Sainsbury's is the third largest chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom, with a 16.9% share of the supermarket sector. Founded in 1869, by John James Sainsbury with a shop in Drury Lane, the company became the largest retailer of groceries in 1922, was an early adopter of self-service retailing in the United Kingdom, had its heyday during the 1980s. In 1995, Tesco overtook Sainsbury's to become the market leader, Asda became the second largest in 2003, demoting Sainsbury's to third place for most of the subsequent period until January 2014, when Sainsbury's regained second place. In April 2019, whilst awaiting to merge with rival Asda, Sainsbury's were again demoted into third place as their rival placed second; the holding company, J Sainsbury plc, is split into three divisions: Sainsbury's Supermarkets Ltd, Sainsbury's Bank and Sainsbury's Argos. The group's head office is in Sainsbury's Support Centre in City of London; as of February 2018, the largest overall shareholder is the sovereign wealth fund of Qatar, the Qatar Investment Authority, which holds 21.99% of the company.
It is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Sainsbury's was established as a partnership in 1869, when John James Sainsbury and his wife Mary Ann opened a shop at 173 Drury Lane in Holborn, London. Sainsbury started as a retailer of fresh foods and expanded into packaged groceries such as tea and sugar, his trading philosophy, as stated on a sign outside his first shop in Islington, was: "Quality perfect, prices lower". Shops started to look similar, so in order that people could recognise them throughout London, a high cast-iron'J. SAINSBURY' sign featured on every shop so their shops could be seen from a distance, round-the-back deliveries started to add extra convenience and not upset rivals due to Sainsbury's popularity. In 1922, J Sainsbury was incorporated as a private company, as'J. Sainsbury Limited', when it became the United Kingdom's largest retailer of groceries. By this time each shop had the following departments: dairy and hams, poultry and game, cooked meats, fresh meats. Groceries were introduced in 1903, when John James purchased a grocer's branch at 12 Kingsland High Street, Dalston.
Home delivery featured in every shop. Sites were chosen, with a central position in a parade selected in preference to a corner shop; this allowed a larger display of products, which could be kept cooler in summer, important as there was no refrigeration. By the time John James Sainsbury died in 1928, there were over 128 shops, his last words were said to be:'Keep the shops well lit'. He was replaced by his eldest son, John Benjamin Sainsbury, who had gone into partnership with his father in 1915. During the 1930s and 1940s, with the company now run by John Benjamin Sainsbury, the company continued to refine its product offerings and maintain its leadership in terms of shop design and cleanliness; the company acquired the Midlands-based Thoroughgood chain in 1936. The founder's grandsons Alan Sainsbury and Sir Robert Sainsbury became joint managing directors in 1938, after their father, John Benjamin Sainsbury, had a minor heart attack. Following the outbreak of World War II, many of the men who worked for Sainsbury's were called to perform National Service and were replaced by women.
The Second World War was a difficult time for Sainsbury's, as most of its shops were trading in the London area and were bombed or damaged. Turnover fell to half the prewar level. Food was rationed, one particular shop in East Grinstead was so badly damaged on Friday 9 July 1943 that it had to move to the local church, while a new one was built; this shop was not completed until 1951. In 1956, Alan Sainsbury became chairman after the death of John Benjamin Sainsbury. During the 1950s and 1960s, Sainsbury's was a keen early adopter of self-service supermarkets in the United Kingdom. On a trip to the United States of America, Alan Sainsbury realised the benefits of self-service shops and believed the future of Sainsbury's was self-service supermarkets of 10,000 sq ft, with the added bonus of a car park for extra convenience; the first self-service branch opened in Croydon in 1950. Sainsbury's was a pioneer in the development of own-brand goods, it expanded more cautiously than did Tesco, shunning acquisitions, it never offered trading stamps.
Until the company went public on 12 July 1973, as J Sainsbury plc, the company was wholly owned by the Sainsbury family. It was at the time the largest flotation on the London Stock Exchange. A million shares were set aside for staff, which led to many staff members buying shares that shot up in value. Within one minute the list of applications was closed: £495 million had been offered for £14.5 million available shares. The Sainsbury family at the time retained 85% of the firm's shares. Most of the senior positions were held by family members. John Davan Sainsbury, a member of the fourth generation of the founding family, took over the chairmanship from his uncle Sir Robert Sainsbury in 1969, chairman for two years from 1967 following Alan Sainsbury's retirement. Sainsbury's started to replace its 10,000 sq ft High Street shops with self-service supermarkets above 20,000 sq ft, which were either in out of town locations or in regenerated town centres
Southend United F.C.
Southend United Football Club is a professional association football club based in Southend-on-Sea, England. The team competes in the third tier of English football. Southend are known as "The Shrimpers", a reference to the area's maritime industry included as one of the quarterings on the club badge. Founded on 19 May 1906 in the Blue Boar pub, Southend has been a member of the Football League since 1920; the club has spent most of its League career in the English lower divisions, with seven seasons in the League's second tier. The club is based at Roots Hall Stadium in Prittlewell, with plans to move to a new stadium at Fossetts Farm; the club has played at five grounds: the original Roots Hall, the Kursaal, the Southend Stadium, the rented New Writtle Street Stadium and again at Roots Hall. Roots Hall was the first stadium that the club owned and was built on the site of their original home, albeit at a lower level; the site previous to Southend purchasing it in 1952 had been used as a sand quarry, by the council as a landfill site and by the local gas board.
It took 10 years to complete the building of Roots Hall. The first game was played on 20 August 1955, a 3–1 Division Three victory over Norwich City, but the ground was far from complete; the main East Stand had been fitted and ran along only 50 yards of the touchline, only a few steps of terracing encircled the ground, with the North and the huge South Bank still unconcreted. The North Stand had a single-barrelled roof which ran only the breadth of the penalty area, the West Bank was covered at its rear only by a similar structure. Although the ground was unfinished, during the inaugural season this was the least of the club's worries, for the pitch at Roots Hall showed the consequences of having been laid on top of thousands of tonnes of compacted rubbish. Drainage was a problem, the wet winter turned the ground into a quagmire; the pitch was re-laid in the summer of 1956 and a proper drainage system, still in place, was constructed, the West Bank roof was extended to reach the touchline, creating a unique double-barrelled structure.
The terracing was completed soon after, but the task of terracing all 72 steps of the South Bank was not completed until 1964. The North Bank roof was extended in the early 1960s, the East Stand was extended to run the full length of the pitch in 1966. Floodlights were installed during this period. Roots Hall was designed to hold 35,000 spectators, with over 15,000 on the South Bank alone, but the highest recorded attendance at the ground is 31,090 for an FA Cup third round tie with Liverpool in January 1979; until 1988 Roots Hall was still the newest ground in the Football League, but the ground saw a significant change. United had hit bad times in the mid-1980s and new chairman Vic Jobson sold all of the South Bank for development, leaving just a tiny block of 15 steps. In 1994, seats were installed onto the original terracing, a second tier was added; the West Bank had become seated in 1992 upon United's elevation to Division Two while the East Stand paddock received a new seating deck and elevated from the terracing below.
In 1995 the West Stand roof was extended to meet up with the North and South Stands, with seating installed in each corner, thus giving the Roots Hall its current form, with a capacity of just under 12,500. On 24 January 2007, Southend Borough Council unanimously agreed to give planning permission for a new 22,000-seater stadium at the proposed Fossetts Farm site, with Rochford District Council following suit 24 hours later; the application was subsequently submitted to Ruth Kelly Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, for government approval. However, the application was "called in" at the beginning of April 2007; the inquiry began in September 2007, followed in October 2007 by a "final" inquiry, when chairman Ron Martin called for supporters to show in numbers at Southend's local government headquarters. On 6 March 2008, permission to develop Fossetts Farm was given by the government; the club has a fierce local rivalry with fellow Essex side Colchester United. The two clubs were promoted from League One at the end of the 2005–06 season after a long battle for top spot was won by Southend.
The rivalry extends back many years. At the end of the 1989–90 season Southend's promotion from the Football League Fourth Division coincided with Colchester's fall from the Football League and the clubs had to wait 15 years before meeting once again in competition when they met in the Southern Final of the Football League Trophy; the two clubs met again in an Essex derby match in the same competition the following season, with Southend emerging as the victors once more after a penalty shootout. The overall competitive head to head record for the rivalry stands at 30 wins to Southend, 25 wins for Colchester with 17 draws; the last meeting between Southend and Colchester came in October 2018, when Colchester won 2-0 in the group stage of the Checkatrade Trophy. There is a fierce rivalry between Southend and Leyton Orient; this is due to a period of time when the Essex club were Orient's geographically closest league rivals between 1998 and 2005. Although the games between the two teams are eagerly anticipated by both sets of fans and Southend are considered as Orient's main rivals, the Shrimpers would see the London club as secondary rivals behind Colchester United due to geographical and historical reasons.
The Shrimpers beat the O's in the 2012/13 Johnstone's Paint Southern Area Final to book a place
Tesco plc trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, England, United Kingdom. It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by gross revenues and ninth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues, it has shops in seven countries across Asia and Europe, is the market leader of groceries in the UK, Ireland and Thailand. Tesco was founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen as a group of market stalls; the Tesco name first appeared in 1924, after Cohen purchased a shipment of tea from T. E. Stockwell and combined those initials with the first two letters of his surname, the first Tesco shop opened in 1931 in Burnt Oak, Barnet, his business expanded and by 1939 he had over 100 Tesco shops across the country. A UK grocer, Tesco has expanded globally since the early 1990s, with operations in 11 other countries in the world; the company pulled out of the USA in 2013, but as of 2018 continues to see growth elsewhere.
Since the 1960s, Tesco has diversified into areas such as the retailing of books, electronics, toys, software, financial services and internet services. In the 1990s Tesco repositioned itself from being a down-market high-volume low-cost retailer, to one designed to attract a range of social groups by offering products ranging from low-cost "Tesco Value" items to its "Tesco Finest" range; this broadening of its appeal was successful and saw the chain grow from 500 shops in the mid-1990s to 2,500 shops fifteen years later. Tesco is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalization of £18.1 billion as of 22 April 2015, the 28th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. Jack Cohen, the son of Jewish migrants from Poland, founded Tesco in 1919 when he began to sell war-surplus groceries from a stall at Well Street Market, Hackney, in the East End of London; the Tesco brand first appeared in 1924. The name came about, he made new labels using the initials of the supplier's name, the first two letters of his surname, forming the word TESCO.
After experimenting with his first permanent indoor market stall at Tooting in November 1930, Jack Cohen opened the first Tesco shop in September 1931 at 54 Watling Street, Burnt Oak, Middlesex. Tesco was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1947 as Tesco Stores Limited; the first self-service shop opened in St Albans in 1956, the first supermarket in Maldon in 1956. In 1961 Tesco Leicester made an appearance in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest shop in Europe. During the 1950s and 1960s, Tesco grew organically, through acquisitions, until it owned more than 800 shops; the company purchased 70 Williamson's shops, 200 Harrow Stores outlets, 212 Irwins shops, 97 Charles Phillips shops and the Victor Value chain. Jack Cohen's business motto was "pile it high and sell it cheap", to which he added an internal motto of "YCDBSOYA" which he used to motivate his sales force. In May 1987, Tesco completed its hostile takeover of the Hillards chain of 40 supermarkets in the North of England for £220 million.
In 1994, the company took over the supermarket chain William Low after fighting off Sainsbury's for control of the Dundee-based firm, which operated 57 shops. This paved the way for Tesco to expand its presence in Scotland, in which its presence was weaker than in England. Tesco introduced a loyalty card, branded'Clubcard' in 1995, an Internet shopping service. In 1996 the typeface of the logo was changed to the current version with stripe reflections underneath, whilst the corporate font used for shop signage was changed from the familiar "typewriter" font, used since the 1970s. Overseas operations were introduced the same year. Terry Leahy assumed the role of Chief Executive on 21 February 1997, the appointment having been announced on 21 November 1995. On 21 March 1997, Tesco announced the purchase of the retail arm of Associated British Foods, which consisted of the Quinnsworth and Crazy Prices chains in Ireland and Northern Ireland, associated businesses, for £640 million; the deal was approved by the European Commission on 6 May 1997.
The company was the subject of a letter bomb campaign lasting five months from August 2000 to February 2001 as a bomber calling himself "Sally" sent letter bombs to Tesco customers and demanded Clubcards modified to withdraw money from cash machines. The company started to expand the range of products it sold during the 1960s to include household goods and clothing under the Delamare brand, in 1974 opened its first petrol station. In July 2001, Tesco became involved in internet groceries retailing in the USA when it obtained a 35% stake in GroceryWorks. In 2002, Tesco purchased 13 HIT hypermarkets in Poland, it made a major move into the UK's convenience shop market with its purchase of T & S Stores, owner of 870 convenience shops in the One Stop and Day & Nite chains in the UK. In June 2003, Tesco purchased the C Two-Network in Japan, it acquired a majority stake in Turkish supermarket chain Kipa. In January 2004, Tesco acquired Adminstore, owner of 45 Cullens and Harts convenience shops, in and around London.
In Thailand, Tesco Lotus was a joint venture of the Charoen Pokphand Group and Tesco, but faci
Crystal Palace F.C.
Crystal Palace Football Club is an English professional football club based in Selhurst, South London, that competes in the Premier League, the highest level of English football. They were founded in 1905 at the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building and played their home games at the FA Cup Final stadium situated inside the historic Palace grounds; the club were forced to leave the Palace in 1915 due to the outbreak of the First World War, played at Herne Hill Velodrome and the Nest until 1924, when they moved to their current home at Selhurst Park. Palace have had several periods competing in the top level of English football, they enjoyed a successful period in the late 1980s and early 1990s, during which the club achieved its highest league finish of third place in the top division in 1990–91, were only denied a place in Europe because of the partial UEFA ban on English clubs at that time following the Heysel Stadium disaster. The club were one of the original founding members of the Premier League.
Palace have reached two FA Cup finals, finishing runners-up to Manchester United on both occasions in 1990 and 2016. The club's traditional kit colours were claret and blue, but in 1973 they decided to change to the red and blue vertical stripes now worn today. Palace have a fierce rivalry with Brighton & Hove Albion, with whom they contest the M23 derby and share rivalries with fellow South London clubs Millwall and Charlton Athletic. In 1895, the Football Association had found a new permanent home for the FA Cup Final at the site of the famous Crystal Palace Exhibition building; some years the owners, who were reliant on tourist activity for their income, sought fresh attractions for the venue, decided to form their own football team to play at the Palace stadium. There had been an amateur Crystal Palace team as early as 1861, but they had disappeared from historical records around 1876; the owners of the venue wanted a professional club to play there and tap into the vast crowd potential of the area.
Although the Football Association disliked the idea of the owners of the Cup Final venue possessing their own football team and rejected their proposal, a separate company was established to form and own the club. Crystal Palace Football Club nicknamed "The Glaziers", were founded on 10 September 1905 under the guidance of Aston Villa assistant secretary Edmund Goodman; the club applied to enter the Football League alongside another newly formed London club Chelsea. For Palace, it was Chelsea that were accepted and the club found itself in the Southern League Second Division for the 1905–06 season; the club was successful in its inaugural season and were promoted to the First Division, crowned as champions. Palace played in the mid-week United Counties League, finishing runners-up to Watford, it was in this competition that the club played their first match, winning 3–0 away to New Brompton. Palace remained in the Southern League up until 1914, their one highlight the 1907 shock First Round victory over Newcastle United in the FA Cup.
The outbreak of the First World War led to the Admiralty requisitioning the Crystal Palace and its grounds, which meant the club was forced to leave and they moved to the home of West Norwood F. C. at Herne Hill Velodrome. Three years they moved again to the Nest due to the folding of Croydon Common F. C.. The club joined the Football League Third Division in the 1920–21 season, finishing as champions and gaining promotion to the Second Division. Palace moved to the purpose-built stadium Selhurst Park in 1924, the ground the club still plays at today; the opening fixture at Selhurst Park was against Sheffield Wednesday, Palace losing 0–1 in front of a crowd of 25,000. Finishing in twenty-first position, the club was relegated to the Third Division South. Before the Second World War Palace made good efforts at promotion, never finishing outside the top half of the table and finishing second on three occasions. During the war years, the Football League was suspended, the club won two Wartime Leagues, the South Regional League and the South'D' League.
After the war, the club were less successful in the league, their highest position being seventh, conversely on three occasions the club had to apply for re-election. The club remained in Division Three South until 1957–58. A league reorganisation would see clubs in the bottom half of the table merge with those in the bottom half of Division Three North to form a new Fourth Division. Palace finished fourteenth – just below the cut – and found itself in the basement of English football, their stay proved brief. New chairman Arthur Wait appointed Arthur Rowe as manager, the 1960–61 season saw Palace gain promotion. Palace achieved distinction in 1962 when they played the great Real Madrid team of that era in a friendly match; this was the first time. Although Rowe stepped down for health reasons towards the end of 1962, the promotion proved a turning point in the club's history. Dick Graham and Bert Head guided the club to successive promotions in 1963–64 and 1968–69, taking the club through the Second Division and into the heights of the First Division.
Palace stayed in the top flight from 1969 until 1973, but experienced great disappointment. Under the management of Malcolm Allison the club was relegated in consecutive seasons, finding itself back in Division Three for the 1974–75 season, it was under Allison that the club became nicknamed "The Eagles" and they enjoyed a run to the semi-final of the 1975-76 FA Cup, beating Leeds and Chelsea along the way. Allison was sacked at the end of the 1975–76 campaign, it was under Terry Venables' management that Palace were promoted in 1976–77 and again in 1978–79, th
Michael is an archangel in Judaism and Islam. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran traditions, he is called "Saint Michael the Archangel" and "Saint Michael". In the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox religions, he is called "Saint Michael the Taxiarch". Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel; the idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that, in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy. In the New Testament Michael leads God's armies against Satan's forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is referred to as "the archangel Michael". Christian sanctuaries to Michael appeared in the 4th century, when he was first seen as a healing angel, over time as a protector and the leader of the army of God against the forces of evil. Michael is mentioned three times in all in the Book of Daniel.
The prophet Daniel experiences a vision after having undergone a period of fasting. Daniel 10:13-21 describes Daniel's vision of an angel who identifies Michael as the protector of Israel. At Daniel 12:1, Daniel is informed that Michael will arise during the "time of the end"; the Book of Revelation describes a war in heaven. After the conflict, Satan is thrown to earth along with the fallen angels, where he still tries to "lead the whole world astray". In the Epistle of Jude 1:9, Michael is referred to as an "archangel". A reference to an "archangel" appears in the First Epistle to the Thessalonians 4:16; this archangel who heralds the second coming of Christ is not named, but is associated with Michael. Michael, is one of the two archangels mentioned alongside Jibrail. In the Quran, Michael is mentioned once only, in Sura 2:98: "Whoever is an enemy to God, His angels and His messengers, Jibrail and Mikhail! God is an enemy to the disbelievers." Some Muslims believe that the reference in Sura 11:69 is Michael, one of the three angels who visited Abraham.
According to rabbinic Jewish tradition, Michael acted as the advocate of Israel, sometimes had to fight with the princes of the other nations and with the angel Samael, Israel's accuser. Michael's enmity with Samael dates from the time. Samael took hold of the wings of Michael. Michael said "May The Lord rebuke you" to Satan for attempting to claim the body of Moses; the idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy: "When a man is in need he must pray directly to God, neither to Michael nor to Gabriel." There were two prayers written beseeching him as the prince of mercy to intercede in favor of Israel: one composed by Eliezer ha-Kalir, the other by Judah ben Samuel he-Hasid. But appeal to Michael seems to have been more common in ancient times, thus Jeremiah is said to have addressed a prayer to him.
The rabbis declare that Michael entered upon his role of defender at the time of the biblical patriarchs. Thus, according to Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob, it was Michael who rescued Abraham from the furnace into which he had been thrown by Nimrod, it was Michael, the "one that had escaped", who told Abraham that Lot had been taken captive, who protected Sarah from being defiled by Abimelech. He announced to Sarah that she would bear a son and he rescued Lot at the destruction of Sodom, it is said that Michael prevented Isaac from being sacrificed by his father by substituting a ram in his place, saved Jacob, while yet in his mother's womb, from being killed by Samael. Michael prevented Laban from harming Jacob.. It was Michael who afterwards blessed him; the midrash Exodus Rabbah holds that Michael exercised his function of advocate of Israel at the time of the Exodus when Satan accused the Israelites of idolatry and declared that they were deserving of death by drowning in the Red Sea. Michael is said to have destroyed the army of Sennacherib.
The early Christians regarded some of the martyrs, such as Saint George and Saint Theodore, as military patrons. The earliest and most famous sanctuary to Michael in the ancient Near East was associated with healing waters, it was the Michaelion built in the early 4th century by Emperor Constantine at Chalcedon, on the site of an earlier Temple called Sosthenion. A painting of the Archangel slaying a serpent became a major art piece at the Michaelion after Constantine defeated Licinius near there in 324 leading to the standard iconography of Archangel Michael as a warrior saint slaying a dragon; the Michaelion was a magnificent church and in time became a model for hundreds of other churches in E
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
The nave is the central part of a church, stretching from the main entrance or rear wall, to the transepts, or in a church without transepts, to the chancel. When a church contains side aisles, as in a basilica-type building, the strict definition of the term "nave" is restricted to the central aisle. In a broader, more colloquial sense, the nave includes all areas available for the lay worshippers, including the side-aisles and transepts. Either way, the nave is distinct from the area reserved for clergy; the nave extends from the entry—which may have a separate vestibule —to the chancel and may be flanked by lower side-aisles separated from the nave by an arcade. If the aisles are high and of a width comparable to the central nave, the structure is sometimes said to have three naves, it provides the central approach to the high altar. The term nave is from navis, the Latin word for ship, an early Christian symbol of the Church as a whole, with a possible connection to the "ship of St. Peter" or the Ark of Noah.
The term may have been suggested by the keel shape of the vaulting of a church. In many Scandinavian and Baltic countries a model ship is found hanging in the nave of a church, in some languages the same word means both'nave' and'ship', as for instance Danish skib, Swedish skepp or Spanish; the earliest churches were built when builders were familiar with the form of the Roman basilica, a public building for business transactions. It had a wide central area, with aisles separated by columns, with windows near the ceiling. Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome is an early church, it was built in the 4th century on the orders of Roman emperor Constantine I, replaced in the 16th century. The nave, the main body of the building, is the section set apart for the laity, while the chancel is reserved for the clergy. In medieval churches the nave was separated from the chancel by the rood screen. Medieval naves were divided into the repetition of form giving an effect of great length. During the Renaissance, in place of dramatic effects there were more balanced proportions.
Longest nave in Denmark: Aarhus Cathedral, 93 m Longest nave in England: St Albans Cathedral, St Albans, 85 m Longest nave in Ireland: St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 91 m, externally Longest nave in France: Bourges Cathedral, 91 m, including choir where a crossing would be if there were transepts Longest nave in Germany: Cologne cathedral, 58 m, including two bays between the towers Longest nave in Italy: St Peter's Basilica in Rome, 91 m, in four bays Longest nave in Spain: Seville, 60 m, in five bays Longest nave in the United States: Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, New York City, United States, 70 m Highest vaulted nave: Beauvais Cathedral, France, 48 m, but only one bay of the nave was built. Highest completed nave: Rome, St. Peter's, Italy, 46 m Abbey, with architectural discussion and groundplans Cathedral architecture Cathedral diagram List of highest church naves