilt between the 17th and 19th centuries. Cantons of the Loiret department Communes of the Loiret department Arrondissements of the Loiret department Prefecture website General Council website Loiret at Curlie
Baccon is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France. Communes of the Loiret department INSEE statistics
Auvilliers-en-Gâtinais is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France. Communes of the Loiret department INSEE statistics
Andonville is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France. Communes of the Loiret department INSEE statistics
Siméon Denis Poisson
Baron Siméon Denis Poisson FRS FRSE was a French mathematician and physicist, who made several scientific advances. Poisson was born in Pithiviers, Loiret district in France, the son of Siméon Poisson, an officer in the French army. In 1798, he entered the École Polytechnique in Paris as first in his year, began to attract the notice of the professors of the school, who left him free to make his own decisions as to what he would study. In 1800, less than two years after his entry, he published two memoirs, one on Étienne Bézout's method of elimination, the other on the number of integrals of a finite difference equation; the latter was examined by Sylvestre-François Lacroix and Adrien-Marie Legendre, who recommended that it should be published in the Recueil des savants étrangers, an unprecedented honor for a youth of eighteen. This success at once procured entry for Poisson into scientific circles. Joseph Louis Lagrange, whose lectures on the theory of functions he attended at the École Polytechnique, recognized his talent early on, became his friend.
Meanwhile, Pierre-Simon Laplace, in whose footsteps Poisson followed, regarded him as his son. The rest of his career, till his death in Sceaux near Paris, was nearly occupied by the composition and publication of his many works and in fulfilling the duties of the numerous educational positions to which he was successively appointed. After finishing his studies at the École Polytechnique, he was appointed répétiteur there, a position which he had occupied as an amateur while still a pupil in the school, he was made deputy professor in 1802, and, in 1806 full professor succeeding Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, whom Napoleon had sent to Grenoble. In 1808 he became astronomer to the Bureau des Longitudes, he went on to become a member of the Institute in 1812, examiner at the military school at Saint-Cyr in 1815, graduation examiner at the École Polytechnique in 1816, councillor of the university in 1820, geometer to the Bureau des Longitudes succeeding Pierre-Simon Laplace in 1827. In 1817, he married Nancy de Bardi and with her, he had four children.
His father, whose early experiences had led him to hate aristocrats, bred him in the stern creed of the First Republic. Throughout the Revolution, the Empire, the following restoration, Poisson was not interested in politics, concentrating on mathematics, he was appointed to the dignity of baron in 1821. In March 1818, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, in 1822 a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, in 1823 a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; the revolution of July 1830 threatened him with the loss of all his honours. After this, of course, his degradation was impossible, seven years he was made a peer of France, not for political reasons, but as a representative of French science; as a teacher of mathematics Poisson is said to have been extraordinarily successful, as might have been expected from his early promise as a répétiteur at the École Polytechnique. As a scientific worker, his productivity has if been equaled. Notwithstanding his many official duties, he found time to publish more than three hundred works, several of them extensive treatises, many of them memoirs dealing with the most abstruse branches of pure mathematics, applied mathematics, mathematical physics, rational mechanics.
A list of Poisson's works, drawn up by himself, is given at the end of Arago's biography. All, possible is a brief mention of the more important ones, it was in the application of mathematics to physics that his greatest services to science were performed. The most original, the most permanent in their influence, were his memoirs on the theory of electricity and magnetism, which created a new branch of mathematical physics. Next in importance stand the memoirs on celestial mechanics, in which he proved himself a worthy successor to Pierre-Simon Laplace; the most important of these are his memoirs Sur les inégalités séculaires des moyens mouvements des planètes, Sur la variation des constantes arbitraires dans les questions de mécanique, both published in the Journal of the École Polytechnique. In the first of these memoirs, Poisson discusses the famous question of the stability of the planetary orbits, settled by Lagrange to the first degree of approximation for the disturbing forces. Poisson showed that the result could be extended to a second approximation, thus made an important advance in planetary theory.
The memoir is remarkable inasmuch as it roused Lagrange, after an interval of inactivity, to compose in his old age one of the greatest of his memoirs, entitled Sur la théori
Michel Odent is a French obstetrician and childbirth specialist. Born in a French village in 1930, Odent studied medicine in Paris and was educated as a surgeon in the 1950s, he has been presented in Lancet as “one of the last real general surgeons”. In charge of the surgical and maternity units of the Pithiviers hospital from 1962 to 1985, Odent has developed a special interest in environmental factors influencing the birth process, he introduced the concepts home like birthing rooms, birthing pools and singing sessions for pregnant women. After his hospital career he was involved in home birth, founded in London the Primal Health Research Centre, designed a database in order to compile epidemiological studies exploring correlations between what happens during the “Primal period” and health on. Michel Odent is Visiting Professor at Odessa National Medical University and Doctor Honoris Causa of Brasilia University. Odent is the author of the first articles about the initiation of breastfeeding during the hour following birth, the first article about the use of birthing pools during labour, the first article applying the Gate control theory of pain to obstetrics.
In a book published in 1986 he provided evidence that homeostasis is established during the “primal period”: this is the phase of life when human basic adaptive systems are adjusting their “set point levels”. Odent is focusing on the possible evolution of Homo sapiens in relation to the modern ways to be born. Odent is the author of 15 books published in 22 languages. In his books he is referring to the concept of reduced neocortical activity as a key to rediscover the basic needs of labouring women and to make possible a real “fetus ejection reflex”, his books include: Birth Reborn Primal Health The Farmer and the Obstetrician The Caesarean The Scientification of Love The Functions of the Orgasms: The Highways to Transcendence Childbirth in the Age of Plastics Childbirth and the Future of Homo sapiens, reissued as Childbirth and the Evolution of Homo sapiens in 2014 Do we need Midwives? The Birth of Homo, the Marine Chimpanzee Cesarean Childbirth Lactation Midwifery Natural childbirth Water birth
Ardon is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France. Communes of the Loiret department INSEE statistics Official site