The La Fayette Escadrille was a U. S. unit constituted in 1916 under French command, made up of volunteers who came forward to fight for France during World War I. The escadrille of the Aéronautique Militaire was composed of American volunteer pilots flying fighters, it was named in honor of French hero of the American Revolutionary War. Dr. Edmund L. Gros, a founder of the American Hospital of Paris and organizer of the American Ambulance Field Service, Norman Prince, a Harvard-educated lawyer and an American expatriate flying for France, led the attempts to persuade the French government of the value of a volunteer American air unit fighting for France; the aim was to have their efforts recognized by the American public and thus, it was hoped, the resulting publicity would rouse interest in abandoning neutrality and joining the fight. Authorized by the French Air Department on March 21, 1916, the Escadrille de Chasse Nieuport 124 was deployed on April 20 in Luxeuil-les-Bains, near Switzerland's border.
Despite the unit weak notorious status in the United States, the Escadrille proved useful for the French and Americans, taking into consideration that before the First World War, aircraft were not considered combat units. There were seven Americans pilots: Victor E. Chapman, Elliot C. Cowdin, Weston Hall, James R. McConnell, Norman Prince, Kiffin Rockwell, William Thaw; the unit's aircraft and uniforms were French, as was the commander, Captain Georges Thénault. Five French pilots were on the roster, serving at various times in command positions. Raoul Lufbery, a French-born American citizen, became the squadron's first, their highest scoring flying ace with 16 confirmed victories before the pilots of the squadron were inducted into the U. S. Air Service. Two unofficial members of the Escadrille Américaine, the lion cubs named Whiskey and Soda, provided countless moments of relief from battle stress to fliers. A German objection filed with the U. S. government, over the actions of a supposed neutral nation, led to the name change to La Fayette Escadrille in December 1916, as the original name implied that the U.
S. was allied to France rather than neutral. American members of the La Fayette Escadrille transferred into the United States Army Air Service on 18 February 1918, as the 103d Aero Squadron; the French personnel formed the Escadrille SPA.124 Jeanne d'Arc. Not all American pilots were in Lafayette Escadrille. On 3 April 1918, eleven American pilots from the Air Service of the American Expeditionary Force were assigned to Escadrille N.471, an air defense squadron stationed near Paris. American flyers served with this French unit until 18 July 1918, it is sometimes referred to as the Second Escadrille Américaine; the Escadrille ceased to exist on February 18, 1918. And it is the Escadron de Chasse 2/4 La Fayette which retook the unit designation of "La Fayette", this time however in the French Air Force. During the existence of the Escadrille, 224 Americans served in the unit. Of those, fifty-one died in combat, an additional eleven died in non-combat. Fifteen became prisoners of war. A total of eleven pliots became aces.
The first major action seen by the squadron was 13 May 1916 at the Battle of Verdun and five days Kiffin Rockwell recorded the unit's first aerial victory. On 23 June, the Escadrille suffered its first fatality when Victor Chapman was shot down over Douaumont; the unit was posted to the front until September 1916, when the unit was moved back to Luxeuil-les-Bains in 7 Army area. On 23 September, Rockwell was killed when his Nieuport was downed by the gunner in a German Albatross observation plane and in October, Norman Prince was shot down during air battle; the squadron, flying Nieuport and Spad scouts, suffered heavy losses, but it received replacements until a total of 38 American pilots served with the squadron. So many Americans volunteered to fly for France that they were farmed out to other French squadrons; as a group, the Americans who flew in WWI for France's air service, the "Aéronautique militaire," are collectively known as the La Fayette Flying Corps. Altogether, 265 American volunteers served in the Corps.
On 8 February 1918, the squadron was disbanded and 12 of its American members inducted into the U. S. Air Service as members of the 103rd Aero Squadron. For a brief period it retained mechanics. Most of its veteran members were set to work training newly arrived American pilots; the 103rd was credited with a further 45 kills. The French Escadrille SPA.124 known as the Jeanne d'Arc Escadrille, continued Lafayette Escadrille's traditions in the Service Aéronautique. In the mid-1920s, France recruited some 16 former American fliers with World War I combat experience for service in the French Army of Africa, aiming to forestall American public and diplomatic support for the Rif tribes rebelling against Spanish and French colonial rule. Charles Sweeny, organizer of the RAF Eagle Squadrons, proposed to reconstitute the Lafayette Escadrille. However, Paul Ayres Rockwell, a brother of fallen Escadrille Américaine's pilot Kiffin Rockwell, wrote that "the attempt to call the unit the Lafayette Escadrille had been abandoned before we left Paris, as there was not one former pilot of the famous World War squadron in our group."
The pilots were inducted into the French Foreign Legion in July 1925, where they formed the Escadrille de la Guarde Chérifienne in the Sultan's Guard Escadrille of the French Air Fo
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, in all likelihood independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier. The publication of Copernicus' model in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, just before his death in 1543, was a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making a pioneering contribution to the Scientific Revolution. Copernicus was born and died in Royal Prussia, a region, part of the Kingdom of Poland since 1466. A polyglot and polymath, he obtained a doctorate in canon law and was a mathematician, physician, classics scholar, governor and economist. In 1517 he derived a quantity theory of money—a key concept in economics—and in 1519 he formulated an economic principle that came to be called Gresham's law. Nicolaus Copernicus was born on 19 February 1473 in the city of Thorn, in the province of Royal Prussia, in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
His father was a merchant from Kraków and his mother was the daughter of a wealthy Toruń merchant. Nicolaus was the youngest of four children, his brother Andreas became an Augustinian canon at Frombork. His sister Barbara, named after her mother, became a Benedictine nun and, in her final years, prioress of a convent in Chełmno, his sister Katharina married the businessman and Toruń city councilor Barthel Gertner and left five children, whom Copernicus looked after to the end of his life. Copernicus never married and is not known to have had children, but from at least 1531 until 1539 his relations with Anna Schilling, a live-in housekeeper, were seen as scandalous by two bishops of Warmia who urged him over the years to break off relations with his "mistress". Copernicus' father's family can be traced to a village in Silesia near Nysa; the village's name has been variously spelled Kopernik, Copernic, Kopernic and today Koperniki. In the 14th century, members of the family began moving to various other Silesian cities, to the Polish capital, Kraków, to Toruń.
The father, Mikołaj the Elder the son of Jan, came from the Kraków line. Nicolaus was named after his father, who appears in records for the first time as a well-to-do merchant who dealt in copper, selling it in Danzig, he moved from Kraków to Toruń around 1458. Toruń, situated on the Vistula River, was at that time embroiled in the Thirteen Years' War, in which the Kingdom of Poland and the Prussian Confederation, an alliance of Prussian cities and clergy, fought the Teutonic Order over control of the region. In this war, Hanseatic cities like Danzig and Toruń, Nicolaus Copernicus's hometown, chose to support the Polish King, Casimir IV Jagiellon, who promised to respect the cities' traditional vast independence, which the Teutonic Order had challenged. Nicolaus' father was engaged in the politics of the day and supported Poland and the cities against the Teutonic Order. In 1454 he mediated negotiations between Poland's Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki and the Prussian cities for repayment of war loans.
In the Second Peace of Thorn, the Teutonic Order formally relinquished all claims to its western province, which as Royal Prussia remained a region of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland until the First and Second Partitions of Poland. Copernicus's father married Barbara Watzenrode, the astronomer's mother, between 1461 and 1464, he died about 1483. Nicolaus' mother, Barbara Watzenrode, was the daughter of a wealthy Toruń patrician and city councillor, Lucas Watzenrode the Elder, Katarzyna, mentioned in other sources as Katarzyna Rüdiger gente Modlibóg; the Modlibógs were a prominent Polish family, well known in Poland's history since 1271. The Watzenrode family, like the Kopernik family, had come from Silesia from near Świdnica, after 1360 had settled in Toruń, they soon became one of most influential patrician families. Through the Watzenrodes' extensive family relationships by marriage, Copernicus was related to wealthy families of Toruń, Gdańsk and Elbląg, to prominent Polish noble families of Prussia: the Czapskis, Działyńskis, Konopackis and Kościeleckis.
Lucas and Katherine had three children: Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, who would become Bishop of Warmia and Copernicus's patron. Lucas Watzenrode the Elder, a wealthy merchant and in 1439–62 president of the judicial bench, was a decided opponent of the Teutonic Knights. In 1453 he was the delegate from Toruń at the Grudziądz conference that planned the uprising against them. During the ensuing Thirteen Years' War, he supported the Prussian cities' war effort with substantial monetary subsidies, with political activity in Toruń and Danzig, by fighting in battles at Łasin and Malbork, he died in 1462. Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, the astronomer's maternal uncle and patron, was educated at the University of Kraków and at the universities of Cologne and Bologna, he was a bitter opponent of the Teutonic Order, its Grand Master once referred to him as "the devil incarn
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, one of the major ports of Germany. On the river Trave, it was the leading city of the Hanseatic League, because of its extensive Brick Gothic architecture, it is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. In 2015, it had a population of 218,523; the old part of Lübeck is on an island enclosed by the Trave. The Elbe–Lübeck Canal connects the Trave with the Elbe River. Another important river near the town centre is the Wakenitz. Autobahn 1 connects Lübeck with Denmark. Travemünde is a sea ferry port on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Lübeck Hauptbahnhof links Lübeck to a number of railway lines, notably the line to Hamburg. Humans settled in the area around what today is Lübeck after the last Ice Age ended about 9700 BCE. Several Neolithic dolmens can be found in the area. Around AD 700, Slavic peoples started moving into the eastern parts of Holstein, an area settled by Germanic inhabitants who had moved on in the Migration Period. Charlemagne, whose efforts to Christianise the area were opposed by the Germanic Saxons, expelled many of the Saxons and brought in Polabian Slavs allies.
Liubice was founded on the banks of the River Trave about four kilometers north of the present-day city-center of Lübeck. In the 10th century it became the most important settlement of the Obotrite confederacy and a castle was built. In 1128 the pagan Rani from Rügen razed Liubice. In 1143 Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein, founded the modern town as a German settlement on the river island of Bucu, he built a new castle, first mentioned by the chronicler Helmold as existing in 1147. Adolf had to cede the castle to the Duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, in 1158. After Henry's fall from power in 1181 the town became an Imperial city for eight years. Emperor Barbarossa ordained. With the council dominated by merchants, pragmatic trade interests shaped Lübeck's politics for centuries; the council survived into the 19th century. The town and castle changed ownership for a period afterwards and formed part of the Duchy of Saxony until 1192, of the County of Holstein until 1217, of the kingdom of Denmark until the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227.
Around 1200 the port became the main point of departure for colonists leaving for the Baltic territories conquered by the Livonian Order and by the Teutonic Order. In 1226 Emperor Frederick II elevated the town to the status of an Imperial Free City, by which it became the Free City of Lübeck. In the 14th century Lübeck became the "Queen of the Hanseatic League", being by far the largest and most powerful member of that medieval trade organization. In 1375 Emperor Charles IV named Lübeck one of the five "Glories of the Empire", a title shared with Venice, Rome and Florence. Several conflicts about trading privileges resulted in fighting between Lübeck and Denmark and Norway – with varying outcome. While Lübeck and the Hanseatic League prevailed in conflicts in 1435 and 1512, Lübeck lost when it became involved in the Count's Feud, a civil war that raged in Denmark from 1534 to 1536. Lübeck joined the pro-Lutheran Schmalkaldic League of the mid-16th century. After its defeat in the Count's Feud, Lübeck's power declined.
The city remained neutral in the Thirty Years' War of 1618–1648, but the combination of the devastation from the decades-long war and the new transatlantic orientation of European trade caused the Hanseatic League – and thus Lübeck with it – to decline in importance. However after the de facto disbanding of the Hanseatic League in 1669, Lübeck still remained an important trading town on the Baltic Sea. Franz Tunder was the organist in the Marienkirche, it was part of the tradition in this Lutheran congregation that the organist would pass on the duty in a dynastic marriage. In 1668, his daughter Anna Margarethe married the great Danish-German composer Dieterich Buxtehude, the organist at the Marienkirche in Lübeck until at least 1703; some of the greatest composers of the day came to the church to hear his renowned playing. In the course of the war of the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon, troops under Bernadotte occupied the neutral Lübeck after a battle against Blücher on 6 November 1806. Under the Continental System, the State bank went into bankruptcy.
In 1811, the French Empire formally annexed Lübeck as part of France. The writer Thomas Mann was a member of the Mann family of Lübeck merchants, his well-known 1901 novel Buddenbrooks made readers in Germany familiar with the manner of life and mores of the 19th Century Lübeck bourgeoisie. In 1937, the Nazis passed the so-called Greater Hamburg Act, which merged the city of Lübeck with Prussia. During World War II, Lübeck became the first German city to suffer substantial Royal Air Force bombing; the attack of 28 March 1942 created a firestorm. This raid destroyed large parts of the built-up area. Germany operated a POW camp for officers, Oflag X-C, near the city from 1940 until April 1945; the British Second Army occupied it without resistance. On 3 May 1945 one of the biggest disasters in naval history occurred in the Bay of Lübeck when RAF bombers sank three ships: the SS Cap Arcona, the SS Deutschland, the SS Thielbek – which, unknown to them, were packed with concentr
A pocket park is a small park accessible to the general public. Pocket parks are created on a single vacant building lot or on small, irregular pieces of land, they may be created as a component of the public space requirement of large building projects. Pocket parks can be urban, suburban or rural, can be on public or private land. Although they are too small for physical activities, pocket parks provide greenery, a place to sit outdoors, sometimes a children's playground, they may be created around a historic marker or art project. In urbanized areas downtowns where land is expensive, pocket parks are the only option for creating new public spaces without large-scale redevelopment. In inner-city areas, pocket parks are part of urban regeneration plans and provide areas where wildlife such as birds can establish a foothold. Unlike larger parks, pocket parks are sometimes designed to be locked when not in use. Small parks can increase the value of nearby homes. One study conducted in Greenville, South Carolina, found that "attractively maintained small and medium parks have a positive influence on neighboring property values."
Pocket parks, such as the Balfour Street Park, can be created from small unused areas of public land. In Santiago, the first pocket park was created beside of Palacio La Moneda at Morandé Street, it was an initiative of Architecture Departament of the Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Regional Government of Santiago. In Mexico City, there is a city program to create up to 150 pocket parks of 400m2 or less on vacant lots or on land, part of a large intersection, such as Jardín Edith Sánchez Ramírez and the Condesa pocket park. In England, a 1984 project to involve the local community in the creation and running of small, local parks has fostered several pocket parks in Northamptonshire, was developed by the Countryside Commission into the Millennium Green and Doorstep Green projects. In Columbus, Polaris Founder's Park was opened in 2011 and holds a 35-foot wind sculpture. In Los Angeles, where there are restrictions on how close registered sex offenders can live to parks, local officials planned three pocket parks to drive "undesirables" from a given area.
Parklet Pocket parks in Northamptonshire
Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, as President of France from 1913 to 1920. He was a conservative leader committed to political and social stability. Trained in law, Poincaré was elected as a Deputy in 1887 and served in the cabinets of Dupuy and Ribot. In 1902, he co-founded the Democratic Republican Alliance, the most important centre-right party under the Third Republic, becoming Prime Minister in 1912 and serving as President of the Republic for 1913-20, he attempted to wield influence from what was a figurehead role, being noted for his anti-German attitudes, visiting Russia in 1912 and 1914 to repair Franco-Russian relations, which had become strained over the Bosnian Crisis of 1908 and the Agadir Crisis of 1911, playing an important role in the July Crisis of 1914. From 1917, he exercised less influence as his political rival Georges Clemenceau had become Prime Minister. At the Paris Peace Conference, he favoured Allied occupation of the Rhineland.
In 1922 Poincaré returned to power as Prime Minister. In 1923 he ordered the Occupation of the Ruhr to enforce payment of German reparations. By this time Poincaré was seen in the English-speaking world, as an aggressive figure who had helped to cause the war in 1914 and who now favoured punitive anti-German policies, his government was defeated by the Cartel des Gauches at the elections of 1924. He served a third term as Prime Minister in 1926-9. Born in Bar-le-Duc, France, Raymond Poincaré was the son of Nanine Marie Ficatier, religious and Nicolas Antonin Hélène Poincaré, a distinguished civil servant and meteorologist. Raymond was the cousin of Henri Poincaré, the famous mathematician. Educated at the University of Paris, Raymond was called to the Paris Bar, was for some time law editor of the Voltaire, he became at the age of 20 the youngest lawyer in France. And was appointed Secrétaire de la Conférence du Barreau de Paris; as a lawyer, he defended Jules Verne in a libel suit presented against the famous author by the chemist, Eugène Turpin, inventor of the explosive melinite, who claimed that the "mad scientist" character in Verne's book Facing the Flag was based on him.
At the age of 26, Poincaré was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, making him the youngest deputy in the chamber. Poincaré had served for over a year in the Department of Agriculture when in 1887 he was elected deputy for the Meuse département, he made a great reputation in the Chamber as an economist, sat on the budget commissions of 1890–1891 and 1892. He was minister of education, fine arts and religion in the first cabinet of Charles Dupuy, minister of finance in the second and third. In Alexandre Ribot's cabinet, Poincaré became minister of public instruction. Although he was excluded from the Radical cabinet which followed, the revised scheme of death duties proposed by the new ministry was based upon his proposals of the previous year, he became vice-president of the chamber in the autumn of 1895 and, in spite of the bitter hostility of the Radicals, retained his position in 1896 and 1897. Along with other followers of "Opportunist" Léon Gambetta, Poincaré founded the Democratic Republican Alliance in 1902, which became the most important centre-right party under the Third Republic.
In 1906, he returned to the ministry of finance in the short-lived Sarrien ministry. Poincaré had retained his practice at the Bar during his political career, he published several volumes of essays on literary and political subjects. "Poincarism" was a political movement over the period 1902–20. In 1902, the term was used by Georges Clemenceau to define a young generation of conservative politicians who had lost the idealism of the founders of the republic. After 1911, the term was used to mean "national renewal". After the First World War, "Poincarism" refers to his support of business and financial interests. Poincaré was noted for his lifelong feud with Georges Clemenceau. Poincaré became Prime Minister in January 1912, began a policy meant to block Germany's ambitions for "world power status", worked to restore ties with France's ally, Russia. During the Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 and the Second Moroccan Crisis in 1911, Russia and France had failed to support each other. In August 1912, Poincaré visited Russia to meet Tsar Nicholas in order to strengthen diplomatic ties.
Poincaré believed the rapprochement would deter Germany from risking a demarche to war, thus avoid a repeat of the Second Moroccan crisis. Tsarist Russia, despite its Francophilia, was disdainful of most of the leaders of the Third Republic, but Poincaré was an exception, regarded in St. Petersburg as a strong leader who meant what he said. Poincaré hoped to pursue an expansionist policy at the expense of the Germany's unofficial ally, the Ottoman Empire. Poincaré was a leading member of the Comité de l'Orient, the main group that advocated French expansionism in the Middle East. Poincaré's willingness to begin a rapprochement with Imperial Germany in order to allow France to pursue its ambitions in the Middle East was strengthened by the outcome of the First Balkan War, where Bulgaria - whose army had been trained by a French military mission - defeated the Sultan's army - whose forces had been trained by the German military. Bulgaria's swift victory over the Ottomans was a great blow to German prestige, correspondingly boosted French confidence.
Poincaré rejected Joseph Caillaux's proposal for a Franco-German alliance, arguing that Paris would be the junior partner, thus tantamount to ending France's status a
Horace Wells was an American dentist who pioneered the use of anesthesia in dentistry nitrous oxide. Wells was the first of three children of Horace and Betsy Heath Wells, born on January 21, 1815 in Hartford, Vermont, his parents were well-educated and affluent land owners, which allowed him to attend private schools in New Hampshire and Amherst, Massachusetts. At the age of 19 in 1834, Wells began studying dentistry under a 2-year apprenticeship in Boston; the first dental school did not open until 1840 in Baltimore. At age 23, Wells published a booklet "An Essay on Teeth" in which he advocated for his ideas in preventive dentistry for the use of a toothbrush. In his booklet, he described tooth development and oral diseases, where he mentioned diet and oral hygiene as important factors. After obtaining a degree, Wells set up a practice in Hartford, with an associate named William T. G. Morton, who would become famous for his use of ether as an anesthetic on October 16, 1846. After he completed his dental training in Boston, Wells opened his own office in Hartford, Connecticut on April 4, 1836.
Between 1841 and 1845, Wells became a reputable dentist in Hartford, where he had many patients and attracted apprentices. Among his patients were respected members of society such as William Ellsworth, the governor of Connecticut, his three apprentices were John Riggs, C. A. Kingsbury, William Morton. In 1843, Wells and Morton started a practice in Wells continued to instruct Morton. John Riggs became a partner and Kingsbury became one of the founders of Philadelphia Dental College. Wells first witnessed the effects of nitrous oxide on December 10, 1844, when he and his wife Elizabeth attended a demonstration by Gardner Quincy Colton billed in the Hartford Courant as "A Grand Exhibition of the Effects Produced by Inhaling Nitrous Oxide, Exhilarating, or Laughing Gas." The demonstration took place at Hartford. During the demonstration, a local apothecary shop clerk Samuel A. Cooley became intoxicated by nitrous oxide. While under the influence, Cooley did not react when he struck his legs against a wooden bench while jumping around.
After the demonstration, Cooley was unable to recall his actions while under the influence, but found abrasions and bruises on his knees. From this demonstration, Wells realized the potential for the analgesic properties of nitrous oxide, met with Colton about conducting trials; the following day, Wells conducted a trial on himself by inhaling nitrous oxide and having John Riggs extract a tooth. Upon a successful trial where he did not feel any pain, Wells went on to use nitrous oxide on at least 12 other patients in his office. In 1844, Hartford did not have a hospital, so Wells sought to demonstrate his new findings in either Boston or New York, he chose to go to Boston in January 1845 where he studied dentistry, knew William Morton, a former student and associate. Wells and Morton's practice was dissolved in October 1844. Morton was enrolled in Harvard Medical School at the time and agreed to help Wells introduce his ideas, although Morton was skeptical about the use of nitrous oxide, he gave a demonstration to medical students at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston on January 20, 1845.
However, the gas was improperly administered and the patient cried out in pain. The patient admitted that although he cried out in pain, he remembered no pain and did not know when the tooth was extracted; the audience of students in the surgical theatre jeered "humbug". After the embarrassment from his failed demonstration, Wells returned home to Hartford the next day. Shortly after, he became ill and his dental practice became sporadic. On February 5, 1845, Wells advertised his home for rent. On April 7, 1845, Wells advertised in the Hartford Courant that he was going to dissolve his dental practice, referred all his patients to Riggs, the man who had extracted his tooth. In October 1846, Morton gave a successful demonstration of ether anesthesia in Boston. Following Morton's demonstration, Wells published a letter accounting his successful trials in 1844 in an attempt to claim the discovery of anesthesia, his efforts in establishing his claim were unsuccessful. Despite his advertisement for dissolving his practice in April 1845, Wells sporadically continued his practice, with his last daybook entry being on November 5, 1845.
Between 1836 and 1847, Wells relocated six different times. His reasons for closing his office were due to ill health, however his physician could not find any physical cause to his nonspecific somatic complaints, his reoccurring illness was first mentioned in a letter to his sister Mary Wells Cole in April 1837. Wells became ill shortly after marrying his wife Elizabeth Wales in 1838 and having his only son Charles Thomas Wells. During winter months, Wells would not write letters to any family or friends, except for his published letter in 1846 after Morton's ether demonstration. After definitively ending his dental practice in late 1845, Wells became a salesman of shower baths which he received a patent for on November 4, 1846. Wells planned to sail to Paris to purchase paintings to resell in the United States, he traveled to Paris in early 1847, where he petitioned the Academie Royale de Medicine and the Parisian Medical Society for recognition in the discovery of anesthesia. Upon returning to the United States, Wells moved to New York City in pursuit of his own interests in January 1848, leaving his wife and young son behind in Hartford.
While in New York City, Wells lived alone at 120 Chambers St in Lower Manhattan. He began self-experimenting with ether and chloroform, in wh
Prussia was a prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19; the Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state.
With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto. Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk, their monastic state was Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657; the union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr; the country grew in influence economically and politically, became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians; the Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935.
Some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies, was abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947; the international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists. The term Prussian has been used outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and the German Empire.
The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white national colours were used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty; the Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle. The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, as well as of Brandenburg, resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871. Suum cuique, the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was associated with the whole of Prussia; the Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was commonly associated with the country. The region populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a favoured location for immigration by Germans, as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.
Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included the provinces of West Prussia.