Pegasides were nymphs of Greek mythology connected with wells and springs those that the mythical horse Pegasus created by striking the ground with his hooves. According to Greek mythological tradition the winged horse Pegasus was the son of Poseidon and river god of the Greeks, equivalent to the Roman Neptune; the hero Bellerophon needed the untamed Pegasus to help him defeat the monster Chimera. Hence, while Pegasus was drinking at the spring Pirene in Corinth, Bellerophon caught him. Pegasus, struck a rock with his hoof, creating the spring Hippocrene on Mount Helicon; the name Pegasides means "originating from or linked with Pegasus". Hence, in poetry, the waters of Hippocrene and other springs that arose from the hoofprints of Pegasus are called Pegasides; the Muses are called Pegasides because the spring Hippocrene was sacred to them. Nymphs in general, if associated with springs and brooks, may be called Pegasides: thus Pegasis, the singular form, is applied by the Roman poet Ovid as a by-name or adjective to the nymph Oenone, daughter of the river-god Cebrenus.
Pegasis is used by the Greek author Quintus Smyrnaeus as the name of a nymph who had sex with the Trojan prince Emathion and gave birth beside the river Granicus to Atymnius. The latter was killed by Odysseus in the Trojan War. Adam, Alexander. A Summary of Geography and History, both Ancient and Modern: with an Abridgment of the Fabulous History of Mythology of the Greeks. London, printed for T. Cadell And W. Davies. OCLC 751291898. Anthon, Charles. A classical dictionary: containing an account of the principal proper names mentioned in ancient authors and intended to elucidate all the important points connected with geography, biography and fine arts of the Greeks and Romans. New York, Harper & Bros. OCLC 1395800. Erasmus, Desiderius. Poems: Volume 85-86. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division. P. 438. ISBN 0-8020-2867-5. Gardner, James; the faiths of the world. Edinburgh, London, A. Fullarton & Co. OCLC 4914490. Lemprière, John. A classical dictionary. New York, E. Duyckinck, G. Long.
OCLC 5897265. Parada, Carlos. Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology. 107. Coronet Books. ISBN 978-9170810626. Smith, William. A classical dictionary of biography and geography: based on the larger dictionaries. London: John Murray. OCLC 316433650. Walford, Edward; the Antiquary. Cambridge: ProQuest LLC, 2008. OCLC 663459113
In Greek mythology, maenads were the female followers of Dionysus and the most significant members of the Thiasus, the god's retinue. Their name translates as "raving ones". Maenads were known as Bassarids, Bacchae, or Bacchantes in Roman mythology after the penchant of the equivalent Roman god, Bacchus, to wear a bassaris or fox skin; the maenads were portrayed as inspired by Dionysus into a state of ecstatic frenzy through a combination of dancing and intoxication. During these rites, the maenads would dress in fawn skins and carry a thyrsus, a long stick wrapped in ivy or vine leaves and tipped with a pine cone, they would weave ivy-wreaths around their heads or wear a bull helmet in honor of their god, handle or wear snakes. These women were mythologized as the "mad women". Lycurgus "chased the Nurses of the frenzied Dionysus through the holy hills of Nysa, the sacred implements dropped to the ground from the hands of one and all, as the murderous Lycurgus struck them down with his ox-goad".
They practiced strange rites. According to Plutarch's Life of Alexander, maenads were called Mimallones and Klodones in Macedon, epithets derived from the feminine art of spinning wool; these warlike parthenoi from the hills, associated with a Dionysios pseudanor "fake male Dionysus", routed an invading enemy. In southern Greece they were described with Bacchae, Thyiades and other epithets; the term maenad has come to be associated with a wide variety of women, supernatural and historical, associated with the god Dionysus and his worship. In Euripides' play The Bacchae, maenads of Thebes murder King Pentheus after he bans the worship of Dionysus. Dionysus, Pentheus' cousin, himself lures Pentheus to the woods, his corpse is mutilated by his own mother, who tears off his head, believing it to be that of a lion. A group of maenads kill Orpheus. In ceramic art, the frolicking of Maenads and Dionysus is a theme depicted on kraters, used to mix water and wine; these scenes show the maenads in their frenzy running in the forests tearing to pieces any animal they happen to come across.
German philologist Walter Friedrich Otto writes: The Bacchae of Euripides gives us the most vital picture of the wonderful circumstance in which, as Plato says in the Ion, the god-intoxicated celebrants draw milk and honey from the streams. They strike rocks with the thyrsus, water gushes forth, they lower the thyrsus to the earth, a spring of wine bubbles up. If they want milk, they draw up the milky fluid. Honey trickles down from the thyrsus made of the wood of the ivy, they gird themselves with snakes and give suck to fawns and wolf cubs as if they were infants at the breast. Fire does not burn them. No weapon of iron can wound them, the snakes harmlessly lick up the sweat from their heated cheeks. Fierce bulls fall to the ground, victims to numberless, tearing female hands, sturdy trees are torn up by the roots with their combined efforts. Cultist rites associated with worship of the Greek god of wine, were characterized by maniacal dancing to the sound of loud music and crashing cymbals, in which the revelers, called Bacchantes, screamed, became drunk and incited one another to greater and greater ecstasy.
The goal was to achieve a state of enthusiasm in which the celebrants’ souls were temporarily freed from their earthly bodies and were able to commune with Bacchus/Dionysus and gain a glimpse of and a preparation for what they would someday experience in eternity. The rite climaxed in a performance of frenzied feats of strength and madness, such as uprooting trees, tearing a bull apart with their bare hands, an act called sparagmos, eating its flesh raw, an act called omophagia; this latter rite was a sacrament akin to communion in which the participants assumed the strength and character of the god by symbolically eating the raw flesh and drinking the blood of his symbolic incarnation. Having symbolically eaten his body and drunk his blood, the celebrants became possessed by Dionysus. "Maenads" are found in references as priestesses of the Dionysian cult. In the third century BC, when an Asia Minor city wanted to create a maenadic cult of Dionysus, the Delphic Oracle bid them to send to Thebes for both instruction and three professional maenads, stating, "Go to the holy plain of Thebes so that you may get maenads who are from the family of Ino, daughter of Cadmus.
They will give to you both the rites and good practices and they will establish dance groups of Bacchus in your city." Dionysus came to his birthplace, where neither Pentheus, his cousin, now king, nor Pentheus’ mother Agave, Dionysus’ aunt acknowledged his divinity. Dionysus punished Agave by driving her insane, in that condition, she killed her son and tore him to pieces. From Thebes, Dionysus went to Argos where all the women except the daughters of King Proetus joined in his worship. Dionysus punished them by driving them mad, they killed the infants who were nursing at their breasts, he did the same to the daughters of Minyas, King of Orchomenos in Boetia, turned them into bats. According to Opian, Dionysus delighted, as a child, in tearing kids into pieces and bringing them back to life again, he is characterized as "the raging one" and "the mad one" and the nature of the maenads, from which they get their name, is, his nature. Once during a war in the middle of the third century BC, the entranced Thyiades lost their way and arrived in Amphissa, a city ne
A hamadryad is a Greek mythological being that lives in trees. They are a particular type of dryad. Hamadryads are born bonded to a certain tree; some believe that hamadryads are the actual tree, while normal dryads are the entities, or spirits, of the trees. If the tree died, the hamadryad associated with it died as well. For that reason and the gods punished any mortals who harmed trees; the Deipnosophistae of Athenaeus lists eight hamadryads, the daughters of Oxylus and Hamadryas: Karya Balanos Kraneia Morea Aigeiros Ptelea Ampelos Syke Their mother, Hamadryas, is immortalized in two scientific names: the generic name of the cracker butterfly, the specific name of the northernmost monkey in Asia Minor, the hamadryas baboon. The cracker butterfly is more arboreal than most butterflies, as it camouflages itself on trees, it feeds on rotting fruit and dung. The hamadryas baboon is one of the least arboreal monkeys, but was the most common monkey in Hellenic lands. Atlanteia Chrysopeleia Phoebe Byblis Dryope Heliades Hesperides Hamadryad is referenced as a whole in Edgar Allan Poe's poem "Sonnet To Science".
Hamadryad is referenced in Anthony Ashley Cooper's Characteristics of Men, Opinions, Times. In Aldous Huxley's Crome Yellow, Anne Wimbush is referred to as "the slim Hamadryad whose movements were like the swaying of a young tree in the wind". In George Eliot's The Mill on The Floss, Book V, Chapter 3, the character Philip Wakem uses the term to describe Maggie Tulliver. In William Faulkner's novel Soldier's Pay, Chapter 2, Januarius Jones uses this term to describe a young lady. Both hamadryads and dryads exist in C. S. Lewis's Narnia. In Robert A. Heinlein's Time Enough for Love, Hamadryad is the name of a "young" woman. In John Steinbeck's To a God Unknown, Chapter 16: “Jesus is a better savior than a hamadryad”. In Nalo Hopkinson's short story "The Smile on the Face", the main character swallows a cherry from the cherry tree that seems to be inhabited by a hamadryad. Querquetulanae, Roman nymphs of the oak Dryad The Deipnosophists, or, Banquet of the Learned of Athenaeus presented online by the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center Theoi Project - Hamadryades
In Greek mythology, Nephele was a cloud nymph who figured prominently in the story of Phrixus and Helle. Greek myth has it that Nephele is the cloud whom Zeus created in the image of Hera to trick Ixion to test his integrity after displaying his lust for Hera during a feast as a guest of Zeus. Ixion failed in restraining his lust for Hera. Nephele married Athamas. Phrixus and Helle, the son and daughter of Athamas and Nephele, were hated by Ino. Ino hatched a devious plot to get rid of the twins, roasting all the town's crop seeds so they would not grow; the local farmers, frightened of famine, asked a nearby oracle for assistance. Ino bribed the men sent to the oracle to lie and tell the others that the oracle required the sacrifice of Phrixus. Before he was killed though and Helle were rescued by a flying golden ram sent by Nephele, their natural mother. Phrixus and Helle were instructed to not look down to Earth for the duration of their flight. Helle, did look down, fell off the ram into the Hellespont and drowned, but Phrixus survived all the way to Colchis, where King Aeetes took him in and treated him kindly, giving Phrixus his daughter, Chalciope, in marriage.
In gratitude, Phrixus gave the king the Golden Fleece of the ram, which Aeetes hung in a tree in his kingdom. The Golden Fleece would be taken by Jason and his Argonauts. Aries
A dryad is a tree nymph or tree spirit in Greek mythology. Drys signifies "oak" in Greek, dryads are the nymphs of oak trees, but the term has come to be used for all tree nymphs in general, they were considered to be shy creatures except around the goddess Artemis, known to be a friend to most nymphs. These were nymphs of the laurel trees; the Maliades, Meliades or Epimelides were nymphs of apple and other fruit trees and the protectors of sheep. The Greek word melas -- from which their name derives -- means both sheep. Hesperides, the guardians of the golden apples were regarded as these type of dryad. Dryads, like all nymphs, were supernaturally long-lived and tied to their homes, but some were a step beyond most nymphs; these were the hamadryads who were an integral part of their trees, such that if the tree died, the hamadryad associated with it died as well. For these reasons and the Greek gods punished any mortals who harmed trees without first propitiating the tree-nymphs; the dryads of ash trees were called the Meliae.
The ash-tree sisters tended the infant Zeus in Rhea's Cretan cave. Gaea gave birth to the Meliae after being made fertile by the blood of castrated Uranus; the Epimeliad were nymphs associated with apple trees, the Caryatids were associated with walnut trees. Some of the individual dryads or hamadryads are: Atlanteia and Phoebe, two of the many wives or concubines of Danaus Chrysopeleia Dryope Erato Eurydice Pitys Tithorea Dryads are mentioned in Milton's Paradise Lost, in the works of Coleridge, in Thackeray's novel The Virginians. Keats addresses the nightingale as "light-winged Dryad of the trees", in his "Ode to a Nightingale". In the poetry of Donald Davidson they illustrate the themes of tradition and the importance of the past to the present; the poet Sylvia Plath uses them to symbolize nature in her poetry in "On the Difficulty of Conjuring up a Dryad", "On the Plethora of Dryads". The story "Dear Dryad" by Oliver Onions features a dryad influencing several romantic couples through history.
Ghillie Dhu, a similar Scottish spirit Kodama, a similar Japanese spirit Green spirit Elf Querquetulanae, Roman nymphs of the oak Salabhanjika, a similar Indian spirit Citations Bibliography Greek Mythology Link: Nymphs. Hans Christian Andersen, "The Dryad", 1868 Andersen, H. C.. 1914 Tim Hoke, "The Dryad", 2002
A nymph in Greek mythology is a supernatural being associated with many other minor female deities that are associated with the air, seas or water, or particular locations or landforms. Different from Greek goddesses, nymphs are more regarded as divine spirits who animate or maintain Nature for the environments where they live, are depicted as beautiful, young graceful maidens, they are divided into various broad subgroups, such as Aurai, Nereides and Dryades The Greek word νύμφη has the primary meaning of "young woman. Yet the etymology of the noun νύμφη remains uncertain; the Doric and Aeolic form is νύμφα. Modern usage more applies to young women at the peak of their attractiveness, contrasting with parthenos "a virgin", generically as kore "maiden, girl"; the term is sometimes used by women to address each other and remains the regular Modern Greek term for "bride". Nymphs were sometimes beloved by many and dwell in most specific areas related to the natural environment. E.g. mountainous forests by springs or rivers.
Other nymphs appeared in the shape of young maidens, were part of the retinue of a god, such as Dionysus, Hermes, or Pan, or a goddess the huntress Artemis. The Greek nymphs were spirits invariably bound to places, not unlike the Latin genius loci, sometimes this produced complicated myths like cult of Arethusa to Sicily. In some of the works of the Greek-educated Latin poets, the nymphs absorbed into their ranks the indigenous Italian divinities of springs and streams, while the Lymphae, Italian water-goddesses, owing to the accidental similarity of their names, could be identified with the Greek Nymphae; the classical mythologies of the Roman poets were unlikely to have affected the rites and cults of individual nymphs venerated by country people in the springs and clefts of Latium. Among the Roman literate class, their sphere of influence was restricted, they appear exclusively as divinities of the watery element; the ancient Greek belief in nymphs survived in many parts of the country into the early years of the twentieth century, when they were known as "nereids".
Nymphs tended to frequent areas distant from humans but could be encountered by lone travelers outside the village, where their music might be heard, the traveler could spy on their dancing or bathing in a stream or pool, either during the noon heat or in the middle of the night. They might appear in a whirlwind; such encounters could be dangerous, bringing dumbness, besotted infatuation, madness or stroke to the unfortunate human. When parents believed their child to be nereid-struck, they would pray to Saint Artemidos. A motif that entered European art during the Renaissance was the idea of a statue of a nymph sleeping in a grotto or spring; this motif came from an Italian report of a Roman sculpture of a nymph at a fountain above the River Danube. The report, an accompanying poem on the fountain describing the sleeping nymph, are now concluded to be a fifteenth-century forgery, but the motif proved influential among artists and landscape gardeners for several centuries after, with copies seen at neoclassical gardens such as the grotto at Stourhead.
As H. J. Rose states, all the names for various classes of nymphs are plural feminine adjectives agreeing with the substantive nymphai, there was no single classification that could be seen as canonical and exhaustive. Thus, the classes of nymphs tend to overlap. Rose mentions dryads and hamadryads as nymphs of trees meliai as nymphs of ash trees, naiads as nymphs of water, but no others specifically; the following is not the authentic Greek classification, but is intended as a guide: The following is a list of groups of nymphs associated with this or that particular location. Nymphs in such groupings could belong to any of the classes mentioned above; the following is a selection of names of the nymphs whose class was not specified in the source texts. For lists of Naiads, Dryades etc. See respective articles. Sabrina Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-36281-9. Larson, Jennifer Lynn. Greek Nymphs: Myth, Lore. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514465-9.
Lawson, John Cuthbert, Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1910, p. 131 Nereids paleothea.com homepage Tomkinson, John L.. Haunted Greece: Nymphs and Other Exotika. Athens: Anagnosis. ISBN 978-960-88087-0-6; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Nymphs". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. P. 930. Theoi.com: Nymphs Theoi Project – List of Nymphs