Gunpowder known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur and potassium nitrate; the sulfur and charcoal act as fuels. Because of its incendiary properties and the amount of heat and gas volume that it generates, gunpowder has been used as a propellant in firearms, artillery and fireworks, as a blasting powder in quarrying and road building. Gunpowder was invented in 9th-century China and spread throughout most parts of Eurasia by the end of the 13th century. Developed by the Taoists for medicinal purposes, gunpowder was first used for warfare about 1000 AD. Gunpowder is classified as a low explosive because of its slow decomposition rate and low brisance. Low explosives deflagrate at subsonic speeds, whereas high explosives detonate, producing a supersonic wave. Ignition of gunpowder packed behind a projectile generates enough pressure to force the shot from the muzzle at high speed, but not enough force to rupture the gun barrel.
Gunpowder thus makes a good propellant, but is less suitable for shattering rock or fortifications with its low-yield explosive power. However, by transferring enough energy a bombardier may wear down an opponent's fortified defenses. Gunpowder was used to fill fused artillery shells until the second half of the 19th century, when the first high explosives were put into use. Gunpowder is no longer used in modern weapons, nor is it used for industrial purposes, due to its inefficient cost compared to newer alternatives such as dynamite and ammonium nitrate/fuel oil. Today gunpowder firearms are limited to hunting, target shooting, bulletless historical reenactments. Based on a 9th-century Taoist text, the invention of gunpowder by Chinese alchemists was an accidental byproduct from experiments seeking to create the elixir of life; this experimental medicine origin of gunpowder is reflected in its Chinese name huoyao, which means "fire medicine". The first military applications of gunpowder were developed around 1000 AD.
The earliest chemical formula for gunpowder appeared in the 11th century Song dynasty text, Wujing Zongyao, however gunpowder had been used for fire arrows since at least the 10th century. In the following centuries various gunpowder weapons such as bombs, fire lances, the gun appeared in China. Saltpeter was known to the Chinese by the mid-1st century AD and was produced in the provinces of Sichuan and Shandong. There is strong evidence of the use of sulfur in various medicinal combinations. A Chinese alchemical text dated 492 noted saltpeter burnt with a purple flame, providing a practical and reliable means of distinguishing it from other inorganic salts, thus enabling alchemists to evaluate and compare purification techniques; the first reference to the incendiary properties of such mixtures is the passage of the Zhenyuan miaodao yaolüe, a Taoist text tentatively dated to the mid-9th century: "Some have heated together sulfur and saltpeter with honey. The Chinese word for "gunpowder" is Chinese: 火药/火藥.
In the following centuries a variety of gunpowder weapons such as rockets and land mines appeared before the first metal barrel firearms were invented. Explosive weapons such as bombs have been discovered in a shipwreck off the shore of Japan dated from 1281, during the Mongol invasions of Japan; the Chinese Wujing Zongyao, written by Zeng Gongliang between 1040 and 1044, provides encyclopedia references to a variety of mixtures that included petrochemicals—as well as garlic and honey. A slow match for flame throwing mechanisms using the siphon principle and for fireworks and rockets is mentioned; the mixture formulas in this book do not contain enough saltpeter to create an explosive however. The Essentials was however written by a Song dynasty court bureaucrat, there is little evidence that it had any immediate impact on warfare. However, by 1083 the Song court was producing hundreds of thousands of fire arrows for their garrisons. Bombs and the first proto-guns, known as "fire lances", became prominent during the 12th century and were used by the Song during the Jin-Song Wars.
Fire lances were first recorded to have been used at the Siege of De'an in 1132 by Song forces against the Jin. In the early 13th century the Jin utilized iron-casing bombs. Projectiles were added to fire lances, re-usable fire lance barrels were developed, first out of hardened paper, metal. By 1257 some fire lances were firing wads of bullets. In the late 13th century metal fire lances became'eruptors', proto-cannons firing co-viative projectiles, by 1287 at the latest, had become true guns, the hand cannon; the earliest Western accounts of gunpowder appear in texts written by English philosopher Roger Bacon in the 13th century. Several sources men
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with a large number of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' hospitals, hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical nurses; the medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic.
Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology. Hospitals are funded by the public sector, health organisations, health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders. Hospitals are staffed by professional physicians, surgeons and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters that still focus on hospital ministry in the late 1990s, as well as several other Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals. In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were "places of hospitality", this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.
During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools; the word "hospital" comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel; the latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was removed from the word, the loss of, signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word'Spital' shares similar roots; the grammar of the word differs depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital requires an article; some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight.
Hospitals are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are described as clinics. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital known as an acute-care hospital; these facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, have an emergency department or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of facilities; some hospitals in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care, critical care, long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. Today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, are the sole locally-accessible hospital within nine additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.
Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, exist to serve local needs, they are a important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal. In 2012, district hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California. Types of specialised hospitals incl
A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière
A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière, a group tableau portrait painted by the genre artist Pierre Aristide André Brouillet, is one of the best known paintings in the history of medicine and shows the neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot giving a clinical demonstration to a group of postgraduate students. It hangs in a corridor of the Descartes University in Paris. Although "rather undistinguished … artistically … the painting is remarkable for its dimensions, the figures being nearly life size"; the painting is a rather large work, painted in bright contrasting colours, measuring 430 cm x 290 cm. The work was created by the academic history painter André Brouillet at the age of thirty, from individual studies of the thirty participants, presented in the prevailing tradition of academic group portraits, it was first displayed at the salon d'art of 1 May 1887, purchased by the Academy of Fine Arts for 3,000 francs. Brouillet was a pupil of Jean-Léon Gérôme who was, himself renowned for the fact that his illustrative paintings, such as Phryne before the Areopagus, were so popular as lithographic prints that it seemed they were "painted in order to be reproduced".
The painting represents an imaginary scene of a contemporary scientific demonstration, based on real life, depicts the eminent French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot delivering a clinical lecture and demonstration at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris. On the rear wall of the lecture room is the large charcoal work, drawn by the anatomist and medical artist Paul Richer, which reproduces the hysterical pose captured in one of the many photographs taken in the Salpêtrière. Entitled Periode de contortions, it depicts "a woman convulsing and assuming the arc-in-circle" posture: the arc en circle, or Opisthotonus, "the hysteric's classic posture". Morloch, from his study of the actual painting, remarks on the striking and dramatic coincidence that, "in 1878 Richer reproduced the pose in drawing from a photograph … now, 1887 … the hysteric is reproducing in life the pose from the drawing." Resting on the table to Charcot's right "are a reflex hammer and what is thought to be a Duchenne electrotherapy apparatus".
Except for the four individuals to Charcot's left, the participants are arranged in two concentric arcs: the inner circle displaying "sixteen of his current and former physician associates in reverse order of seniority", the outer, depicting "the older generation of … along with philosophers and friends of Charcot". Both Signoret and Harris have identified each of the individuals depicted in Brouillet's tableau; the Charcot group of five are: Mlle. Ecary, a nurse at the Salpêtrière; the six sitting in the window-side of the painting are: Paul Richer, medical artist and physician. The six standing at the window-side of the painting are: Alix Joffroy, anatomical pathologist and psychiatrist; the remainder are either sitting parallel to the back wall, or on the side of the lecture theatre opposite the windows. The remaining thirteen individuals are: psychologist; the painting has only returned to Paris, having "spent most of its life in obscurity in Nice and Lyon". Today it hangs, unframed, in a corridor of the Descartes University in Paris, near to the entrance of the Museum of the History of Medicine, which houses one of the oldest collections of surgical and physiological instrumentation in Europe.
In the nineteenth century, a considerable number of different versions of the original pa
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with supplements, revised editions, translations. It had many writers, known as the Encyclopédistes, it was edited by Denis Diderot and, until 1759, co-edited by Jean le Rond d'Alembert. The Encyclopédie is most famous for representing the thought of the Enlightenment. According to Denis Diderot in the article "Encyclopédie", the Encyclopédie's aim was "to change the way people think" and for people to be able to inform themselves and to know things, he and the other contributors advocated for the secularization of learning away from the Jesuits. Diderot wanted to incorporate all of the world's knowledge into the Encyclopédie and hoped that the text could disseminate all this information to the public and future generations, it was the first encyclopedia to include contributions from many named contributors, it was the first general encyclopedia to describe the mechanical arts.
In the first publication, seventeen folio volumes were accompanied by detailed engravings. Volumes were published without the engravings, in order to better reach a wide audience within Europe; the Encyclopédie was conceived as a French translation of Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia. Ephraim Chambers had first published his Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences in two volumes in London in 1728, following several dictionaries of arts and sciences that had emerged in Europe since the late 17th century; this work became quite renowned, four editions were published between 1738 and 1742. An Italian translation appeared between 1747 and 1754. In France a member of the banking family Lambert had started translating Chambers into French, but in 1745 the expatriate Englishman John Mills and German Gottfried Sellius were the first to prepare a French edition of Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia for publication, which they entitled Encyclopédie. Early in 1745 a prospectus for the Encyclopédie was published to attract subscribers to the project.
This four page prospectus was illustrated by Jean-Michel Papillon, accompanied by a plan, stating that the work would be published in five volumes from June 1746 until the end of 1748. The text was translated by Mills and Sellius, it was corrected by an unnamed person, who appears to have been Denis Diderot; the prospectus was cited at some length in several journals. The Mémoires pour l'histoire des sciences et des beaux arts journal was lavish in its praise: "voici deux des plus fortes entreprises de Littérature qu'on ait faites depuis long-temps"; the Mercure Journal in June 1745, printed a 25-page article that praised Mill's role as translator. The Journal reported that Mills had discussed the work with several academics, was zealous about the project, had devoted his fortune to support this enterprise, was the sole owner of the publishing privilege. However, the cooperation fell apart on in 1745. André Le Breton, the publisher commissioned to manage the physical production and sales of the volumes, cheated Mills out of the subscription money, claiming for example that Mills's knowledge of French was inadequate.
In a confrontation Le Breton physically assaulted Mills. Mills took Le Breton to court. Mills returned to England soon after the court's ruling. For his new editor, Le Breton settled on the mathematician Jean Paul de Gua de Malves. Among those hired by Malves were the young Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Denis Diderot. Within thirteen months, in August 1747, Gua de Malves was fired for being an ineffective leader. Le Breton hired Diderot and d'Alembert to be the new editors. Diderot would remain as editor for the next twenty-five years, seeing the Encyclopédie through to its completion; as d'Alembert worked on the Encyclopédie, its title expanded. As of 1750, the full title was Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, par une société de gens de lettres, mis en ordre par M. Diderot de l'Académie des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Prusse, et quant à la partie mathématique, par M. d'Alembert de l'Académie royale des Sciences de Paris, de celle de Prusse et de la Société royale de Londres.
The title page was amended. The work consisted with 71,818 articles and 3,129 illustrations; the first seventeen volumes were published between 1751 and 1765. Engraver Robert Bénard provided at least 1,800 plates for the work; because of its occasional radical contents, the Encyclopédie caused much controversy in conservative circles, on the initiative of the Parlement of Paris, the French government suspended the encyclopedia's privilège in 1759. Despite the suspension, work continued "in secret," because the project had placed supporters, such as Malesherbes and Madame de Pompadour; the authorities deliberately ignored the continued
Libéral Bruant, was a French architect best known as the designer of the Hôtel des Invalides, now dominated by the dome erected by Jules Hardouin Mansart, his collaborator in earlier stages of the construction. A comparison of Bruant's central entrance to the Invalides, under an arched cornice packed with military trophies with Mansart's Église du Dome, gives a clear idea of the difference between Bruant's High Baroque and Hardouin-Mansart's restrained and somewhat academic Late Baroque. Bruant was the most notable in a family that produced a long series of architects active from the 16th to the 18th century. In 1660, Bryuant was the architect chosen for rehabilitations to Louis XIII's old arsenal, being converted into a combination workhouse and orphanage, it is now the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital. In the Marais district of Paris, the hôtel particulier Bruant built for himself in 1685, at 1 rue de la Perle now houses the Bricard Lock Museum, its Baroque façade of golden limestone is enlivened by windows set into blind arches that march across its front and busts in oval reserves, all under a richly-sculptured pediment, pierced by an oval window.
In 1671, he became one of the first eight members of the Académie royale d'architecture, created by Louis XIV. Architecture of Paris Les Invalides "Photo of the Hotel Bruant". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2004
Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol
Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol was a French psychiatrist. Born and raised in Toulouse, Esquirol completed his education at Montpellier, he came to Paris in 1799 where he worked at the Salpêtrière Hospital and became a favorite student of Philippe Pinel. To enable Esquirol to take up the intensive study of insanity in an appropriate setting, Pinel put up the security for the house and garden on Rue de Buffon where Esquirol established a maison de santé or private asylum in 1801 or 1802. Esquirol's maison was quite successful, being ranked, in 1810, as one of the three best such institutions in Paris. In 1805 he published his thesis The passions considered as causes and means of cure in cases of insanity. Esquirol, like Pinel, believed that the origin of mental illness could be found in the passions of the soul and was convinced that madness does not and irremediably affect a patient's reason. Esquirol was made médecin ordinaire at the Salpêtrière in 1811, following the death of Jean-Baptiste Pussin, Pinel's trusted concierge.
Pinel chose Esquirol because he was, as Pinel put it, "a physician... devoted to the study of insanity," arguing that with his many years of maison de santé experience he was the only man suited for the job. Esquirol saw the question of madness as national; this was true for the poor where he saw the state, with the help of doctors, playing an important role. He saw an important role for doctors in caring for people accused of crimes who were declared not responsible by reason of insanity. In public controversies over this question he promoted the usefulness of the diagnosis of monomania. By taking such an active role in these public matters, his fame eclipsed that of his teacher Pinel. In 1817, under the restored Bourbon monarchy, Esquirol initiated a course in maladies mentales in the makeshift quarters of the Salpêtrière dining hall; this was the first formal teaching of psychiatry in France. It was in 1817. At this time he was neither a professor at the Paris faculty or the chief physician at a Paris hospital, but a médecin ordinaire.
Nonetheless he was reported to have been one of the clinical instructors to whose hospital visits "students flock with a kind of frenzy." He had many distinguished students. In 1810, 1814 and 1817 Esquirol, at his own expense, had toured facilities for lunatics throughout France. In 1818 following these trips he wrote a short memoir presented to the minister of the interior and a more detailed description of his findings published in the Dictionnaire des sciences médicales; these articles described, in precise and frightening terms, the conditions in which the insane lived throughout France. They demonstrate. Together these two articles constituted a program of reform directed both at the government and the medical profession; this program consisted of four points: First, that insanity should be treated in special hospitals by physicians with special training. Second, that reform involved exporting the advances made in Paris to the provinces. Third, that "a lunatic hospital is an instrument of cure".
By this he meant that the physical structure of new psychiatric hospitals must be designed to support the practice of the new specialty. Fourth, Esquirol insisted on the definitive medicalization of the care of the insane. "The physician must be, in the vital principal of a lunatic hospital. It is he who should set everything in motion… The physician should be invested with an authority from which no one is exempt."At the behest of the minister of internal affairs, Esquirol next undertook a nationwide survey, visiting all the institutions throughout France where mental patients were confined. In 1822 he was appointed inspector general of medical faculties, in 1825 director of Charenton Hospice, he became the main architect of the national law of 1838 that instituted departmental asylums for all needy French mental patients and, still in force today. In 1834, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Esquirol Square in Toulouse since 1867. Esquirol metro station in Toulouse since 1993 on Esquirol Square.
Esquirol Street in Paris since 1864. Esquirol Avenue in Lyon. Esquirol hospital in Limoges Esquirol hospital in Saint-Maurice Esquirol hospital in Caen Esquirol - Saint-Hilaire clinic in Agen Esquirol, Étienne. Baillière, Jean-Baptiste, ed. Des maladies mentales considérées sous les rapports médical, hygiénique et médico-légal, Volume 1. Paris: Chez J.-B. Baillière. Retrieved 2011-07-14. Esquirol, Étienne. Baillière, Jean-Baptiste, ed. Des maladies mentales considerées sous les rapports médical, hygiènique et médico-légal, Volume 2. Paris: Chez J.-B. Baillière. Retrieved 2011-07-14. Esquirol, Étienne. Mental maladies. Translated from the French by Ebenezer Kingsbury Hunt. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard. Retrieved 2011-07-13. Ottaviani, R. "On Esquirol's historical and statistical study of the royal establishment at Charenton". Vesalius: acta internationales historiae medicinae. 8: 23–33. PMID 12422885. Caire, M. "Esquirol in 1805: titles, performed duties". Histoire des sciences médicales. 31: 45–52. ISSN 0440-8888.
PMID 11625101. Weiner, D B. "Esquirol's patient register: the first private psychiatric hospital in Paris, 1802–1808". Bulletin of the History of Medici
Jean-Pierre Falret was a French psychiatrist. He was born and died in Marcilhac-sur-Célé. In 1811 he began his medical studies in Paris, where he was inspired by the work of Philippe Pinel and Jean Étienne Dominique Esquirol. In 1819 he obtained his medical doctorate, afterwards establishing a mental institution with Félix Voisin at Vanves. In 1831 he was appointed chef de l’hospice at the Salpêtrière, a position he maintained until his retirement in 1867. In 1851 he published an article describing a condition he called la folie circulaire, of which a patient would experience cycles of manic excitement and cycles of depression. Falret's description is considered to be the earliest documented diagnosis of what today is known as a bipolar affective disorder. Falret believed in the dualistic nature of the individual, a separation of body and soul, he proposed that when the soul and a diseased condition interact, a phenomenon he called novum organon appeared. Accordingly, this manifestation of the novum organon created disturbances of the soul and caused mental illness.
He believed that this mental condition could not be remedied by somatic treatment alone, but through "psychic" moral methods. With psychiatrist Ernest-Charles Lasègue, he identified a shared psychotic disorder sometimes referred to as "Lasègue-Falret syndrome"; the syndrome is characterized by the coincidental appearance of psychotic symptoms in family members while living together, as well as retention of the symptoms when the individuals are separated. This syndrome can involve a situation where a diseased family member transmits psychotic symptoms to healthy members of the family; the two doctors published their findings in a treatise called La folie à deux ou folie communiquée. Today the Le Centre Hospitalier Jean-Pierre Falret is a psychiatric hospital system serving the department of Lot. Being a fierce opponent of psychiatric reductionism depriving the mental patients of their rights, Falret fought against injustice by proposing a humane approach respecting the persons with mental problems and open to society.
Falret visited asylums in England and Scotland in 1835, contributed to the preparation of the lunacy legislation of June 30, 1838 aimed to re-establish the civil rights of the mentally ill. A true pioneer, he was convinced that "the mental patients could be cured and that providing them with their place in society and workplace would guarantee their safety.""All the most unfortunate circumstances are reuniting so that to dishearten the convalescent mental patients on their way back to the world. The family can not accept them anymore; the mental patients are incapable of surmounting so many obstacles. As a result, people accuse them of immorality, crimes, or suicide attempts, or the mentally affected are quickly falling back to the cruel illness where they were so hiding themselves earlier."Being aware of the fragility of his patients and the risks of relapse, he founded in 1841 "The Patronage Society for the Mental Patients Cured in the Salpêtrière Hospital". The name of this society was subsequently changed to "The Falret Charity".
In 1845 Falret visited the Illenau asylum near Achern in the Grand Duchy of Baden, publishing Visite a l'établissement d'aliénés d'Illenau:, et considérations générales sur les asiles d'aliénés as a result of his experience. In 1865 he was made on honorary member of the Société médicale allemande de Paris. Recherches statistiques sur les aliénés, les suicides et les morts subites (Memoir presented to the Académie des sciences in 1828/1829. De l’aléniation mentale, – On mental illness. Du délire, – On delirium. De la folie circulaire ou forme de maladie mentale caracterisée par alternative régulière de la manie et de la melancholie, – "Circular madness" or a form of mental malady characterized by regular alternations of mania and melancholy. Mémoire sur la folie circulaire, forme de la maladie mentale caractérisée par la reproduction successive et régulière de l’état maniaque, de l’état mélancolique, et d’un intervalle lucide plus ou moins prolongé, – Memoir of circular madness, etc. De la non-existence de la monomanie, – The non-existence of monomania.
Du traitement général des aliénés, – General treatment of insanity. Jean-Pierre Falret at Who Named It Pichot, P. "Circular insanity, 150 years on". Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine. 188: 275–84. PMID 15506718. Falret, Jean-Pierre. "Mémoire sur la folie circulaire". Bulletin de l'Académie Imperiale de Médecine. 19: 382–400