Pitt Meadows is a city in southwestern British Columbia, Canada and a member municipality in Metro Vancouver. Incorporated in 1914, it has a land area of 85.38 square kilometres and a population of 18,573. Aboriginal people resided in the Pitt Meadows area 1000 years ago. James McMillan explored the area in 1874. Europeans started a settlement known as Bonson's Landing in the area in the 1870s. Early settlers were Anglo-Saxon until after 1910; the municipality takes its name from the Pitt River and Pitt Lake, which were named after former British Prime Minister William Pitt. The Municipality of Maple Ridge, which included the Pitt Meadows area, was incorporated in 1874. In 1885, the Canadian Pacific Railway was constructed through Pitt Meadows to Port Moody, British Columbia; the Pitt Meadows General Store, constructed in 1886, was moved to its current location in 1908. A garden has existed since the early years of development on the Site; the store, which contained the community's first Post Office and the first telephone, has been the home of the Pitt Meadows Museum and Archives since June 1998.
In 1892, residents of the Pitt Meadows area petitioned for their removal from the District of Maple Ridge. In 1893, the first dyking district was organized; the major Fraser River Flood event flooded many acres of land in the spring of 1894. Pitt Meadows reverted to unorganized territory from 1892 until it was separately incorporated as a municipality in 1914. In 1914, Pitt Meadows was a small, agricultural community of less than 250 individuals which supplied Vancouver and New Westminster with produce and dairy products. After 1910, many French Canadians and Japanese arrived as settlers. During World War II, Pitt Meadows lost servicemen included: Aircraftman 2nd Class William George Bend. A large group of Dutch farmers reclaimed much of the low-lying land in Pitt Meadows after World War II. Pitt Meadows joined the Greater Vancouver Water District in 1948. In 1948, a major flood occurred in the Fraser valley after cool weather through mid-May allowed an unusually large snowpack to accumulate, a sudden shift to warm temperatures caused a fast melt.
A highway bridge was constructed in 1957 over the Pitt River. The Pitt Meadows Airport opened in 1963. A Heritage Preservation Area contains several buildings of significant heritage value, including the old General Store and Hoffman and Sons Garage. Hans Hoffmann, a mechanic, worked in and ran the family business of Hoffmann and Son Ltd. for 45 years. In 1974, Hans began his hobby of restoring stationary gasoline engines; the Widgeon Valley National Wildlife Area, 125 ha in size located near Pitt Lake, was purchased by the Nature Trust of British Columbia in 1973 and declared a NWA in October 1973. Nearby areas of high wetland value include Widgeon Slough and Addington Point along the Pitt River, the shallow southern end of Pitt Lake, the extensive dyked wet areas of the Pitt Meadows; as a result the valley is attractive to wildlife and for human recreational pursuits. In 1990, the Pitt Meadows Cenotaph was constructed "in memory of all those who have served and died for us." The City of Pitt Meadows received funding for the restoration of the Pitt Meadows Cenotaph, in 2009.
In 2012, British Columbia formally apologized to the Japanese-Canadian community for the internment of thousands of people during the Second World War. Tosh Suzuki's family spent nine years in Manitoba after being displaced from its Pitt Meadows berry farm. In 1995, Pitt Meadows became a member municipality of Metro Vancouver. Pitt Meadows is one of 21 municipalities plus Electoral Area “A” that comprises the Greater Vancouver Regional District; the announcement of the Letters Patent for Pitt Meadows, Grant of Arms, Supporters and Badge was made on March 12, 2005, in Volume 139, page 688 of the Canada Gazette. The Arms consist of the colours purple and gold, its heron emblem and a band running parallel to the edge of the shield which represents the dykes which protect the lands of the municipality; the crenellated outer edge refer to the historic Hoffman garage. The horizontal bands symbolize the CP railway line; the motto is Prosperity through endeavour. The crest coronet represents Golden Ears peaks to the north of the District.
The white drops in the crest recall the early dairy industry. The Katzie eagle symbol in the crest recalls the original Aboriginal inhabitants and recreational aviation; the District of Pitt Meadows was incorporated on January 2007 as the City of Pitt Meadows. In 2007, emergency workers knocked on thousands of doors in Pitt Meadows and Maple Ridge, warning residents to prepare for flooding that could put 95 per cent of Pitt Meadows under water. In 2014, in recognition of Pitt Meadows' centennial, anniversary special festivities and a Community Birthday Party were held; the Mission Folk Music Festival Society will present the 27th and 28th editions of the Mission Folk Music Festival in 2014/2015. Pitt Meadows is located in the Lower Fraser Valley, east of Vancouver. Most residents live in the urban town centre, located on a highland area. Eighty-two percent of Pitt Meadows is within the Green Zone, including watersheds and 200 year floodplains, wilderness areas, wildlife habitats, recreational areas and forestry areas that are fundamental to Metro Vancouver’s character and ecology.
Pitt Meadows, an agricultural town, is over 68% within a flood plain with 86% of Pitt Meadows lying within the BC Agricultural Land Reserve as protected farmland. Lands designated as environmentally sensitive include wildlife conservation areas such as
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier. There are many fjords on the coasts of Alaska, British Columbia, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Kamchatka, the Kerguelen Islands, New Zealand, Novaya Zemlya, Nunavut, Quebec, South Georgia Island, Washington state. Norway's coastline is estimated at 29,000 kilometres with nearly 1,200 fjords, but only 2,500 kilometres when fjords are excluded. A true fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock. According to the standard model, glaciers formed in pre-glacial valleys with a sloping valley floor; the work of the glacier left an overdeepened U-shaped valley that ends abruptly at a valley or trough end. Such valleys are fjords. Thresholds above sea level create freshwater lakes. Glacial melting is accompanied by the rebounding of Earth's crust as the ice load and eroded sediment is removed. In some cases this rebound is faster than sea level rise.
Most fjords are deeper than the adjacent sea. Fjords have a sill or shoal at their mouth caused by the previous glacier's reduced erosion rate and terminal moraine. In many cases this sill causes large saltwater rapids. Saltstraumen in Norway is described as the world's strongest tidal current; these characteristics distinguish fjords from rias, which are drowned valleys flooded by the rising sea. Drammensfjorden is cut in two by the Svelvik "ridge", a sandy moraine that during the ice cover was under sea level but after the post-glacial rebound reaches 60 m above the fjord. Jens Esmark in the 19th century introduced the theory that fjords are or have been created by glaciers and that large parts of Northern Europe had been covered by thick ice in prehistory. Thresholds at the mouths and overdeepening of fjords compared to the ocean are the strongest evidence of glacial origin, these thresholds are rocky. Thresholds are related to sounds and low land where the ice could spread out and therefore have less erosive force.
John Walter Gregory argued that fjords are of tectonic origin and that glaciers had a negligible role in their formation. Gregory's views were rejected by subsequent research and publications. In the case of Hardangerfjord the fractures of the Caledonian fold has guided the erosion by glaciers, while there is no clear relation between the direction of Sognefjord and the fold pattern; this relationship between fractures and direction of fjords is observed in Lyngen. Preglacial, tertiary rivers eroded the surface and created valleys that guided the glacial flow and erosion of the bedrock; this may in particular have been the case in Western Norway where the tertiary uplift of the landmass amplified eroding forces of rivers. Confluence of tributatry fjords led to excavation of the deepest fjord basins. Near the coast the typical West Norwegian glacier spread out and lost their concentration and reduced the glaciers' power to erode leaving bedrock thresholds. Bolstadfjorden is 160 m deep with a treshold of only 1.5 m, while the 1,300 m deep Sognefjorden has a threshold around 100 to 200 m deep.
Hardangerfjord is made up of several basins separated by thresholds: The deepest basin Samlafjorden between Jonaneset og Ålvik with a distinct treshold at Vikingneset in Kvam. Hanging valleys are common along U-shaped valleys. A hanging valley is a tributary valley, higher than the main valley and were created by tributary glacier flows into a glacier of larger volume; the shallower valley appears to be ` hanging' above a fjord. Waterfalls form at or near the outlet of the upper valley. Hanging valleys occur under water in fjord systems; the branches of Sognefjord are for instance much shallower than the main fjord. The mouth of Fjærlandsfjord is about 400 m deep; the mouth of Ikjefjord is only 50 meters deep while the main fjord is around 1,300 m at the same point. During the winter season there is little inflow of freshwater. Surface water and deeper water are mixed during winter because of the steady cooling of the surface and wind. In the deep fjords there is still fresh water from the summer with less density than the saltier water along the coast.
Offshore wind, common in the fjord areas during winter, sets up a current on the surface from the inner to the outer parts. This current on the surface in turn pulls dense salt water from the coast across the fjord threshold and into the deepest parts of the fjord. Bolstadfjorden has a threshold of only 1.5 m and strong inflow of freshwater from Vosso river creates a brackish surface that blocks circulation of the deep fjord. The deeper, salt layers of Bolstadfjorden are deprived of oxygen and the seabed is covered with organic material; the shallow threshold creates a strong tidal current. During the summer season there is a large inflow of river water in the inner areas; this freshwater gets mixed with saltwater creating a layer of brackish water with a higher surface than the ocean which in turn sets up a current from the river mouths towards the ocean. This current is more salty towards the coast and right under the surface current there is a reverse current of saltier water from the coast.
In the deeper
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
The Thompson River is the largest tributary of the Fraser River, flowing through the south-central portion of British Columbia, Canada. The Thompson River has the South Thompson River and the North Thompson River; the river is home to several varieties of Pacific salmon and trout. The area's geological history was influenced by glaciation, the several large glacial lakes have filled the river valley over the last 12,000 years. Archaeological evidence shows human habitation in the watershed dating back at least 8,300 years; the Thompson was named by Fraser River explorer, Simon Fraser, in honour of his friend, Columbia Basin explorer David Thompson. Recreational use of the river includes whitewater angling; the South Thompson originates at the outlet of Little Shuswap Lake at the town of Chase and flows 55 kilometres southwest through a wide valley to Kamloops where it joins the North Thompson. Highway 1, the Trans-Canada Highway and the mainline of the Canadian Pacific Railway parallel the river.
Little Shuswap Lake is fed by the Little River, which drains Shuswap Lake, fed by several rivers and creeks. The North Thompson originates at the toe of the Thompson Glacier in the Cariboo Mountains west of the community of Valemount and flows south towards Kamloops and the confluence with the South Thompson. For most of its length, the river is paralleled by Highway 5, the Canadian National Railway; the North Thompson passes by several small communities, the most notable being Blue River, Clearwater & Barriere. The North Thompson picks up the Clearwater River at the town of Clearwater; the Clearwater, the North Thompson's largest tributary, drains much of Wells Gray Provincial Park. A notable feature along the North Thompson is Little Hells Gate, a mini-replica of the much larger rapid on the Fraser downstream from the mouth of the Thompson. About 17.4 kilometres upstream from the small town of Avola, the river is forced through a narrow chute only about 30 feet wide creating a rapid that resembles the Fraser's famous rapid.
At Kamloops, the combined Thompson River river flows 15 kilometres from the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers before reaching Kamloops Lake, 30 kilometres in length, ending at the town of Savona. From there it flows in a meandering course westwards through a broad valley area. At Ashcroft, the Thompson Canyon begins and the river turns southwestward to its confluence with the Fraser; the river is paralleled by the Trans-Canada Highway, the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Canadian National Railway. From Ashcroft to Lytton, the river is confined within Thompson Canyon, making for spectacular scenery; the Thompson River joins the Fraser River in Lytton. There is a striking stretch of dark black cliffside just downstream from Ashcroft and visible from the Logan Lake-Ashcroft highway is named the Black Canyon. Just below the town of Spences Bridge was the site of a major rail disaster in the early 20th Century. Communities along this section are Bighorn, Shaw Springs, Goldpan; the Thompson River valley has existed in some form for at least 50 million years.
Geologists believe water from the river flowed northward, through the Cariboo region entering what is the modern-day Peace River drainage basin and ending up in the Arctic Ocean. This flow direction is estimated to have ended 2 million years ago, as the Pleistocene era of heavy glaciation began. During the era of massive glaciers in the Thompson River valley, water from the area drained eastward, through the Shuswap Lake area into what is now the Columbia River drainage; this flow direction was influenced by large ice buildups in the Thompson valley, which created extensive glacial lakes. Two large glacial lakes, Glacial Lake Thompson and Glacial Lake Deadman, occupied much of the modern river's course from 13,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE; these deep, ribbon-shaped lakes held large volumes of water. The lake stretched from Spences Bridge in the west to the eastern reaches of Shuswap Lake, as well as far up the northern reaches of the North Thompson river valley; the last large glacial lake, Lake Deadman, was drained by a catastrophic ice dam failure, called a jökulhlaup, in about 10,000 BCE.
This event released as much as 20 cubic kilometres of water southwest into the Fraser River system depositing sediments as far away as the Salish Sea, more than 250 kilometres away. From this point, the Thompson waters stopped flowing eastward into the Columbia River system, the river became a tributary of the Fraser; because of large deposits of glacial silt and gravel in the lower Thompson River valley, large landslides are common. The area downstream from the town of Ashcroft is prone to landslide events. Several of them have obstructed the river, caused large, temporary lakes. An 1880 slide caused the formation of a short-lived lake over 14 kilometers long with a maximum depth of 18 meters; these slides have caused major damage to the rail lines and farming operations in the river valley. Heavy irrigation has been blamed for some of the events; the Interior region of British Columbia was first populated after the retreat of the continental ice sheets of the last ice age. The ice moved out of the Thompson River region 11,000 BCE, migration by the ancestors of the Nlaka'pamux and Secwepemc people is thought to have occurred soon after.
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Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, coastal areas and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development and defence, scientific research, environmental protection. The origins of hydrography lay in the making of charts to aid navigation, by individual mariners as they navigated into new waters; these were the private property closely held secrets, of individuals who used them for commercial or military advantage. As transoceanic trade and exploration increased, hydrographic surveys started to be carried out as an exercise in their own right, the commissioning of surveys was done by governments and special hydrographic offices. National organizations navies, realized that the collection and distribution of this knowledge gave it great organizational and military advantages.
Thus were born dedicated national hydrographic organizations for the collection, organization and distribution of hydrography incorporated into charts and sailing directions. Prior to the establishment of the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office, Royal Navy captains were responsible for the provision of their own charts. In practice this meant that ships sailed with inadequate information for safe navigation, that when new areas were surveyed, the data reached all those who needed it; the Admiralty appointed Alexander Dalrymple as Hydrographer in 1795, with a remit to gather and distribute charts to HM Ships. Within a year existing charts from the previous two centuries had been collated, the first catalogue published; the first chart produced under the direction of the Admiralty, was a chart of Quiberon Bay in Brittany, it appeared in 1800. Under Captain Thomas Hurd the department received its first professional guidelines, the first catalogues were published and made available to the public and to other nations as well.
In 1829, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, as Hydrographer, developed the eponymous Scale, introduced the first official tide tables in 1833 and the first "Notices to Mariners" in 1834. The Hydrographic Office underwent steady expansion throughout the 19th century; the word hydrography comes from the Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, "water" and γράφω, "to write". Large-scale hydrography is undertaken by national or international organizations which sponsor data collection through precise surveys and publish charts and descriptive material for navigational purposes; the science of oceanography is, in part, an outgrowth of classical hydrography. In many respects the data are interchangeable, but marine hydrographic data will be directed toward marine navigation and safety of that navigation. Marine resource exploration and exploitation is a significant application of hydrography, principally focused on the search for hydrocarbons. Hydrographical measurements include the tidal and wave information of physical oceanography.
They include bottom measurements, with particular emphasis on those marine geographical features that pose a hazard to navigation such as rocks, shoals and other features that obstruct ship passage. Bottom measurements include collection of the nature of the bottom as it pertains to effective anchoring. Unlike oceanography, hydrography will include shore features and manmade, that aid in navigation. Therefore, a hydrographic survey may include the accurate positions and representations of hills and lights and towers that will aid in fixing a ship's position, as well as the physical aspects of the sea and seabed. Hydrography for reasons of safety, adopted a number of conventions that have affected its portrayal of the data on nautical charts. For example, hydrographic charts are designed to portray what is safe for navigation, therefore will tend to maintain least depths and de-emphasize the actual submarine topography that would be portrayed on bathymetric charts; the former are the mariner's tools to avoid accident.
The latter are best representations of the actual seabed, as in a topographic map, for scientific and other purposes. Trends in hydrographic practice since c. 2003–2005 have led to a narrowing of this difference, with many more hydrographic offices maintaining "best observed" databases, making navigationally "safe" products as required. This has been coupled with a preference for multi-use surveys, so that the same data collected for nautical charting purposes can be used for bathymetric portrayal. Though, in places, hydrographic survey data may be collected in sufficient detail to portray bottom topography in some areas, hydrographic charts only show depth information relevant for safe navigation and should not be considered as a product that portrays the actual shape of the bottom; the soundings selected from the raw source depth data for placement on the nautical chart are selected for safe navigation and are biased to show predominately the shallowest depths that relate to safe navigation.
For instance, if there is a deep area that can not be reached because it is surrounded by shallow water, the deep area may not be shown. The color filled areas that show different ranges of shallow water are not the equivalent of contours on a topographic map since they are drawn seaward of the actual shallowest depth portrayed. A bathymetric chart does show marine topology accurately. Details covering the ab
A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by dikes that form an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually operated devices. There are three types of polder: Land reclaimed from a body of water, such as a lake or the sea bed Flood plains separated from the sea or river by a dike Marshes separated from the surrounding water by a dike and subsequently drained. All polders will be below the surrounding water level some or all of the time. Water enters the low-lying polder through infiltration and water pressure of ground water, or rainfall, or transport of water by rivers and canals; this means that the polder has an excess of water, pumped out or drained by opening sluices at low tide. Care must be taken not to set the internal water level too low. Polder land made up of peat will sink in relation to its previous level, because of peat decomposing when exposed to oxygen from the air. Polders are at risk from flooding at all times, care must be taken to protect the surrounding dikes.
Dikes are built with locally available materials, each material has its own risks: sand is prone to collapse owing to saturation by water. Some animals dig tunnels in the barrier. Polders are most though not found in river deltas, former fenlands and coastal areas. Flooding of polders has been used as a military tactic in the past. One example is the flooding of the polders along the Yser river during World War I. Opening the sluices at high tide and closing them at low tide turned the polders into an inaccessible swamp which allowed the Allied armies to stop the German army. From Dutch polder, from Middle Dutch polre, from Old Dutch polra from pol- "part of land, elevated above its surroundings"; the Netherlands is associated with polders, as its engineers became noted for developing techniques to drain wetlands and make them usable for agriculture and other development. This is illustrated by a saying: "God created the world; the Dutch have a long history of reclamation of marshes and fenland, resulting in some 3,000 polders nationwide.
By 1961, about half of the country's land, 18,000 square kilometres, was reclaimed from the sea. About half the total surface area of polders in north-west Europe is in the Netherlands; the first embankments in Europe were constructed in Roman times. The first polders were constructed in the 11th century; as a result of flooding disasters, water boards called waterschap or hoogheemraadschap were set up to maintain the integrity of the water defences around polders, maintain the waterways inside a polder, control the various water levels inside and outside the polder. Water boards hold separate elections, levy taxes, function independently from other government bodies, their function is unchanged today. As such they are the oldest democratic institution in the country; the necessary cooperation among all ranks to maintain polder integrity gave its name to the Dutch version of third way politics—the Polder Model. The 1953 flood disaster prompted a new approach to the design of dikes and other water-retaining structures, based on an acceptable probability of overflowing.
Risk is defined as the product of probability and consequences. The potential damage in lives and rebuilding costs is compared with the potential cost of water defences. From these calculations follows an acceptable flood risk from the sea at one in 4,000–10,000 years, while it is one in 100–2,500 years for a river flood; the particular established policy guides the Dutch government to improve flood defences as new data on threat levels becomes available. Some famous Dutch polders and the year they were laid dry are: Beemster Schermer Haarlemmermeerpolder As part of the Zuiderzee Works: Wieringermeerpolder Noordoostpolder Flevopolder Bangladesh has 123 polders, of which 49 are sea-facing; these were constructed in the 1960s to protect the coast from tidal flooding and reduce salinity incursion. They reduce waterlogging following storm surges from tropical cyclones, they are cultivated for agriculture. De Moeren, near Veurne in West Flanders Polders along the Yser rive between Nieuwpoort and Diksmuide Polders of Muisbroek and Ettenhoven, in Ekeren and Hoevenen Polder of Stabroek, in Stabroek Kabeljauwpolder, in Zandvliet Scheldepolders on the left bank of the Scheldt Uitkerkse polders, near Blankenberge in West Flanders Prosperpolder, near Doel and Kieldrecht.
Holland Marsh Pitt Polder Ecological Reserve Grand Pré, Nova Scotia The city of Kunshan has over 100 polders. The Jiangnan region, at the Yangtze River Delta, has a long history of constructing polders; the bulk of these projects were performed between the 13th centuries. The Chinese government assisted local communities in constructing dikes for swampland water drainage; the Lijia self-monitoring system of 110 households under a lizhang headman was used for the purposes of service administration and tax collection in the polder, with a liangzhang responsilbe for maintaining the water system and a tangzhang (塘长, dike chief）for po