The Pittsburgh Police the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police, is the largest law enforcement agency in Western Pennsylvania and the third largest in Pennsylvania. The modern force of salaried and professional officers was founded in 1857 but dates back to the night watchmen beginning in 1794, the subsequent day patrols in the early 19th century, in the borough of Pittsburgh. By 1952 the Bureau had a strength of 1,400 sworn officers in July 1985, 1,200 and by November 1989, 1,040; the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police is part of the Pittsburgh Department of Public Safety and is headed by Chief Scott Schubert appointed by Mayor Bill Peduto and approved by City Council. The Chief of Police is the top law enforcement agent of the city of Pittsburgh. In the Chiefs council are the positions of Deputy Chief of Police Bureau Chief of Staff of the Police Bureau Public Affairs Manager of the Police Bureau Legal Advisor to the Police BureauReporting directly through the Deputy Chief of Police to the Chief are the three active units of the Police Bureau: Operations and Administration.
Each one is headed by an Assistant Chief. The original headquarters were at William Penn Way in downtown. In 1918 it moved into the Pittsburgh City-County Building, 1925 to Water Street, 1960s Grant Street Public Safety Building, is now quartered at Western Avenue on the Northside. Headed by the Assistant Chief of Operations, this unit is the most visible arm of the Pittsburgh Police Bureau, it consists six zones with each zone being supervised by the zone commander, as well as all zone patrol and response operations, SWAT team, Traffic Patrol, Impound. This is the unit that does community policing. Zone One: North Side Zone Two: Downtown, Hill District, Strip District, Polish Hill, Uptown Zone Three: South Side, Carrick, St. Clair Village, Arlington Heights Zone Four: Oakland, Squirrel Hill, Point Breeze Zone Five: East Liberty, Highland Park, Homewood Zone Six: West End, Brookline, BeechviewIn 2010 the average Pittsburgh police zone had 12.8 officers, 2.8 detectives, 1.2 sergeants and.5 lieutenants on duty during any 8 hour shift.
Citywide for any 8-hour 2010 shift this translates to 76.8 officers, 16.8 detectives, 7.2 sergeants and 3 lieutenants. In 1918 the city debuted a mounted squad, having had some mounted officers as early as 1906. Police motorcycles were first used by the bureau starting in 1910. Headed by the Assistant Chief of Investigations, Lavonnie Bickerstaff, this unit overlays the operations staff with the detective and inspector corps of the Police Bureau, its detective divisions are broken down into the following: Auto Task Force Arson Squad Burglary Squad Crime Stoppers Crime Scene Investigaton Dignitary & Witness Security Financial Crimes Task Force Forfeiture Gang Task Force Homicide Squad Missing Persons Narcotics Night Felony Squad Nuisance Bar Task Force Pawn Robbery Squad Sex Assault/Domestic Violence Squad Pittsburgh Police officers are members of the local Lodge of the Fraternal Order of Police. Headed by the Assistant Chief of Administration, this is the least visible unit of the bureau but one, the most essential.
It consists of eight major divisions. Intel Office of Municipal Investigations Police Academy/Training Personnel & Finance Property Room Records School Patrol Special Events Logistics Warrant Office Scott Schubert: Chief of Police Eric Holmes: Chief of Staff, Commander Thomas Stangrecki: Deputy Chief Anna Kudrav: Assistant Chief Lavonnie Bickerstaff: Assistant Chief Linda Rosato-Barone: Assistant Chief & Deputy Director of Public Safety Christopher Ragland: Zone 1 Commander Cristyn Zett: Zone 2 Commander Karen Dixon: Zone 3 Commander Daniel Herrmann: Zone 4 Commander Jason Lando: Zone 5 Commander Stephen M. Vinansky: Zone 6 Commander From 1901 to the early 1990s Pittsburgh Police were unique in having a "trial board" system of discipline. In 1996, after the deaths of two African-American men in Police custody, the ACLU and the NAACP filed a class action lawsuit against the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police, alleging a pattern of civil rights abuses. After an investigation, the U. S. Department of Justice joined the suit in January 1997, stating "that there is a pattern or practice of conduct by law enforcement officers of the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police that deprives persons of rights and immunities secured and protected by the Constitution and laws of the United States".
After a brief court challenge, the City entered into a consent decree with the federal government in April 1997 that outlined the steps that it would take to improve its conduct. The decree was lifted from the Police Bureau in 2001, from the Office of Municipal Investigation in 2002. Community activists in Pittsburgh used a referendum to create an independent review board in 1997. A study commissioned by the U. S. Department of Justice in 2001 found that 70% of Pittsburgh's African-American residents believe it either "very common" or "somewhat common" for "police officers in Pittsburgh to use excessive force" and that only 48% feel that the Police are doing a "very good" or "somewhat good" "job of fighting crime", while 77% of white residents responded so. In February 2013, the FBI and IRS seized boxes of documents from police headquarters and the independent police credit union concerning thousands of deposits and withdrawals of taxpayer money from unauthorized accounts. Allegations have been made against former Chief Nate Harper, forced to resign on February 20, 2013 due to the FBI and IRS investigations.
On March 22, a Federal G
Economy of Pittsburgh
The economy of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is diversified, focused on services, higher education, banking, corporate headquarters and high technology. Once the center of the American steel industry, still known as "The Steel City", today the city of Pittsburgh has no steel mills within its limits, though Pittsburgh-based companies such as US Steel, Ampco Pittsburgh and Allegheny Technologies own several working mills in the Pittsburgh metropolitan area. Pittsburgh was chosen for the 2009 G-20 summit as its transformation is an example of a 21st-century economy. On September 8, 2009, President Barack Obama stated, "Pittsburgh stands as a bold example of how to create new jobs and industries while transitioning to a 21st century economy."On the list of best cities for job growth in 2009, created by Tara Weiss, a writer for Forbes magazine, Pittsburgh secured its spot because of its strength in the health care and education industries with healthy foundations in technology or robotics and banking industries.
The 2009 list of all cities places Pittsburgh as the 169th-best city for job growth. Pittsburgh has ranked in the top five most livable cities in four of the seven multi-year rankings of Places Rated Almanac. During the mid-18th century, the economy of the Pittsburgh region was focused on agriculture and trade. After the American Revolutionary War, the government placed a tax on whiskey in order to pay off national debt. In 1794, the Whiskey Rebellion occurred in Pittsburgh and was the first challenge to the government.“The fledgling Federal government had decided to levy its first tax against whiskey, but the farmers argued they didn't have cash to pay taxes on bartered goods, marched in protest. Washington had to send troops to squelch the protest and enforce the tax laws.”During the 18th century, large coal deposits were discovered throughout Pittsburgh. Mount Washington called "Coal Hill", the “most valuable deposit of bituminous coal in the entire United States, was discovered there in 1760”.
Along with the natural resources of the area, Pittsburgh was located at the intersection of the Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers, that is, along the major trade routes of the United States, thus making Pittsburgh "one of the world's leading industrial powerhouses". “The first and largest industry emerging in the 1800s was boat building—both flatboats to transport waves of pioneers and goods downriver, keelboats, which a strong crew could propel upstream as well.” The second biggest industry in the region was glass production. The first glass factory was built in 1795 by Isaac Craig. Pittsburgh’s wealthiest industrialists during the 19th century all lived in a single neighborhood known as East Liberty; the major list of industrialists includes H. J. Heinz, George Westinghouse, Andrew Carnegie, Thomas Mellon, Andrew Mellon, Henry Clay Frick and Philander Knox. All of these men shared similar ideas in the system of capitalism and utilized their skills to net the world’s highest income per capita during the 19th century in this single neighborhood.
Andrew Carnegie was known as a philanthropist to the region. “In 1889 he wrote "The Gospel of Wealth", in which he asserted that all personal wealth beyond that required to supply the needs of one's family should be regarded as a trust fund to be administered for the benefit of the community”. Subsequently, the Carnegie Library, free to the public, opened in Pittsburgh in 1890 and is still open presently. Overall, Carnegie donated over $350 million for the establishment of organizations that benefit the public. Wealthy industrialists founded the Duquesne Club in 1873 and the Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce in 1874; the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange was formed in 1864 as the "Oil Exchange" before becoming the "Coal Exchange" in 1870 and back to the "Oil Exchange" in 1878 until opening for all general stocks by 1894. The stock exchange closed its Fourth Avenue "financial district" doors in August 1974 after computerization had consolidated trades in New York and other global centers but not before a 1966 response from the New York Stock Exchange board of relocating their trading floor to the city's facilities.
Railroad networks reached the Pittsburgh area in the mid-19th century. The Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad opened in 1851, which allowed passengers to travel through Allegheny and New Brighton while the Pennsylvania Railroad established "Pittsburgh service" as close as Turtle Creek from their Philadelphia hub that same year. A year in 1852, the Pennsylvania Railroad was completed to Downtown Pittsburgh. In 1856, the Allegheny Valley Railroad was built. Andrew Carnegie was one of the first to capitalize on the railways. In 1892, the economy of Pittsburgh faced the Homestead Strike between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers and the Carnegie Steel Company. After the workers' previous wage contract expired in 1892, a new negotiation was not reached, a violent conflict ensued leaving several dead and wounded; the Carnegie Steel company won and had avoided union formation in Pittsburgh. After Carnegie Steel was reorganized as U. S. Steel in 1901, it and J&L Steel dominated the local economy.
Several secondary players contributed to the capacity of the metro area such as Cyclops Steel in Bridgeville, Pennsylvania from 1908 until 1987, Mesta Machinery in West Homestead, Pennsylvania from 1898 until 1983, Dravo Corporation at Neville Island, Pennsylvania until 1984, National Steel Corporation until 1992, Wean United as an independent until 1993, Harbison Walker Refactories as an independent until 1967 (while stil
Chita Rivera: The Dancer's Life
Chita Rivera: The Dancer's Life is a musical revue based on the life of Chita Rivera, with a book by Terrence McNally and new songs by Stephen Flaherty and Lynn Ahrens as well as songs from various other composers. It earned Rivera her ninth Tony Award nomination. Chita Rivera: The Dancer's Life, was first conceived by Chita Rivera in 2003, while she was appearing in the musical Nine on Broadway; as Rivera's next project, the Public Theater production of The Visit had been indefinitely canceled, Rivera approached that show's book writer, Terrence McNally with the idea of a musical based on her life. Rivera's conception, that the musical would open with her dancing to her father's music, progress through the varied stages of her career. McNally and Rivera announced in November 2003 that they were working on the show, that a workshop production would be held in summer of 2004 at the Tampa Bay Performing Arts Center in Florida. Marty Bell and Graciela Daniele were lined up as producer and director of the workshop.
In 2005, Rivera debuted in And Now I Sing, a one-woman cabaret act at Feinstein's at the Regency in New York City that ran from February 22 through March 12. Though the one-woman show and its venue were intimate, the reviews were strong. Stephen Holden, in his review for The New York Times, wrote that "her program finds a comfortable mix of sass and sentiment" and noted that in several songs, she "captures the right tone of dazed determination." The act marked the debut of some of the anecdotes and stage patter that would be more fleshed out by McNally for the Broadway revue. That year, The Denver Center for the Performing Arts announced that a one-woman show, "Chita Rivera Dances Through Life" would debut at that theater. Featuring a book by McNally and direction and choreography by Daniele. However, funding didn't materialize, the booking was canceled, it was announced in August 2005 that the revue would have a pre-Broadway production at the Old Globe Theatre in San Diego. The revue, now retiled Chita Rivera: The Dancer's Life opened at the Old Globe Theatre in San Diego on September 10, 2005 and played until October 23.
An engagement on Broadway at the Gerald Schoenfeld Theatre was confirmed for November 2005 in previews. Matthew White and Frank Webb were subsequently asked to design Rivera's dressing room; the Broadway production of Chita Rivera: The Dancer's Life began its limited run with a series of previews in November, opened on December 11, 2005 to mixed reviews. The song selection and other aspects of the production were tweaked throughout the run: For example, an opening prologue featuring the dancers warming up before the show was dropped shortly after the show opened, the number "America" was only added to the show in January 2006. More revisions were required during Rivera's special "birthday week" performances on January 24–26, during which her former co-star Dick Van Dyke joined her on stage; the show closed on February 2006 after 72 performances. Rivera embarked on a national tour, during which many numbers were dropped, the character of "Young Chita" was eliminated; the show is divided into thematic sections.
Members of the ensemble play the part of various figures in her life. Act IChita remembers her father, a professional saxophonist who died when she was seven years old, playing "Perfidia" for her. "Little Chita" picks up the rhythm in this music in a dance which moves from the scene to the front of a large screen. The shadow of Chita Rivera herself appears behind her; the screen rises. After this introduction, Rivera is at the White House for the 2002 Kennedy Center Honors, where she is to be the first Latina-American to receive the Honor, she begins to reminisce and decides that "the secret of life is enjoying the passage of time." The next scene shows life at the Del Rivero family table in Washington, D. C. when Chita was a young child. Various family members react to Chita's "Dancing on the Kitchen Table," and, when the table breaks, her parents decide to send Chita to dance class; this sequence transitions into one showing Rivera at the barre in dance class, where she took ballet lessons three times a week under the tutelage of her mentor, Doris Jones.
Chita shares the story of how Jones took her to New York City to audition for George Balanchine when she was 17. After noticing Chita's foot bleeding through her toe-shoe, Balanchine stopped to bandage her injury personally. After winning a scholarship to the School of American Ballet, Chita accompanied a friend to an audition for a tour of Call Me Madam, starring Elaine Stritch. Chita was hired; as a young "gypsy," Chita talks about her hope for a "crossover" - a featured bit of dancing or business to do while the scenery changes. Though she did not get one, she did get lessons in stage presence from Stritch, who told her to "make them hear you!" Still, she yearned for fame. In her first Broadway show, Seventh Heaven, she plays a prostitute, she appears in The Shoestring Review with Bea Arthur. Singing "Garbage", Chita reminisces about working with Arthur, who sang the number while Chita jumped in and out of a garbage bag- she jokes that the audience will have to " the jumping to our imaginations."
The number segues into the title song of Can-Can. She joins the cast of Mr. W
Curtains is a musical mystery comedy with a book by Rupert Holmes, lyrics by Fred Ebb, music by John Kander, with additional lyrics by Kander and Holmes. Based on the original book and concept of the same name by Peter Stone, the musical is a send-up of backstage murder mystery plots, set in 1959 Boston and follows the fallout when Jessica Cranshaw, the supremely untalented star of Robbin' Hood of the Old West is murdered during her opening night curtain call, it is up to Lt. Frank Cioffi, a police detective who moonlights as a musical theater fan to save the show, solve the case, maybe find love before the show reopens, without getting killed himself. Cioffi dreams of being in musical theater; the show opened on Broadway to mixed reviews, though several critics praised the libretto and the character of Lieutenant Cioffi, who critic Ben Brantley called "the best damn musical theatre character since Mama Rose in'Gypsy', the best role of David Hyde Pierce's career." Stone died in April 2003, leaving the book unfinished, Holmes was hired to rewrite it.
Ebb died before the musical was completed. Curtains had its world premiere on July 2006 at the Ahmanson Theatre in Los Angeles. Local reviews were mixed but not discouraging, the producers decided to transfer the show to Broadway with minor alterations; the production, directed by Scott Ellis and choreographed by Rob Ashford, opened on Broadway on March 22, 2007 at the Al Hirschfeld Theatre. The cast included David Hyde Pierce, Debra Monk, Karen Ziemba, Edward Hibbert, Jason Danieley, Noah Racey, Jill Paice, Megan Sikora, Michael X. Martin, Michael McCormick, John Bolton reprising the roles they played in Los Angeles, as well as new cast member Ernie Sabella; the musical garnered eight Tony Award nominations, with Hyde Pierce winning the award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical. Curtains closed on June 2008 after 511 performances and twenty-three previews; the musical received mixed reviews on Broadway, with Ben Brantley writing in The New York Times: "David Hyde Pierce...steps into full-fledged Broadway stardom with his performance here...
This switching of creative horses accounts for the enervation that seems to underlie the lavish expenditure of energy by a top-of-the line cast that includes Debra Monk, Karen Ziemba and Jason Danieley. Brightly packaged, with Kiss Me, Kate-style sets by Anna Louizos and costumes to match by the industrious William Ivey Long, Curtains lies on the stage like a promisingly gaudy string of firecrackers, waiting in vain for that vital, necessary spark to set it off."Clive Barnes wrote in the New York Post: "Part of the trouble was director Scott Ellis' failure to italicize sufficiently the inside comedy, but there wasn't much he could do. The choreography by Rob Ashford was unnoticeable, the scenery by Anna Louizos uninterestingly ugly, while William Ivey Long unwisely saved his best and funniest costumes for the curtain calls. Through all this farrago, Hyde Pierce moved with unshatterable aplomb - taking the comic concept of a tough plainclothes detective as a musical comedy queen, running with it just as far, a bit beyond, as the material could take it.
It is 1959 at the Colonial Theatre in Boston, where a new musical called "Robbin' Hood!", a western version of Robin Hood, is reaching its conclusion. Madame Marian, played by faded film star diva Jessica Cranshaw, looks on as Robin Hood played by Bobby Pepper, wins the sharp-shooting contest and proposes to Miss Nancy, the schoolmarm, played by Niki Harris; the cast sings the finale of the show, during which it is clear that Jessica can neither sing, nor act. She takes her bow and, after receiving two bouquets, collapses behind the curtain; that night, Carmen Bernstein, a hard-bitten lady co-producer, divorced songwriting team Aaron Fox and Georgia Hendricks, the show's financial backer, Oscar Shapiro, read the reviews, most of which are terrible the Boston Globe's, the review they needed. No one believes; the show's flamboyant British director, Christopher Belling, saying that he had an epiphany after walking into a church. Just stage manager Johnny tells Carmen that there is a phone call for her.
Carmen suspects. Meanwhile and Aaron get into an argument about why Georgia joined the show. Aaron claims that she only wanted to rekindle a romance with choreographer Bobby, the actor playing Rob Hood and Georgia's ex-boyfriend. Everyone is pessimistic, she does so spectacularly, it is clear that she is thinking about her failed marriage with Aaron. Aaron begins to sing with her, but Bobby cuts him off and they finish the number together.. Belling announces his plan: they are going to replace Jessica. Niki Harris, the schoolmarm and Jessica's understudy, steps forward and says she would feel terrible taking over, but Belling goes on to say that he is casting Georgia as Madame Marian. Bambi, the show's featured dancer, steps forward and says that Niki should get the role, but Belling sees right through her: Bambi is Niki's understudy, meaning if Niki got the lead, she'd get to play Miss Nancy. Georgia is cast, in spite of Aaron's disapproval. Carmen enters and tells everyone that it was the hospital that had called.
Jessica Cranshaw is dead. The cast performs a mock funeral, it is clear that no one is sorry to see their leading lady gone. Lt. Frank Cioffi of the Boston Police Department arrives to announce that he had seen
The St. Louis Municipal Opera Theatre is an amphitheatre located in St. Louis, Missouri; the theatre seats 11,000 people with 1,500 free seats in the last nine rows that are available on a first come, first served basis. The Muny seasons run every year from mid-June to mid-August, it is run by a nonprofit organization. The current president and chief executive is Dennis M. Reagan; the current artistic director & executive producer is Mike Isaacson. In 1914, Luther Ely Smith began staging pageant-masques on Art Hill in Forest Park. In 1916, a grassy area between two oak trees on the present site of The Muny was chosen for a production of As You Like It produced by Margaret Anglin and starring Sydney Greenstreet with a local cast of "1,000 St. Louis folk dancers and folk singers" in connection with the tercentenary of Shakespeare's death; the audience sat in portable chairs on a gravel floor. Soon after, the Convention Board of the St. Louis Advertising Club was looking for an entertainment feature for its thirteenth annual convention, to take place June 3, 1917.
Mayor Henry Kiel, attorney Guy Golterman, Parks Commissioner Nelson Cunliff stepped in and, in forty-nine days, created the first municipally owned outdoor theatre in the United States. On June 5, 1917, the opera Aida was presented on. In 1919, the new theatre received a name: St. Louis Municipal Opera Theatre, or "The Muny" for short; the first show under the Muny banner was Robin Hood, which opened on June 16, 1919, featured Mayor Kiel as King Richard. Concerts were performed here prior to the opening of Riverport Amphitheatre in 1991. By the beginning of the 1921 season, the facility had a new permanent stage, its base was concrete to prevent damage from floods, such as one that damaged the theater's equipment on opening night in 1919. Improvements for 1922 included a new pergola, 750 permanent opera chairs, 500 parking spaces for automobiles, the addition of "comfort stations". Additions for 1923 included 1,800 permanent seats, an extra stage for rehearsals, a sound amplifier to enable people in the back of the audience to hear as well as those in the front On January 4, 1923, the Municipal Theater Association opened a free school for people who aspired to sing in the chorus for that summer's productions.
Of 420 applicants, 239 had been accepted as of the class's beginning, with 45 remaining to be examined. Classes met two nights a week until May 1. Keil stepped down from being president of the Muncipal Theater Association in 1924, saying that the enterprise should be headed by businessmen, Cunliff left his position as chairman of the group's Executive Productions Committee. H. J. Pettengill, chairman of Southwest Bell Telephone Company's board of directors, was elected the new president. Reserved seats for all paid admissions were instituted in 1925, after 2,400 numbered chairs were installed in the unreserved 25-cent section. In 1930, the stage was equipped with a turntable for performance purposes, it was reconstructed in 1997 due to dilapidation. In 1994, The Muny's Board of Directors founded the Muny Kids, a select group of performers between the ages of 7 to 13 who traveled around St. Louis performing, in the summer gave preview shows prior to the production. In 1998, the Muny Teens group was formed for the same purpose, featuring teen performers between the ages of 14 to 18.
The Chairman of the Board of the Muny in 2005-2006 was William H. T. Bush; the current Chairman of the Board is Stephen C. Jones. Jesus Christ Superstar, June 12 – 18 Disney's The Little Mermaid, June 20 – 29 A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, July 5 – 11 All Shook Up, July 13 – 19 The Unsinkable Molly Brown, July 21 – 27 A Chorus Line, July 29 – August 4 Newsies, August 7 – 13 Jerome Robbins Broadway, June 11 – 27 The Wiz, June 19 – 25 Singin' in the Rain, June 27 – July 3 Jersey Boys, July 9 – 16 Annie, July 18 – 25 Gypsy, July 27 – August 2 Meet me in St. Louis, August 4 – 12 For a complete listing of all productions since the first season in 1919, see List of The Muny repertory; the Muny operates only in the summer. During the winter, a full-time staff of fewer than twenty people prepare for the next summer season. During the season itself, the summer staff expands to include more than 500 people in various positions. All shows are rehearsed within the course of eleven days, with two technical rehearsals being held in the two to three days before the show's opening.
Shows run from Monday to Sunday, although there have been exceptions to this in recent years, when each season has had at least one production with an extended run. The Muny website claims it is the "nation's oldest and largest outdoor musical theatre." There are numerous amphitheatres/outdoor theatres. There is no lawn seating inside The Muny. In addition, The Muny is the largest to host only Broadway-style musical theatre; the next largest seat capacity theatre in the United States is the San Manuel Amphitheater in California, housing 10,900 seats. For a list of other amphitheatres see: List of contemporary amphitheatres. Since its beginning, The Muny has featured hundreds of big names in theatre and film on its stage, drawing huge crowds. A history of the celebrities who have performed at The Muny, including a cast listing, can be found on The Muny's website. During one of the last productions each summer season, survey forms are handed out to audience members. On this survey, audience members are asked to select thei
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, love, anger – are communicated through the words, music and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have been called musicals. Although music has been a part of dramatic presentations since ancient times, modern Western musical theatre emerged during the 19th century, with many structural elements established by the works of Gilbert and Sullivan in Britain and those of Harrigan and Hart in America; these were followed by the numerous Edwardian musical comedies and the musical theatre works of American creators like George M. Cohan at the turn of the 20th century.
The Princess Theatre musicals and other smart shows like Of Thee I Sing were artistic steps forward beyond revues and other frothy entertainments of the early 20th century and led to such groundbreaking works as Show Boat and Oklahoma!. Some of the most famous musicals through the decades that followed include West Side Story, The Fantasticks, Hair, A Chorus Line, Les Misérables, The Phantom of the Opera, The Producers and Hamilton. Musicals are performed around the world, they may be presented in large venues, such as big-budget Broadway or West End productions in New York City or London. Alternatively, musicals may be staged in smaller venues, such as fringe theatre, Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, regional theatre, or community theatre productions, or on tour. Musicals are presented by amateur and school groups in churches and other performance spaces. In addition to the United States and Britain, there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in continental Europe, Australasia and Latin America.
Since the 20th century, the "book musical" has been defined as a musical play where songs and dances are integrated into a well-made story with serious dramatic goals, able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter. The three main components of a book musical are its music and book; the book or script of a musical refers to the story, character development and dramatic structure, including the spoken dialogue and stage directions, but it can refer to the dialogue and lyrics together, which are sometimes referred to as the libretto. The music and lyrics together form the score of a musical and include songs, incidental music and musical scenes, which are "theatrical sequence set to music combining song with spoken dialogue." The interpretation of a musical is the responsibility of its creative team, which includes a director, a musical director a choreographer and sometimes an orchestrator. A musical's production is creatively characterized by technical aspects, such as set design, stage properties and sound.
The creative team and interpretations change from the original production to succeeding productions. Some production elements, may be retained from the original production. There is no fixed length for a musical. While it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length, most musicals range from one and a half to three hours. Musicals are presented in two acts, with one short intermission, the first act is longer than the second; the first act introduces nearly all of the characters and most of the music and ends with the introduction of a dramatic conflict or plot complication while the second act may introduce a few new songs but contains reprises of important musical themes and resolves the conflict or complication. A book musical is built around four to six main theme tunes that are reprised in the show, although it sometimes consists of a series of songs not directly musically related. Spoken dialogue is interspersed between musical numbers, although "sung dialogue" or recitative may be used in so-called "sung-through" musicals such as Jesus Christ Superstar, Les Misérables and Hamilton.
Several shorter musicals on Broadway and in the West End have been presented in one act in recent decades. Moments of greatest dramatic intensity in a book musical are performed in song. Proverbially, "when the emotion becomes too strong for speech, you sing. In a book musical, a song is ideally crafted to suit the character and their situation within the story; as The New York Times critic Ben Brantley described the ideal of song in theatre when reviewing the 2008 revival of Gypsy: "There is no separation at all between song and character, what happens in those uncommon moments when musicals reach upward to achieve their ideal reasons to be." Many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore, there is less time to develop drama in a musical than in a straight play of equivalent length, since a musical devotes more time to music than to dialogue. Within the compressed nature of a musical, the writers must develop the plot; the ma
Ed Begley Jr.
Edward James Begley Jr. is an American actor. Begley has appeared in hundreds of films, television shows, stage performances, he is most recognized for his role as Dr. Victor Ehrlich, the bumbling surgical partner of William Daniels' Dr. Mark Craig, on the television series St. Elsewhere, he co-hosted, along with wife Rachelle Carson, the green living reality show entitled Living with Ed. Prolific in cinema, Begley's best known films include Stay Hungry, Blue Collar, An Officer and a Gentleman, This Is Spinal Tap, She-Devil, The Accidental Tourist, The Pagemaster, Batman Forever, Auto Focus, Pineapple Express, What's Your Number?, Ghostbusters and CHiPS. He is a recurring cast member in the mockumentaries of Christopher Guest and Eugene Levy, including Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, For Your Consideration and Mascots. Begley was born in Los Angeles, California, in 1949, to Allene Jeanne Sanders and Oscar-winning film actor Ed Begley; when Begley Jr. was born, Begley Sr. was married to Amanda Huff, who died when Begley Jr. was seven years old.
Until he was sixteen, Begley Jr. believed. He only became acquainted with his biological mother, Allene, his paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants. Begley grew up in Buffalo, New York, attended Stella Niagara Education Park, a private Roman Catholic school, in Lewiston, New York. In 1962, the family moved back to California, where he graduated from Notre Dame High School, Sherman Oaks, a Catholic high school, from Los Angeles Valley College in North Hollywood. Begley's numerous roles in television and film include one of his earliest appearances as a guest actor on Maude, he had guest appearances in the 1970s series Room 222. He had recurring roles on Mary Hartman, 7th Heaven, Arrested Development and Six Feet Under and starring roles in Stephen King's Kingdom Hospital, St. Elsewhere, Wednesday 9:30, he has played significant roles in the mockumentary films Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, For Your Consideration. Additionally, Begley played Viper pilot Greenbean on the original Battlestar Galactica TV series, Boba Fett in the radio adaptation of Return of the Jedi, Seth Gillette, a fictional Democratic U.
S. senator from North Dakota on The West Wing. From 2000 to 2016, he was a member of the Board of Governors of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. In 1996, Begley appeared in a TV movie called The Late Shift, where he played real-life CBS executive Rod Perth, he has guest-starred on shows such as Scrubs, Boston Legal, Star Trek: Voyager. He had a recurring guest role in season three of Veronica Mars, he appeared in the 2008 HBO film Recount, which profiled the 2000 Presidential Election and its aftermath, decided by the state of Florida's electoral votes. Begley made an appearance on Tim and Eric Awesome Show, Great Job! Season 3, Episode 3, as a spokesman for Cinco. In 2003, Begley directed the musical Cesar and Ruben, it was performed at the El Portal Theatre in Los Angeles and was revived in 2007. One of Begley's recent acting roles was in the CBS sitcom Gary Unmarried. Begley played Dr. Walter Krandall, the protagonist's former marriage counselor and fiancé of his ex-wife. Since 2008, he has appeared in a series of DirecTV commercials as a "Cable Corp Inc." executive.
In 2013, he appeared on the reality television show Beverly Hills Pawn. Begley has three children, a daughter and son from his first marriage, a daughter from his current marriage. According to a feature on the Bio Channel television program Celebrity Close Calls, Begley nearly died in 1972, after being stabbed multiple times while being mugged by a street gang, his attackers were teenagers, who were apprehended by police. Since 1970, Begley has been an environmentalist, beginning with his first electric vehicle and becoming a vegan, he promotes eco-friendly products like the Toyota Prius, Envirolet composting toilets and Begley's Best Household Cleaner. Begley's home is 1,585 square feet in size, using solar power, wind power via a PacWind vertical-axis wind turbine, an air conditioning unit made by Greenway Design Group, LLC. and an electricity-generating bicycle used to toast bread. He pays around $300 a year in electric bills. Arguing that the suburban lawn is environmentally unsustainable in Southern California, owing to water shortage, Begley has converted his own to a drought-tolerant garden composed of native California plants.
Though he is noted for riding bicycles and using public transportation, he owns a 2003 Toyota RAV4 EV electric-powered vehicle. Begley's hybrid electric bicycle was featured on his television show Living With Ed. Begley spoofed his own environmentalist beliefs on "Homer to the Max", an episode of The Simpsons by showing himself using a nonpolluting go-kart, powered by his "own sense of self-satisfaction" and on an episode of Dharma and Greg, he appeared in "Gone Maggie Gone", another episode of The Simpsons, in Season 20. In the episode, during a solar eclipse, he drives a solar-powered car that stops running on train tracks as a train approaches, but the train stops because it is an Ed Begley Jr. Solar Powered Train. According to Groening's other comedy series, Begley's electric motor is "the most evil propulsion system conceived" as stated in "The Honking". Begley and friend Bill Nye are in a competition to see. In 2009, Begle