A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are served and eaten on the premises, but many restaurants offer take-out and food delivery services, some offer only take-out and delivery. Restaurants vary in appearance and offerings, including a wide variety of cuisines and service models ranging from inexpensive fast food restaurants and cafeterias to mid-priced family restaurants, to high-priced luxury establishments. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine; some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may only serve a single meal or they may serve two meals; the word derives from the French verb "restaurer" and, being the present participle of the verb, it means "that which restores". The term restaurant was defined in 1507 as a "restorative beverage", in correspondence in 1521 to mean "that which restores the strength, a fortifying food or remedy".
The first use of the word to refer to a public venue where one can order food is believed to be in the 18th century. In 1765, a French chef by the name of A. Boulanger established a business selling soups and other "restaurants". Additionally, while not the first establishment where one could order food, or soups, it is thought to be the first to offer a menu of available choices The "first real restaurant" is considered to have been "La Grande Taverne de Londres" in Paris, founded by Antoine Beauviliers in either 1782 or 1786. According to Brillat-Savarin, this was "the first to combine the four essentials of an elegant room, smart waiters, a choice cellar, superior cooking". In 1802 the term was applied to an establishment where restorative foods, such as bouillon, a meat broth, were served. Restaurants are distinguished in many different ways; the primary factors are the food itself. Beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes.
Restaurants range from inexpensive and informal lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with modest food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and fine wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. At mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready. After eating, the customers pay the bill. In some restaurants, such as workplace cafeterias, there are no waiters. Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant. Customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages. Fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant; the travelling public has long been catered for with ship's messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, travelling restaurants.
Many railways, the world over cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants designed for tourists, have been created; these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurant's proprietor is called a restaurateur, this derives from the French verb restaurer, meaning "to restore". Professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurants will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery. In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître d'hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them, a sommelier or wine waiter to help patrons select wines. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working one's way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck. Once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened; this trend has become common in the UK and the US.
A chef's table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu served by the head chef. Restaurants can charge a higher flat fee; because of the demand on the kitchen's facilities, chef's tables are only available during off-peak times. In China, food catering establishments that may be described as restaurants have been known since the 11th century in Kaifeng, China's capital during the first half of the Song dynasty. Growing out of the tea houses and taverns that catered to travellers, Kaifeng's restaurants blossomed into an industry catering to locals as well as people from ot
Underground City, Montreal
RÉSO referred to as The Underground City, is the name applied to a series of interconnected office towers, shopping centres and commercial complexes, convention halls and performing arts venues that form the heart of Montreal's central business district, colloquially referred to as Downtown Montreal. The name refers to the underground connections between the buildings that compose the network, in addition to the network's complete integration with the city's underground rapid transit system, the Montreal Metro. Moreover, the first iteration of the Underground City was developed out of the open pit at the southern entrance to the Mount Royal Tunnel, where Place Ville Marie and Central Station stand today. Though most of the connecting tunnels pass underground, many of the key passageways and principal access points are located at ground level, there is one skybridge. In this regard, the Underground City is more of an indoor city than a subterranean city, although there are vast commercial sectors located underground.
The network is useful during Montreal's long winters, during which time well over half a million people are estimated to use it every day. The network is climate controlled and well-lit, is arranged in a U-shape with two principal north–south axes connected by an east–west axis. Combined, there are 32 kilometres' worth of tunnels over twelve square kilometres of the most densely populated part of Montreal. In total, there are more than 120 exterior access points to the network, not including the sixty or so Metro stations located outside the official limits of the RÉSO, some of which have their own smaller tunnel networks; some of the city's larger institutions, namely McGill University, the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Concordia University and the Université de Montréal have campus tunnel networks separate from the Underground City. In 2004, the downtown network of the underground city was re-branded and given the name RÉSO, a homophone of the French word réseau, or network; the "O" at the end of the word is the logo of the Montreal Metro.
Schematic maps bearing the RÉSO logo are found throughout the network. The largest and best-known segment is located in the centre of downtown, delimited by the Peel and Place-des-Arts Metro stations on the Green Line and the Lucien-L'Allier and Place-d'Armes stations on the Orange Line; the underground city is promoted as an important tourist attraction by most Montreal travel guidebooks, as an urban planning achievement it is impressive. For most Montrealers, however, it tends to be considered more as a large mall complex linking Metro stations — they may not know they are in it. Many Canadian cities have some kind of tunnel or skywalk system downtown to help people avoid the weather. Most parts of the Montreal underground city are open while the Metro is in operation, though some are closed outside of business hours. Maps of the underground city and the Metro can be obtained free of charge from all Metro stations, the network of buildings is indicated on most maps of the downtown core. Nearly 500,000 people use it per day.
It is the largest underground complex in the world. It covers 4 million square meters. According to official statistics, its corridors link up with 10 metro stations, 2 bus terminals, 1,200 offices, about 2,000 stores including 2 major department stores 1,600 housing units, 200 restaurants, 40 banks, 40 movie theatres and other entertainment venues, 7 major hotels, 4 universities, Place des Arts, a cathedral, the Bell Centre, 3 exhibition halls: the Place Bonaventure, the Convention Centre and the Olympic Centre; the vision for the underground city was that of urbanist Vincent Ponte, for whom a commemorative plaque was unveiled in November 2006 at Place Ville-Marie. The first link of the underground city arose with the construction of the Place Ville-Marie office tower and underground shopping mall, built in 1962 to cover an unsightly pit of railway tracks north of the Central Station. A tunnel linked it to the Queen Elizabeth Hotel; the advent of the Montreal Metro in 1966, in time for Expo 67, brought tunnels joining Bonaventure station to the Château Champlain hotel, the Place du Canada office tower, Place Bonaventure, Central Station, Windsor Station, forming the core of the Underground City.
Square-Victoria-OACI station connected to Montreal's stock exchange building. Adding to the development of the underground city was the Montreal Urban Community Transit Commission's policy of offering the aerial rights above Metro station entrances for construction through emphyteutic leases, an advantageous way to acquire prime real estate; when the Metro began running in 1966, ten buildings were connected directly to Metro stations. In 1974, the Complexe Desjardins office tower complex was constructed, spurring the construction of a "second downtown" underground city segment between Place-des-Arts and Place-d'Armes station, via Place des Arts, Complexe Desjardins, the Complexe Guy Favreau federal government building, the Palais des Congrès. Between 1984 and 1992, the underground city expanded, with the construction of three major linked shopping centres in the Peel and McGill Metro station areas: Cours Mont-Royal, Place Montréal-Trust, the Promenades Cathédrale (built underneath
Downtown Montreal is the central business district of Montreal, Canada. Located in the borough of Ville-Marie, the district is situated on the southernmost slope of Mount Royal; the downtown region houses many corporate headquarters as well a large majority of the city's skyscrapers — which, by law, cannot be greater in height than Mount Royal in order to preserve the aesthetic predominance and intimidation factor of the mountain. The two tallest of these are the 1000 de La Gauchetière and 1250 René-Lévesque, both of which were built in 1992; the Tour de la Bourse is a significant high-rise and is home to the Montreal Exchange that trades in derivatives. The Montreal Exchange was a stock exchange and was the first in Canada. In 1999, all stock trades were transferred to Toronto in exchange for an exclusivity in the derivative trading market. Place Ville-Marie, an I. M. Pei-designed cruciform office tower built in 1962, sits atop an underground shopping mall that forms the nexus of Montreal's underground city, the world's largest, with indoor access to over 1,600 shops, offices, businesses and universities, as well as metro stations, train stations, bus terminals, tunnels extending all over downtown.
The central axis for downtown is Canada's busiest commercial avenue. The area includes high end retail such as the Holt Renfrew and Ogilvy department stores as well as Les Cours Mont-Royal shopping centre. Other major streets include Peel, de la Montagne, de Maisonneuve and Crescent; the skyline may be observed from one of two lookouts on Mount Royal. The lookout at the Belvedere takes in downtown, the river, the Monteregian Hills. On clear days the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York are visible, as are the Green Mountains of Vermont; the eastern lookout has a view of Olympic Stadium and beyond. Downtown Montreal is home to the main campuses of McGill University and UQAM and the Sir George Williams campus of Concordia University. A number of museums can be found in or near Downtown Montreal, including the Canadian Centre for Architecture, McCord Museum, Montreal Museum of Contemporary Art, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts and Redpath Museum. Pointe-à-Callière Museum is more in Old Montreal. Notable religious buildings in Downtown Montreal include: Christ Church Cathedral, Church of St. Andrew and St. Paul, Church of St. John the Evangelist, Queen of the World Cathedral, St. James the Apostle Anglican Church, St. James United Church, St. George's Anglican Church and St. Patrick's Basilica.
The Bell Centre, used for ice hockey and other events, lies in the central/southern portion of Downtown Montreal. Place des Arts is located in the eastern part of the city's downtown, between Ste-Catherine and de Maisonneuve Streets, St-Urbain and Jeanne-Mance streets, in an area now known as the Quartier des Spectacles, the complex is home to the Montreal Symphony Orchestra, Les Grands Ballets Canadiens, the Opéra de Montréal. Percival Molson Memorial Stadium lies just to the North of Pine Avenue at the edge of Downtown Montreal. Public space in Downtown Montreal includes the following squares: Cabot Square, Chaboillez Square, Dorchester Square, Norman Bethune Square, Phillips Square, Place du Canada, Place Émilie-Gamelin, Place des Festivals, Place Jean-Paul Riopelle and Victoria Square. Two railway stations are in Downtown Montreal: Central Station serves both intercity and commuter rail services of the Réseau de transport métropolitain services. Additional commuter services use Lucien-L'Allier Station.
Downtown Montreal contains two bus stations: Gare d'autocars de Montréal serves longer distance services, while Terminus Centre-Ville is a terminus for services operated by RTL. Two lines of the Montreal Metro run east–west through Downtown Montreal. Line 1 is aligned with De Maisonneuve Boulevard, serving: Atwater, Guy-Concordia, Peel, McGill, Place-des-Arts, Saint-Laurent and Berri-UQAM stations. Line 2 runs some blocks south of the Green Line, serving Lucien-L'Allier, Square-Victoria-OACI, Place-d'Armes, Champ-de-Mars and Berri-UQAM. Place-d'Armes and Champ-de-Mars stations would be considered as in Old Montreal. Berri-UQAM is the terminus for Line 4. Air Canada was headquartered in Downtown Montreal. In 1990, the airline announced that it was moving its headquarters from Downtown Montreal to Montreal-Trudeau Airport to cut costs. Portions of four university-level establishments lie within Downtown Montreal: the main campus of McGill University, on the northern side of Sherbrooke Street. Four colleges lie in downtown: the public Cégep du Vieux Montréal on Ontario Street East.
Underground City, Montreal Old Montreal Old Port of Montreal Downtown Montreal travel guide from Wikivoyage
Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau referred to by the initials PET, was a Canadian statesman who served as the 15th prime minister of Canada. He was the third longest-serving prime minister in Canadian history, having served for 15 years, 164 days. Trudeau rose to prominence as a lawyer and activist in Quebec politics. In the 1960s he entered federal politics by joining the Liberal Party of Canada, he was appointed as Lester B. Pearson's Parliamentary Secretary and became his Minister of Justice. Trudeau became a media sensation, inspiring "Trudeaumania", took charge of the Liberals in 1968. From the late 1960s until the mid-1980s, his personality dominated the political scene to an extent never before seen in Canadian political life. Despite his personal motto, "Reason before passion", his personality and political career aroused polarizing reactions throughout Canada. Admirers praise what they consider to be the force of Trudeau's intellect and his political acumen, maintaining national unity over the Quebec sovereignty movement, suppressing a Quebec terrorist crisis, fostering a pan-Canadian identity, in achieving sweeping institutional reform, including the implementation of official bilingualism, patriation of the Constitution, the establishment of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Critics accuse him of arrogance, of economic mismanagement, of unduly centralizing Canadian decision-making to the detriment of the culture of Quebec and the economy of the Prairies. He retired from politics in 1984, John Turner succeeded him, his eldest son, Justin Trudeau, became the 23rd and current Prime Minister as a result of the 2015 federal election and is the first prime minister of Canada to be a descendant of a former prime minister. The Trudeau family can be traced to Marcillac-Lanville in France in the 16th century and to a Robert Truteau. In 1659 the first Trudeau to arrive in Canada was Étienne Trudeau or Truteau, a carpenter and home builder from La Rochelle. Pierre Trudeau was born at home at 5779 Durocher Avenue, Montreal, on October 18, 1919, to Charles-Émile "Charley" Trudeau, a French-Canadian businessman and lawyer, Grace Elliott, of mixed Scottish and French-Canadian descent, he had an older sister named Suzette and a younger brother named Charles Jr.. The family had become quite wealthy by the time Trudeau was in his teens, as his father sold his prosperous gas station business to Imperial Oil.
Trudeau attended the prestigious Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf. Trudeau's father died; this death hit him and the family hard emotionally. Trudeau remained close to his mother for the rest of her life. According to long-time friend and colleague Marc Lalonde, the clerically influenced dictatorships of António de Oliveira Salazar in Portugal, Francisco Franco in Spain, Marshal Philippe Pétain in Vichy France were seen as political role models by many youngsters educated at elite Jesuit schools in Quebec. Lalonde asserts that Trudeau's intellectual development as an "intellectual rebel, anti-establishment fighter on behalf of unions and promoter of religious freedom" came from his experiences after leaving Quebec to study in the United States and England, to travel to dozens of countries, his international experiences allowed him to break from Jesuit influence and study French progressive Catholic philosophers such as Jacques Maritain and Emmanuel Mounier as well as John Locke and David Hume. Trudeau earned his law degree at the Université de Montréal in 1943.
During his studies, he was conscripted into the Canadian Army as part of the National Resources Mobilization Act. When conscripted, he decided to join the Canadian Officers' Training Corps, he served with the other conscripts in Canada, since they were not assigned to overseas military service until after the Conscription Crisis of 1944 after the Invasion of Normandy that June. Before this, all Canadians serving overseas were volunteers, not conscripts. Trudeau said he was willing to fight during World War II, but he believed that to do so would be to turn his back on the population of Quebec that he believed had been betrayed by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King. Trudeau reflected on his opposition to conscription and his doubts about the war in his Memoirs: "So there was a war? Tough... if you were a French Canadian in Montreal in the early 1940s, you did not automatically believe that this was a just war... we tended to think of this war as a settling of scores among the superpowers."In an Outremont by-election in 1942 he campaigned for the anticonscription candidate Jean Drapeau.
After the war Trudeau continued his studies, first taking a master's degree in political economy at Harvard University's Graduate School of Public Administration. He studied in Paris, France in 1947 at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, he enrolled for a doctorate at the London School of Economics, but did not finish his dissertation. Trudeau was interested in Marxist ideas in the 1940s and his Harvard dissertation was on the topic of Communism and Christianity. Thanks to the great intellectual migration away from Europe's fascism, Harvard had become a major intellectual centre in which he profoundly changed. Despite this, Trudeau found himself an outsider – a French Catholic living for the first time outside of Quebec in the predominantly Protestant American Harvard
Jean Drapeau, was a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as mayor of Montreal from 1954 to 1957 and 1960 to 1986. Major accomplishments of the Drapeau Administration include the development of the Montreal Metro mass transit system, the successful revival of international expositions such as with Expo 67 as well as the construction of a major performing arts centre, the Place des Arts. Drapeau successfully lobbied for the 1976 Summer Olympics and chose its lead architect, Roger Taillibert, to design the city's iconic stadium, athlete's village and inclined tower. Drapeau was primarily responsible for leading the city's effort to secure a Major League Baseball franchise, with the creation of the Montreal Expos in 1969. Although he is remembered as a visionary, Drapeau's mishandling of the construction of the Olympic Games facilities resulted in massive cost overruns and left the city with a debt of over $1 billion that has taken its citizens over thirty years to pay off; the son of Joseph-Napoléon Drapeau and Alberta Martineau, Jean Drapeau was born in Montreal in 1916.
His father, an insurance broker, city councilor and election worker for the Union nationale, introduced him to politics. Jean Drapeau studied law at the Université de Montréal. Drapeau was a protégé of nationalist priest Lionel Groulx in the 1930s and 1940s, was a member of André Laurendeau's anti-conscription Ligue pour la défense du Canada. In 1942, he ran as a candidate of the nationalist Bloc Populaire, which opposed Canadian conscription during World War II, in a federal by-election. Drapeau lost the election, he was a Bloc populaire candidate in the 1944 provincial election but was badly defeated in his Montreal constituency. He began his practice as a criminal lawyer in Montreal in 1944. During the Asbestos Strike of 1949, he took on the legal defence of some of the strikers. In 1945, he married Marie-Claire Boucher, they had three sons. Jean Drapeau's profile grew as the result of his role in a public inquiry led by Pacifique Plante into police corruption in the early 1950s; when Camillien Houde retired as mayor of Montreal, Drapeau was well poised to succeed him.
Drapeau was elected mayor of Montreal in 1954 at the age of 37, as the candidate of the Civic Action League, on a platform of cleaning up the administration. In 1957, he lost to Sarto Fournier, backed by the powerful Premier of Quebec Maurice Duplessis, but Drapeau was elected again in the election of 1960, from he was re-elected without interruption until he retired from political life in 1986, his long tenure would turn the Parti Civique into his personal fief, with no clear heir. During Jean Drapeau's tenure as mayor, he initiated the initial construction of the Montreal Metro subway system, Place des Arts, Expo 67, the Universal Exposition of 1967. To support the expenditures, Drapeau created the first public lottery in Canada in 1968, which he called a "voluntary tax", an idea that would gain favour and become enlarged by the provincial government by creating Loto-Québec corporation in 1970. In 1967, he received an honorary doctorate from Sir George Williams University. In 1968, he received the Loyola Medal from Loyola College, which merged with Sir George Williams to found Concordia University.
In the municipal elections of October 1970, Drapeau used the proclamation of the War Measures Act and the October Crisis to discredit and neutralize the candidates of the opposition party by accusing them of being terrorist sympathisers and supporters of the Front de libération du Québec. Some opposition candidates, including his main opponent, were imprisoned only to be released after the end of the election in which Drapeau's party won all 52 seats; the 1970s saw the preparation of the 1976 Summer Olympics. Cost overruns and scandals forced the Quebec government to take over the project 8 months before the Games opened. A year after the Games had ended, Quebec Premier René Lévesque appointed Quebec supreme court judge Albert Malouf, to a commission to investigate the high cost overruns of the games. Moreover, the Malouf commission found that in conjunction with the serious mistakes that were made, a culture of kickbacks thrived, which made the Games price tag soar; the Summer Games were marked by Drapeau's controversial decision to dismantle the Corridart public art display just before the Games.
Public criticism of Drapeau's municipal administration grew and lead to the creation of a new opposition party in 1974, the Montreal Citizens' Movement, which grew in popularity over the next decade. In 1982, Drapeau faced his stiffest competition in decades in the person of MCM leader Jean Doré. Drapeau retired ahead of the 1986 elections, which saw his party defeated by the MCM. Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney appointed Drapeau to the position of Canadian ambassador to UNESCO in Paris. Despite the nationalism of his youth, Drapeau remained neutral during the 1980 Quebec referendum. In 1967, Drapeau was made a Companion of the Order of Canada and received the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada’s Gold Medal, he was named a Grand Officer of the National Order of Quebec in 1987. After his death in 1999, Drapeau was interred in the Cimetière Notre-Dame-des-Neiges in Montreal. One of the biggest parks in Montreal, Parc Jean-Drapeau, composed of Île Notre-Dame and Ile Sainte-Hélène in the middle of the Saint Lawrence river, site of the universal exposition of 1967, was renamed in his honour, as was the Metro station serving the park.
Drapeau said "The Olympics can no more lose money than a man can have a baby." After announc
William Zeckendorf, Sr. was a prominent American real estate developer. Through his development company Webb and Knapp—for which he began working in 1938 and which he purchased in 1949—he developed a significant portion of the New York City urban landscape. Architects I. M. Pei and Le Corbusier worked for Zeckendorf on some of his projects. Zeckendorf was born to a Jewish family in Paris, the son of a hardware store manager, his family moved to New York City. He attended New York University but dropped out to work at the real estate company of his uncle, Sam Borchard, he soon left his uncle's firm to work for Webb & Knapp, a small New York building manager and brokerage. Zeckendorf's most notable property acquisition, potential development of a "dream city" to rival Rockefeller Center, was a 17-acre site along the East River between 42nd Street and 48th Street. In a now celebrated transaction in December 1946, the prominent architect Wallace Harrison and Nelson Rockefeller bought the site from him for $8.5 million and Nelson's father John D. Rockefeller, Jr. subsequently donated this land for the building of the United Nations Headquarters.
Zeckendorf owned New York's famous Chrysler Building and the venerable Hotel Astor in Times Square. He purchased Chicago's famous Robie House in 1958 before transferring ownership to the University of Chicago, he developed two of I. M. Pei's early skyscrapers—the Mile High Center in downtown Denver, Place Ville-Marie in downtown Montreal. Zeckendorf partnered with Chicago real estate titan Arthur Rubloff to develop a stretch of Michigan Avenue into what Rubloff dubbed the Magnificent Mile; the Rubloff Company was acquired by Prudential and subsequently has become a division of Berkshire Hathaway. In December 1958, Zeckendorf entered into a deal with Spyros Skouras, head of 20th Century-Fox, to purchase Fox's project to develop 176 acres of its historic backlot in Los Angeles, into a proposed $400 million Century City; the studio had suffered a string of expensive flops, culminating in the box-office disaster Cleopatra and was in dire need of money. The project, conceived under the direction of Edmund Herrscher, the studio's director of property development, had been announced the first week of 1958, with construction said to begin in July 1958.
However, construction did not start as promised, rumors confirmed, circulated that developer Zeckendorf would take over the project by purchasing 20th's interest in the project for $53 million. The following March it was announced that construction would begin that month on the new headquarters for architect Welton Becket, chief architect on the project That did not occur either. Zeckendorf hired New York public relations executive Tex McCrary to lend new life and visibility to the project. McCrary, in turn contracted with Los Angeles publicist Charles A. Pomerantz, well known in the entertainment industry, to come up with a campaign and execute it. Pomerantz turned to a young publicist he had hired, Worley Thorne, the only other publicist in the small firm, for suggestions. Thorne said. Thorne learned that there was deep skepticism that the project would be built. 20th did not have the money, why they brought in Zeckendorf, but Zeckendorf was unable to deliver the $53-million purchase price, let alone $400 million.
The California papers had given a lot of publicity to Century City and, for them, any more coverage would just be re-hash in which they were not interested. Thorne reported to Pomerantz his opinion that the only way to restore credibility to the project was to "begin" construction, Pomerantz went for the plan. Thorne called Herrscher and asked if there was some small building they could demolish with a bulldozer, to begin to "break ground" for the Becket building. Herrscher said there was a tin shack, expendable and he'd make it available, as well as the bulldozer. McCrary and William Zeckendorf, Jr. vice-president of Webb & Knapp approved. Thorne said that it should be a large affair with the mayors of Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, Santa Monica, plus politicians and other dignitaries, invited, as well as all the Southern California press, he and Pomerantz would find a star to "launch" the project by breaking a bottle of champagne on the shack prior to its being demolished. They secured Mary Pickford for that task.
It was all purely symbolic, since construction did not begin, but no one stated that it was dramatic, successful. The Los Angeles Times devoted three full pages to its coverage of the event. Still lacking sufficient money, Zeckendorf was forced to make $1000 per day penalty payments to Fox. In 1960, Zeckendorf solved his problem by partnering with Alcoa in a joint-venture relationship to build Century City, which by now had escalated to a $500 million project; the new owners embraced the studio's conception of Century City as "a city within a city" with the arc-shaped, 19-story Century Plaza Hotel to be the centerpiece. This joint-venture marked an increasing interest by large corporations with land "surplus" in order to create housing communities, industrial parks and office buildings. Before his company's bankruptcy in 1965, Zeckendorf became the embodiment of glamorous real-estate dealmaking, which included developing Roosevelt Airfield, where Charles Lindbergh began his transatlantic flight, helping to advance and develop Long Island University.
From the start of his career Zeckendorf had been able to use his dealm
Henry N. Cobb
Henry N. Cobb is an American architect and founding partner with I. M. Pei of Pei Cobb Freed & Partners, an international architectural firm based in New York City. Henry N. Cobb was born on April 8, 1926, he attended Phillips Exeter Academy, Harvard College, the Harvard University Graduate School of Design. Cobb is an architect. Additionally, he was the chairman of the Department of Architecture at Harvard University from 1980 to 1985, he has received honorary degrees from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. In 1983, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate Academician, become a full Academician in 1990. Cobb won the Council on Tall Urban Habitat's 2013 Lynn S. Beedle Award. Cobb lives in Maine; some notable buildings for which Cobb has been principally responsible include: Place Ville Marie in Montreal Campus of the State University of New York Fredonia Harbor Towers, Boston John Hancock Tower, Boston Wilson Commons at the University of Rochester World Trade Center, Baltimore One Dallas Centre, Dallas Johnson & Johnson World Headquarters, New Brunswick, New Jersey ARCO Tower, Dallas Portland Museum of Art, Maine Pitney Bowes World Headquarters, Connecticut Library Tower, Los Angeles, now U.
S. Bank Tower Credit Suisse First Boston headquarters at Canary Wharf, London UCLA Anderson School of Management at the University of California, Los Angeles American Association for the Advancement of Science headquarters, Washington DC John Joseph Moakley United States Courthouse and Harborpark, Boston College-Conservatory of Music at the University of Cincinnati National Constitution Center, Philadelphia Hyatt Center, Chicago Palazzo Lombardia, Milano International Monetary Fund Headquarters 2, Washington, D. C. Center for Government and International Studies at Harvard University Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Torre Espacio, Spain Profile of Henry N. Cobb provided by Pei Cobb Freed & Partners Cobb bio on official website of Pei Cobb Freed & Partners Thomas Farragher: Special Report on the Boston Globe.