The Musée Carnavalet in Paris is dedicated to the history of the city. The museum occupies two neighboring mansions: the Hôtel Carnavalet and the former Hôtel Le Peletier de Saint Fargeau. On the advice of Baron Haussmann, the civil servant who transformed Paris in the latter half of the 19th century, the Hôtel Carnavalet was purchased by the Municipal Council of Paris in 1866. By the latter part of the 20th century, the museum was full to capacity; the Hôtel Le Peletier de Saint Fargeau was annexed to the Carnavalet and opened to the public in 1989. Carnavalet Museum is one of the 14 City of Paris' Museums that have been incorporated since January 1, 2013 in the public institution Paris Musées. It's closed for renovation till the end of 2019. In the courtyard, a magnificent sculpture of Louis XIV, the Sun King, greets the visitor. Inside the museum, the exhibits show the transformation of the village of Lutèce, inhabited by the Parisii tribes, to the grand city of today with a population of 2,201,578.
The Carnavalet houses the following: about 2,600 paintings, 20,000 drawings, 300,000 engravings and 150,000 photographs, 2,000 modern sculptures and 800 pieces of furniture, thousands of ceramics, many decorations and reliefs, thousands of coins, countless items, many of them souvenirs of famous characters, thousands of archeological fragments.... The period called Modern Time, which spans from the Renaissance until today, is known by the vast amount of images of the city.... There are many views of the streets and monuments of Paris from the sixteenth to the twentieth century, but there are many portraits of characters who played a role in the history of the capital and works showing events which took place in Paris the many revolutions which stirred the capital, as well as many scenes of the daily life in all the social classes. Long narrow canoes made from a single tree trunk, dating back long before the first written description of the village in A. D. 52 in Julius Caesar's De bello Gallico A beautiful fourth-century bottle used for perfume, wine, or honey An ornate chest from the 13th century, which came from the royal Abbey of Saint Denis A well-preserved 14th-century sculpture of the head of the Virgin Mary and contemplative, despite the tumultuous events that decimated the city at that time: the Hundred Years' War and the Great Plague of 1348 Paintings from the 16th century depicting famous men and women of the time, including Francis I, Catherine de' Medici, Henry IV.
A painting of the Pont Neuf in about 1660 showing Parisians on foot. A vendor is showing his wares to a crowd of interested on-lookers, a man is walking hunched over with a bundle on his back. Several paintings of Madame de Sévigné, considered the most beautiful woman in Paris The famous uncompleted painting by Jacques-Louis David, The Tennis Court Oath, portraying a pivotal event in French history when members of the National Assembly swore an emotional oath that they would not disband until they had passed a "solid and equitable Constitution." This event is regarded as the beginning of the French Revolution. Paintings showing the people's revenge on the Bastille, a dungeon that had become "a symbol of the arbitrariness of royal power." Paintings or sculptures of the famous actors in the drama of the Revolution, including Mirabeau, Danton and the royal family A painting of death by guillotine at the Place de la Révolution, by Pierre-Antoine Demauchy: the fate that struck King Louis XVI, Queen Marie Antoinette, the Royalists, the Girondins, the Hébertists, the Dantonists and his followers, many others Personal effects belonging to Marie-Antoinette.
A paper on which Robespierre had written his signature when he was seized by soldiers of the National Convention. Napoleon's favorite case of toiletries Paintings of early-19th-century Paris A painting depicting one of the most important moments of the July Revolution: The Seizing of the Louvre, 29 July 1830, by Jean-Louis Bézard Marvelous sculptures of Parisians of the time, some realistic portrayals, others caricatures, by Jean-Pierre Dantan The ornate cradle of the imperial prince, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, son of the Emperor Napoleon III and the Empress Eugénie Illustrated posters from the Belle Epoque Realistic paintings of late 19th-century Paris. A gold watch-chronometer that belonged to Émile Zola A painting of the construction of the Statue of Liberty, shipped to the United States in pieces Paintings of the Exposition Universelle, including one of the Eiffel Tower, built for this event, it was used in the 1970 Walt Disney animated film "Aristocats". A reconstruction, with original furniture, of the room where Marcel Proust wrote In search of lost time Photographs of 20th-century Paris by Eugène Atget and Henri Cartier-Bresson A stylized painting of a crowded bistro of the mid-1900s, by the naturalized Japanese artist, Leonard Foujita A photograph in daguerreotype, The Forum of the Halles, taken by two American photographers in 1989 for an exhibit at the Carnavalet celebrating the 150th anniversary of the invention of photography Hôtel de CarnavaletIn 1548, Jacques des Ligneris, President of the Parliament of Paris, ordered the construction of the mansion that came to be known as the Hôtel Carnavalet.
In 1578, the widow of Francois de Kernevenoy, a Breton whose name was rendered in French as Carnavalet, purchased the building. In 1654, the mansion was bought by Claude Boislève, who commissioned the well-known architect, François Mansart, to make extensive renovations. Madame de Sévigné, famous for her letter-writing, lived in the Hôtel Carnavalet from 1677 un
Suzanne Valadon was a French painter and artists' model, born Marie-Clémentine Valadon at Bessines-sur-Gartempe, Haute-Vienne, France. In 1894, Valadon became the first woman painter admitted to the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, she was the mother of painter Maurice Utrillo. The subjects of her drawings and paintings included female nudes, female portraits, still lifes, landscapes, she never was never confined within a tradition. Valadon spent nearly 40 years of her life as an artist. Valadon grew up in poverty with an unmarried laundress. Known to be quite independent and rebellious, she attended primary school until age 11. In 1883, aged 18, Valadon gave birth to Maurice Utrillo. Valadon's mother cared for Maurice. Valadon's friend Miguel Utrillo would sign papers recognizing Maurice as his son, although his true paternity is uncertain. Valadon helped to educate herself in art by reading Toulouse-Lautrec's books and observing the artists at work for whom she posed. In 1893, Valadon began a short-lived affair with composer Erik Satie, moving to a room next to his on the Rue Cortot.
Satie became obsessed with her, calling her his Biqui, writing impassioned notes about "her whole being, lovely eyes, gentle hands, tiny feet", but after six months she left, leaving him devastated. Valadon married the stockbroker Paul Mousis in 1895, living with him for 13 years in an apartment in Paris and in a house in the outlying region. In 1909, Valadon began an affair with the painter André Utter, the 23-year-old friend of her son, divorcing Moussis in 1913. Valadon married Utter in 1914, he managed her career as well as her son's. Valadon and Utter exhibited work together until the couple divorced in 1934. Valadon was well known during her lifetime towards the end of her career. Valadon began working at age 11 in a variety of areas including a milliner's workshop, a factory making funeral wreaths, a market selling vegetables, a waitress, finally in the circus. At the age of 15 Valadon met Count Antoine de la Rochefoucauld and Thèo Wagner, two symbolist painters who were involved in decorating a circus belonging to Medrano.
Through this connection she began work at the Mollier circus as an acrobat until she fell from a trapeze after a year of work. The circus was frequented by artists such as Lautrec and Berthe Morisot and it is believed this is where Morisot did her painting of Valadon. In the Montmartre quarter of Paris, she pursued her interest in art, first working as a model for artists and learning their techniques, before becoming a noted painter herself, she began painting full-time in 1896. Valadon debuted as a model in 1880 in Montmartre at age 15, she modeled for over 10 years for many different artists including Pierre-Cécile Puvis de Chavannes, Théophile Steinlen Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Jean-Jacques Henner, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. She modeled under the name "Maria" being nicknamed "Suzanne" by Toulouse-Lautrec her lover, after the biblical story of Susanna and the Elders as he felt that she liked modelling for older artists, she was considered a focused, rebellious, self-confident, passionate woman.
In the early 1890s, she befriended Edgar Degas who, impressed with her bold line drawings and fine paintings, purchased her work and encouraged her. Art historian Heather Dawkins believed that Valadon's experience as a model added depth to her own images of nude women, which tended to be less idealized than that of the male post impressionists representations; the most recognizable image of Valadon would be in Renoir's Dance at Bougival from 1883, the same year that she posed for Dance in the City. In 1885, Renoir painted her portrait again as Girl Braiding Her Hair. Another of his portraits of her in 1885, Suzanne Valadon, is of her head and shoulders in profile. Valadon frequented the bars and taverns of Paris with her fellow painters, she was Toulouse-Lautrec's subject in his oil painting The Hangover, it is believed that Valadon taught herself how to draw at the age of nine. Valadon painted still lifes, portraits and landscapes that are noted for their strong composition and vibrant colors.
She was, best known for her candid female nudes that depict women's bodies from a woman's perspective. Due to the social norms of the time looking down upon it, Valadon was made famous for her work on the female nude form. Valadon was not confined to a specific style, yet both Symbolist and Post-Impressionist aesthetics are seen within her work. Valadon's earliest surviving signed and dated work is a self-portrait from 1883, drawn in charcoal and pastel, she produced drawings between 1883 and 1893, began painting in 1892. Her first models were family members her son and niece, her earliest known female nude was executed in 1892. In 1895, the art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel exhibited a group of twelve etchings by Valadon that show women in various stages of their toilettes, she showed at Galerie Bernheim-Jeune in Paris. Valadon's first time in the Salon de la Nationale was in 1894, she exhibited in the Salon d'Automne from 1909, Salon des Independants from 1911. Degas was notably the first person to buy drawings from her, he introduced her to other collectors, including Paul Durand-Ruel and Ambroise Vollard.
Degas taught her the skill of soft-ground etching. In 1896, Valadon became a full-time painter after her marriage to the well-to-do banker Paul Mousis, she made a shift from drawing to painting startin
The Porte Saint-Denis is a Parisian monument located in the 10th arrondissement, at the site of one of the gates of the Wall of Charles V, one of Paris' former city walls. It is located at the crossing of the Rue Saint-Denis continued by the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Denis, with the Boulevard de Bonne-Nouvelle and the Boulevard Saint-Denis; the Porte Saint-Denis was a gateway through the Wall of Charles V, built between 1356 and 1383 to protect the Right Bank of Paris. The medieval fortification was surmounted with four towers. Additional portcullises defended the outer gate along with a rock-cut ditch. However, with the advent of gunpowder and the development of cannons and bombards, the walls were partly torn down in the 1640s to make way for the larger and more fortified Louis XIII Wall. In the 1670s, the remaining walls of Charles V were demolished when Paris spread beyond the confines of its medieval boundaries. To replace the old gateway of Porte Saint-Denis, Louis XIV commanded architect François Blondel and the sculptor Michel Anguier to build him a monumental archway that would honor the capture of Franche-Comté in 1668 and the victories on the Rhine during the Franco-Dutch War.
Work was paid for by the city of Paris. A monument defining the official art of its epoque, the Porte Saint-Denis provided the subject of the engraved frontispiece to Blondel's influential Cours d'architecture, 1698, it was restored in 1988. The Porte Saint-Denis was the first of four triumphal arches to be built in Paris; the three others are the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, Porte Saint-Martin, Arc de Triomphe. The Porte Saint-Denis is a triumphal arch inspired by the Arch of Titus in Rome; the monument is 24.65 m high, 25 m wide, 5 m deep. The arch itself is 15.35 m high in the center and 8 m across. The main arch is flanked by obelisks applied to the wall face bearing sculptural groups of trophies of arms. Above the main arch, the southern face carries a sculptural group by Michel Anguier of "The Passage of the Rhine" in a sunk panel, while the north face carries allegorical figures of the Rhine and the Netherlands; the entablature bears the gilded bronze inscription LUDOVICO MAGNO, "To Louis the Great".
Two smaller pedestrian walkways were built through the obelisk pedestals but they have now been closed. The arch is decorated with a variety of sculptures and friezes Porte Saint-Martin Insecula - Porte Saint-Denis
The Conciergerie is a building in Paris, located on the west of the Île de la Cité a prison but presently used for law courts. It was part of the former royal palace, the Palais de la Cité, which consisted of the Conciergerie, Palais de Justice and the Sainte-Chapelle. Hundreds of prisoners during the French Revolution were taken from the Conciergerie to be executed by guillotine at a number of locations around Paris; the west part of the island was the site of a Merovingian palace, was known as the Palais de la Cité. From the 10th to the 14th centuries, it was the main palace of the medieval Kings of France. During the reigns of Louis IX and Philippe IV the Merovingian palace was extended and fortified more extensively. Louis IX added the Sainte-Chapelle and associated galleries, while Philippe IV created the towered facade on the Seine river side and a large hall. Both are excellent examples of French secular architecture of the period; the Sainte-Chapelle was built in the French royal style to house the crown of thorns, brought back from the Crusades and to serve as a royal chapel.
The "Grande Salle" was one of the largest in Europe, its lower story, known as "La Salle des Gens d'Armes" survives at 64m long, 27.5m wide and 8.5m high. It was used as a dining room for the 2,000 staff members, it lit by many windows, now blocked. It was used for royal banquets and judicial proceedings; the neighboring Salle des Gardes was used as an antechamber to the Great Hall above, where the king held his lit de justice. The early Valois kings continued to modify the palace during the 14th century, but Charles V abandoned the palace during 1358, relocating across the river to the Louvre Palace; the palace continued to serve an administrative function and still included the chancellery and French Parliament. In the king's absence, he appointed a concierge to command of the palace, a fact which gave the palace its eventual name. During 1391, part of the building was converted for use as a prison and took its name from the ruling office, its prisoners were a mixture of political prisoners. In common with other prisons of the time, the treatment of prisoners was dependent on their wealth and associates.
Wealthy or influential prisoners got their own cells with a bed and materials for reading and writing. Less-well-off prisoners could afford to pay for furnished cells known as pistoles, which would be equipped with a rough bed and a table; the poorest, known as the pailleux from the paille that they slept on, would be confined to dark, vermin-infested cells known as oubliettes. In keeping with the name, they were left to live or die in conditions that were ideal for the plague and other infectious diseases, which were rife in the unsanitary conditions of the prison. Three towers survive from the medieval Conciergerie: the Caesar Tower, named in honor of the Roman Emperors; the building was extended during the reigns of kings with France's first public clock being installed about 1370. The current clock dates from 1535; the ten month Reign of Terror had a profound effect on France. More than 40,000 people died from execution and imprisonment, France would not be a republic again for nearly half a century.
The National Convention enacted the Law of Suspects on September 17, 1793. This act declared that anyone considered a counter-revolutionary or enemy of the republic was guilty of treason and, condemned to death; the Revolutionary Tribunal was set up in the Palace of Justice. The two fates for those sent before the tribunal were acquittal or death, with no possibility of appeal. Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville, a radical, was named public prosecutor; the Tribunal sat in the Great Hall between 2 April 1793 and 31 May 1795 and sent nearly 2,600 prisoners to the guillotine. The Conciergerie prison became the main penitentiary of a network of prisons throughout Paris, was the last place of housing for more than 2,700 people, who were summarily executed by guillotine; the dank dungeons were a stark contrast to the beautiful architecture of the palace above. The quality of life of the prisoners was based on their personal wealth and the whims of the jailers; the revolutionary period continued the prison's tradition of interning prisoners based on wealth, such that wealthier prisoners could rent a bed for 27 livres 12 sous for the first month, 22 livres 10 sous for subsequent months.
When the price was decreased to 15 livres, the commanders of the prison made a fortune: as the Terror escalated, a prisoner could pay for a bed and be executed a few days freeing the bed for a new inmate who would pay as well. One memoirist termed the Conciergerie "the most lucrative furnished lodgings in Paris". Only celebrity prisoners were assigned cells to themselves. Most of the pistole inmates were stuffed into a single room that abutted a local hospital, making disease an inevitability; the cramped cells were infested with rats, the stench of urine permeated every room. All the prisoners, except those locked in the dungeons, were allowed to walk about the prisoners' gallery from 8 a.m. to an hour before sunset. Roll call was always a tortuous proceeding because many of the jail
The Eiffel Tower is a wrought-iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is built the tower. Constructed from 1887 to 1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was criticised by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world; the Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world. The tower is 324 metres tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building, the tallest structure in Paris, its base is square. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930. Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second tallest free-standing structure in France after the Millau Viaduct.
The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to lift to the first and second levels; the climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is accessible only by lift; the design of the Eiffel Tower is attributed to Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel. It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centrepiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution. Eiffel acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853. In May 1884, working at home, Koechlin made a sketch of their idea, described by him as "a great pylon, consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming together at the top, joined together by metal trusses at regular intervals".
Eiffel showed little enthusiasm, but he did approve further study, the two engineers asked Stephen Sauvestre, the head of company's architectural department, to contribute to the design. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base of the tower, a glass pavilion to the first level, other embellishments; the new version gained Eiffel's support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin and Sauvestre had taken out, the design was exhibited at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of 1884 under the company name. On 30 March 1885, Eiffel presented his plans to the Société des Ingénieurs Civils. Little progress was made until 1886, when Jules Grévy was re-elected as president of France and Édouard Lockroy was appointed as minister for trade. A budget for the exposition was passed and, on 1 May, Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the open competition being held for a centrepiece to the exposition, which made the selection of Eiffel's design a foregone conclusion, as entries had to include a study for a 300 m four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars..
On 12 May, a commission was set up to examine Eiffel's scheme and its rivals, which, a month decided that all the proposals except Eiffel's were either impractical or lacking in details. After some debate about the exact location of the tower, a contract was signed on 8 January 1887; this was signed by Eiffel acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, granted him 1.5 million francs toward the construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated 6.5 million francs. Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the exhibition and for the next 20 years, he established a separate company to manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself. The proposed tower had been a subject of controversy, drawing criticism from those who did not believe it was feasible and those who objected on artistic grounds; these objections were an expression of a long-standing debate in France about the relationship between architecture and engineering.
It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a "Committee of Three Hundred" was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet. A petition called "Artists against the Eiffel Tower" was sent to the Minister of Works and Commissioner for the Exposition, Charles Alphand, it was published by Le Temps on 14 February 1887: We, painters, sculptors and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protest with all our strength, with all our indignation in the name
Institut de France
The Institut de France is a French learned society, grouping five académies, including the Académie française. The Institute, located in Paris, manages 1,000 foundations, as well as museums and châteaux open for visit, it awards prizes and subsidies, which amounted to a total of over €27 million per year in 2017. Most of these prizes are awarded by the Institute on the recommendation of the académies; the building was constructed as the Collège des Quatre-Nations by Cardinal Mazarin, as a school for students from new provinces attached to France under Louis XIV. The Institut de France was established on 25 October 1795, by the French government. In 2017, Xavier Darcos was named the Institut de France's chancellor. Académie française – initiated 1635, suppressed 1793, restored 1803 as a division of the institute. Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres – initiated 1663. Académie des sciences – initiated 1666. Académie des beaux-arts – created 1816 as the merger of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture Académie de musique and Académie d'architecture Académie des sciences morales et politiques – initiated 1795, suppressed 1803, reestablished 1832.
The Royal Society of Canada, initiated 1882, was modeled after the Institut de France and the Royal Society of London. The Lebanese Academy of Sciences, known by its French name "Académie des Sciences du Liban", is broadly fashioned after the French Academy of Sciences, with which it continues to develop joint programs. Collège des Quatre-Nations National academy List of museums in Paris List of honorary societies Media related to Institut de France at Wikimedia Commons Official website Notes on the Institut de France from the Scholarly Societies project
Centre Georges Pompidou
Centre Georges Pompidou shortened to Centre Pompidou and known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil, the Marais. It was designed in the style of high-tech architecture by the architectural team of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, along with Gianfranco Franchini, it houses a vast public library. Because of its location, the Centre is known locally as Beaubourg, it is named after Georges Pompidou, the President of France from 1969 to 1974 who commissioned the building, was opened on 31 January 1977 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. As of 2006, the Centre Pompidou has had over 180 million visitors since 1977 and more than 5,209,678 visitors in 2013, including 3,746,899 for the museum; the sculpture Horizontal by Alexander Calder, a free-standing mobile, 7.6 m tall, was placed in front of the Centre Pompidou in 2012. The idea for a multicultural complex, bringing together in one place different forms of art and literature, developed, in part, from the ideas of France's first Minister of Cultural Affairs, André Malraux, a western proponent of the decentralisation of art and culture by impulse of the political power.
In the 1960s, city planners decided to move the foodmarkets of Les Halles significant structures long prized by Parisians, with the idea that some of the cultural institutes be built in the former market area. Hoping to renew the idea of Paris as a leading city of culture and art, it was proposed to move the Musée d'Art Moderne to this new location. Paris needed a large, free public library, as one did not exist at this time. At first the debate concerned Les Halles, but as the controversy settled, in 1968, President Charles de Gaulle announced the Plateau Beaubourg as the new site for the library. A year in 1969, the new president adopted the Beaubourg project and decided it to be the location of both the new library and a centre for the contemporary arts. In the process of developing the project, the IRCAM was housed in the complex; the Rogers and Piano design was chosen among 681 competition entries. World-renowned architects Oscar Niemeyer, Jean Prouvé and Philip Johnson made up the jury.
It was the first time in France. The selection was announced in 1971 at a "memorable press conference" where the contrast between the sharply-dressed Pompidou and "hairy young crew" of architects represented a "grand bargain between radical architecture and establishment politics." It was the first major example of an'inside-out' building in architectural history, with its structural system, mechanical systems, circulation exposed on the exterior of the building. All of the functional structural elements of the building were colour-coded: green pipes are plumbing, blue ducts are for climate control, electrical wires are encased in yellow, circulation elements and devices for safety are red. According to Piano, the design was meant to be “not a building but a town where you find everything – lunch, great art, a library, great music”. National Geographic described the reaction to the design as "love at second sight." An article in Le Figaro declared "Paris has its own monster, just like the one in Loch Ness."
But two decades while reporting on Rogers' winning the Pritzker Prize in 2007, The New York Times noted that the design of the Centre "turned the architecture world upside down" and that "Mr. Rogers earned a reputation as a high-tech iconoclast with the completion of the 1977 Pompidou Centre, with its exposed skeleton of brightly coloured tubes for mechanical systems; the Pritzker jury said the Pompidou "revolutionised museums, transforming what had once been elite monuments into popular places of social and cultural exchange, woven into the heart of the city." The Centre was built by GTM and completed in 1977. The building cost 993 million French francs. Renovation work conducted from October 1996 to January 2000 was completed on a budget of 576 million francs; the nearby Stravinsky Fountain, on Place Stravinsky, features 16 whimsical moving and water-spraying sculptures by Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint-Phalle, which represent themes and works by composer Igor Stravinsky. The black-painted mechanical sculptures are by the coloured works by de Saint-Phalle.
The fountain opened in 1983. Video footage of the fountain appeared throughout the French language telecourse, French in Action; the Place Georges Pompidou in front of the museum is noted for the presence of street performers, such as mimes and jugglers. In the spring, miniature carnivals are installed temporarily into the place in front with a wide variety of attractions: bands and sketch artists, tables set up for evening dining, skateboarding competitions. By the mid-1980s, the Centre Pompidou was becoming the victim of its huge and unexpected popularity, its many activities, a complex administrative structure; when Dominique Bozo returned to the Centre in 1981 as Director of the Musée National d'Art Moderne, he re-installed the museum, bringing out the full range of its collections and displayed the many major acquisitions, made. By 1992, the Centre de Création Industrielle was incorporated into the Centre Pompidou; the Centre Pompidou was intended to handle 8,000 visitors a day. In its first two decade