Corrupted Blood incident
The Corrupted Blood incident was a virtual pandemic in the MMORPG World of Warcraft, which began on September 13, 2005, lasted for one week. The epidemic began with the introduction of the new raid Zul'Gurub and its end boss Hakkar the Soulflayer; when confronted and attacked, Hakkar would cast a hit point-draining and contagious debuff spell called "Corrupted Blood" on players. The spell, intended to last only seconds and function only within the new area of Zul'Gurub, soon spread across the virtual world by way of an oversight that allowed pets and minions to take the affliction out of its intended confines. By both accidental and purposeful intent, a pandemic ensued that killed lower-level characters and drastically changed normal gameplay, as players did what they could do to avoid infection. Despite measures such as programmer-imposed quarantines, the players' abandoning of densely populated cities, it lasted until a combination of patches and resets of the virtual world controlled the spread.
The conditions and reactions of the event attracted the attention of epidemiologists for its implications of how human populations could react to a real-world epidemic. The epidemic began on September 13, 2005, when Blizzard introduced a new raid called Zul'Gurub into the game as part of a new update, its end boss, Hakkar of Zul'Gurub, could affect players by using a debuff called Corrupted Blood which did a significant amount of damage to the player over time. The disease could be passed on between any nearby characters, would kill characters of lower levels in a few seconds, while higher level characters could keep themselves alive, it would disappear when the character died. Due to a programming error, when hunters or warlocks dismissed their pets, those pets would keep any active debuffs when summoned again. Non-player characters could contract the debuff, could not be killed by it but could still spread it to players. At least three of the game's servers were affected; the difficulty in killing Hakkar may have limited the spread of the disease.
Discussion forum posters described seeing hundreds of bodies lying in the streets of the towns and cities. Deaths in World of Warcraft are not permanent. However, dying in such a way is disadvantageous to the player's character and incurs inconvenience. During the epidemic, normal gameplay was disrupted. Player responses resembled real-world behaviors; some characters with healing abilities volunteered their services, some lower-level characters who could not help would direct people away from infected areas, some characters would flee to uninfected areas, some characters attempted to spread the disease to others. Players in the game reacted to the disease. Blizzard Entertainment attempted to institute a voluntary quarantine to stem the disease, but it failed, as some players didn't take it while others took advantage of the pandemonium. Despite certain security measures, players overcame them by giving the disease to summonable pets. Blizzard was forced to fix the problem by instituting hard resets of the servers and applying quick fixes.
The major towns and cities were abandoned by the population as panic set in and players rushed to evacuate to the relative safety of the countryside, leaving urban areas filled to the brim with corpses, the city streets white with the bones of the dead. The plague ended on October 8, 2005, when Blizzard made pets unable to be affected by Corrupted Blood, thereby rendering it unable to exist outside of Zul'Gurub. At the time, World of Warcraft had more than two million players all over the world. Before Blizzard Entertainment commented on the outbreak, there was debate whether it was intentional or a glitch. On Blizzard's forums, posters were commenting about how it was a fantastic world event, calling it "the day the plague wiped out Ironforge." An editor of a World of Warcraft fan site described it as the first proper world event. After the incident began, Blizzard received calls from angry customers complaining about how they just died; some players abandoned the game altogether. The hard resets were described as a "blunt ending" by Gamasutra.
The people who spread the disease out of malice were described by Security Focus editor Robert Lemos as terrorists of World of Warcraft. He commented. Jeffrey Kaplan—a game designer for World of Warcraft—stated that it gave them ideas for possible real events in the future. Brian Martin—independent security consultant for World of Warcraft—commented that it presented an in-game dynamic, not expected by players or Blizzard developers and that it reminds people that in controlled online atmospheres, unexpected consequences can occur, he compared it to a computer virus, stating that while it is not as serious, it reminds people of the impact computer code can have on them, they're not always safe, regardless of the precautions they take. During one week of October 2008, a zombie plague was spread to promote the second World of Warcraft expansion, Wrath of the Lich King, before its release. Unlike Corrupted Blood, this plague was intentional and was dubbed by an authorized representative of Blizzard Entertainment as the "Great Zombie Plague of'08".
It was compared to Corrupted Blood by The Sunday Times, which described the zombie plague as being more true-to-life. The plague was contagious, but in contrast to Corrupted Blood, which had 100% transmission to nearby characters, being in the vicinity of a character infect
Demon is an English rock band, formed in 1979 by vocalist Dave Hill and guitarist Mal Spooner, both hailing from Leek, Staffordshire. They are considered an important band in the new wave of British heavy metal movement; the original line-up was completed by Chris Ellis and John Wright. The band were signed by Mike Stone's Clay Records in 1980 and licensed to Carrere Records to join their stable of metal bands, their debut album, Night of the Demon, was released in 1981. After their 1982 follow-up album, The Unexpected Guest, the band experimented beyond the NWOBHM sound and moved the band in a more melodic direction whilst still retaining the more traditional heavy metal black magic lyrical style. In 1983 Demon took a change in direction; the Plague marked a swing towards a more progressive sound, adding the keyboards of session musician Andy Richards to the album's sound. Lyrically the band changed direction, switching to a more overtly political style, to characterise their albums for the rest of their career.
The following album, the Pink Floyd influenced British Standard Approved, released on the small independent Clay label, was not a huge commercial success, with the death of Mal Spooner that year, it appeared that the band would soon fold. At this point, the band had recruited a permanent keyboard co-songwriter in Steven Watts; the following release Heart of Our Time showed that the remaining members of the band were determined to continue, it was the start of a new songwriting partnership between Hill and Watts. Although the album is regarded as the weakest of the bands releases, it paved the way for the critically acclaimed Breakout and its follow-up Taking the World by Storm; the band would go on to release two more albums in the 1990s: 1991's Hold onto the Dream and 1992's Blow Out, before splitting up in 1992 which, according to singer and founding member Dave Hill, was because of fatigue. Hill reunited the band with new members in 2001, released a new album called Spaced Out Monkey; the band has since gone onto release a further three albums: Better the Devil You Know and their latest release Cemetery Junction, released on 28 October 2016.
All of the bands post reunion releases have received positive reviews from the press leading the band to go on and play many festivals across Europe Including Bang Your Head festival and Sweden Rock, but embark upon full tours. The band toured with Magnum singer Bob Catley in 2005, in 2018 celebrated the 35th anniversary of The Unexpected Guest by touring the UK, playing all of the songs from the album, plus some other classics. Dave Hill – lead vocals Ray Walmsley – bass, guitars Karl Waye – keyboards Neil Ogden – drums, percussion David Cotterill – guitars Paul Hume – guitars Night of the Demon The Unexpected Guest – UK No. 47 The Plague – UK No. 73 British Standard Approved Heart Of Our Time Breakout Taking The World By Storm Hold on to the Dream Blow-out Spaced out Monkey Better the Devil You Know Unbroken Cemetery Junction Wonderland Demon One Helluva Night Anthology The best of Demon: Volume one The Time Has Come - Best of Demon The Unexpected Guest Tour - Live At Tiffany's 1982 Up Close And Personal!
Live In Germany 2006 List of new wave of British heavy metal bands Official website Demon discography at Discogs
World War III (G.I. Joe)
World War III is the title of a 12-issue comic book story that took place in issues #25-36 of the comic G. I. Joe: America's Elite, published by Devil's Due Publishing; the plot concerns Cobra Command's final attempt to take over the world. Begun to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero franchise, World War III marked the end of the original G. I. Joe comic continuity, begun by Larry Hama in the first G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero comic book series. After Destro and Baroness turn over control of M. A. R. S. to Cobra Commander in exchange for their kidnapped son, he uses the weapons to create conflict all over the globe, in a last bid to gain control of the world. General Joseph Colton responds by being more proactive, he increases the main roster, by returning Cover Girl, Wild Bill, Gung-Ho to active duty, using a threat index that lists all known enemy agents, the Joes start hunting down every member of Cobra that they can find. Flint leads a team to Dagestan, captures Cobra Mortal and Ghost Bear, while Snake Eyes and Scarlett capture Vypra.
Meanwhile, Cobra Commander recruits soldier Nick Bailey, making him the last member of a new elite Cobra unit code-named "The Plague". Lorcan Rourke, aka Agent Delta, comes out of hiding to warn G. I. Joe about World War III, he had been assigned by General Flagg to infiltrate Cobra years ago, but went dark after being unhinged by the experience. The Joes deliver Major Bludd to a prison in Greenland code-named "The Coffin", created to hold all of their captured enemies. Snake Eyes and Scarlett capture Firefly in Japan, while General Colton sends Cover Girl and Shipwreck after Skull Buster. Clutch and Rock'n Roll uncover a Cobra plot in Turkey, Duke receives a message about his father being in trouble. While Duke is taking his father home, Cobra agent Interrogator captures Duke and tries to obtain information on G. I. Joe's Middle East operations. With approval from the President, General Colton contacts nearly every Joe still alive, deploys the team all over the world, including Russia where Lt. Falcon and Vorona team up with her old friends in the Oktober Guard.
Roadblock rescues Duke from Interrogator, while Black Out sneaks onto a Russian sub, kills the crew fires missiles at Boston, causing massive destruction. This leads the President to declare; the main team heads to Israel, where they meet Agent Delta face to face, help stop an assassination attempt. While the team is away, Cobra Commander attacks Washington, D. C. taking over the White House and capturing the President. More Cobra forces attack The Rock, causing General Colton, Jane and Sparks to retreat. Cobra takes over Fort Meade, while Alexander McCullen attacks London and France with the Iron Grenadiers; the Joes in the Middle East run into The Plague. The battle is stalemated, the Joes split up and try to head back to the States. Meanwhile, Storm Shadow gets a mysterious phone call, heads to The Coffin. There he tries to prevent a squad of Night Creepers from freeing all the prisoners. Tomax manages to free Major Bludd and several others, while killing those Cobra Commander considered "loose ends".
Storm Shadow makes Tomax retreat, by threatening to kill his comatose brother Xamot. Tomax leaves with only the prisoners that he's freed. Storm Shadow meets his mystery contact, a Joe disguised as a Cobra Trooper, who gives Storm Shadow information on The Plague. On returning to The Rock, Storm Shadow is tasked with finding Destro and the Baroness, so that they can help disable Cobra's M. A. R. S. Tech devices. Dela Eden, freed from The Coffin by Cobra Commander, is recruited to find Destro and the Baroness, in order to kill them. Zartan discovers. Cobra takes over several nuclear arsenals, including one in England; as a warning, Cobra Commander detonates a nuclear bomb in The Empty Quarter, broadcasts an ultimatum on television for world leaders to accede to his authority, or he will start choosing populated targets. Duke and Agent Delta make it back to New York, they escape. Storm Shadow runs into Dela Eden, he defeats her in battle, finds Destro and the Baroness in Japan, where he convinces them to help.
Billy, Cobra Commander's son, tries to kill him. He fails, Cobra Commander kills him instead, hanging Billy's body from a flagpole, with a message that no one is untouchable. Meanwhile, the mystery undercover Joe helps another undercover Joe steal a M. A. R. S.-modified Night Raven. The main team reunites in Priest Lake, where Storm Shadow arrives with Destro and the Baroness, the Joes find out about a plan by Cobra Commander to blow up nukes in the Amazon and Antarctica; the team splits up, battles The Plague in both locations. The stolen Night Raven is delivered with Barrel Roll being revealed as the pilot. Destro and Firewall disable the M. A. R. S. Tech, giving the Joes victory in the air war in Europe. In the Amazon, the Joes deactivate the nuke, Storm Shadow kills Incision of The Plague; the Antarctic unit is successful. General Colton leads a small unit in retaking Fort Meade, at Spirit's suggestion, they take care of Billy's body. Destro and the Baroness lead her troops, code-named "Athena", in retaking London from Alexander.
The Iron Grenadiers surrender. Alexander tries to walk away, but is shot by Mistress Armada, shot by the Baroness. Meanwhile, Cobra Commander and The Plague retreat to a secret base in the Appalachian Mountains, where the first Cobra soldiers were trained. Agent Delta leads the G. I. Joe team t
A pandemic is an epidemic of disease that has spread across a large region. This may include noncommunicable diseases. A widespread endemic disease, stable in terms of how many people are getting sick from it is not a pandemic. Further, flu pandemics exclude recurrences of seasonal flu. Throughout history, there have been a number such as smallpox and tuberculosis. One of the most devastating pandemics was the Black Death, which killed over 75 million people in 1350; the most recent pandemics include the HIV pandemic as well as the 2009 H1N1 pandemics. A pandemic is an epidemic occurring on a scale which crosses international boundaries affecting a large number of people. Pandemics can occur in important agricultural organisms or in other organisms; the World Health Organization has a six-stage classification that describes the process by which a novel influenza virus moves from the first few infections in humans through to a pandemic. This starts with the virus infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people, ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide and it will be out of control until we stop it.
A disease or condition is not a pandemic because it is widespread or kills many people. For instance, cancer is responsible for many deaths but is not considered a pandemic because the disease is not infectious or contagious. In a virtual press conference in May 2009 on the influenza pandemic, Dr Keiji Fukuda, Assistant Director-General ad interim for Health Security and Environment, WHO said "An easy way to think about pandemic … is to say: a pandemic is a global outbreak. You might ask yourself:'What is a global outbreak'? Global outbreak means that we see both spread of the agent … and we see disease activities in addition to the spread of the virus."In planning for a possible influenza pandemic, the WHO published a document on pandemic preparedness guidance in 1999, revised in 2005 and in February 2009, defining phases and appropriate actions for each phase in an aide memoir entitled WHO pandemic phase descriptions and main actions by phase. The 2009 revision, including definitions of a pandemic and the phases leading to its declaration, were finalized in February 2009.
The pandemic H1N1 2009 virus mentioned in the document. All versions of this document refer to influenza; the phases are defined by the spread of the disease. HIV originated in Africa, spread to the United States via Haiti between 1966 and 1972. AIDS is a pandemic, with infection rates as high as 25% in southern and eastern Africa. In 2006, the HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women in South Africa was 29.1%. Effective education about safer sexual practices and bloodborne infection precautions training have helped to slow down infection rates in several African countries sponsoring national education programs. Infection rates are rising again in Asia and the Americas; the AIDS death toll in Africa may reach 90–100 million by 2025. There have been a number of significant pandemics recorded in human history zoonoses which came about with the domestication of animals, such as influenza and tuberculosis. There have been a number of significant epidemics that deserve mention above the "mere" destruction of cities: Plague of Athens, 430 BC.
Typhoid fever killed a quarter of the Athenian troops, a quarter of the population over four years. This disease fatally weakened the dominance of Athens, but the sheer virulence of the disease prevented its wider spread; the exact cause of the plague was unknown for many years. In January 2006, researchers from the University of Athens analyzed teeth recovered from a mass grave underneath the city, confirmed the presence of bacteria responsible for typhoid. Antonine Plague, 165–180 AD. Smallpox brought to the Italian peninsula by soldiers returning from the Near East. At the height of a second outbreak, the Plague of Cyprian, which may have been the same disease, 5,000 people a day were said to be dying in Rome. Plague of Justinian, from 541 to 750, was the first recorded outbreak of the bubonic plague, it started in Egypt, reached Constantinople the following spring, killing 10,000 a day at its height, 40% of the city's inhabitants. The plague went on to eliminate a quarter to a half of the human population that it struck throughout the known world.
It caused Europe's population to drop by around 50% between 550 and 700. Black Death, from 1331 to 1353; the total number of deaths worldwide is estimated at 75 million people. Eight hundred years after the last outbreak, the plague returned to Europe. Starting in Asia, the disease reached Mediterranean and western Europe in 1348, killed an estimated 20 to 30 million Europeans in six years, it was the first of a cycle of European plague epidemics. There were more than 100 plague epidemics in Europe in this period; the disease recurred in England every two to five years from 1361 to 1480. By the 1370s
Great Plague of London
The Great Plague, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England. It happened within the centuries-long time period of the Second Pandemic, an extended period of intermittent bubonic plague epidemics which originated in China in 1331, the first year of the Black Death, an outbreak which included other forms such as pneumonic plague, lasted until 1750; the Great Plague killed an estimated 100,000 people—almost a quarter of London's population—in 18 months. The plague was caused by the Yersinia pestis bacterium, transmitted through the bite of an infected rat flea; the 1665–66 epidemic was on a far smaller scale than the earlier Black Death pandemic. As in other European cities of the period, the plague was endemic in 17th century London; the disease periodically erupted into massive epidemics. There were 30,000 deaths due to the plague in 1603, 35,000 in 1625, 10,000 in 1636, as well as smaller numbers in other years. During the winter of 1664, a bright comet was to be seen in the sky and the people of London were fearful, wondering what evil event it portended.
London at that time consisted of a city of about 448 acres surrounded by a city wall, built to keep out raiding bands. There were gates at Ludgate, Aldersgate, Cripplegate and Bishopsgate and to the south lay the River Thames and London Bridge. In the poorer parts of the city, hygiene was impossible to maintain in the overcrowded tenements and garrets. There was no sanitation, open drains flowed along the centre of winding streets; the cobbles were slippery with animal dung and the slops thrown out of the houses and buzzing with flies in summer and awash with sewage in winter. The City Corporation employed "rakers" to remove the worst of the filth and it was transported to mounds outside the walls where it accumulated and continued to decompose; the stench was overwhelming and people walked around with handkerchiefs or nosegays pressed against their nostrils. Some of the city's necessities such as coal most came by road. Carts, carriages and pedestrians were crowded together and the gateways in the wall formed bottlenecks through which it was difficult to progress.
The nineteen-arch London Bridge was more congested. The better-off used hackney carriages and sedan chairs to get to their destinations without getting filthy; the poor walked, might be splashed by the wheeled vehicles and drenched by slops being thrown out and water falling from the overhanging roofs. Another hazard was the choking black smoke belching forth from factories which made soap, from breweries and iron smelters and from about 15,000 houses burning coal. Outside the city walls, suburbs had sprung up providing homes for the craftsmen and tradespeople who flocked to the overcrowded city; these were shanty towns with no sanitation. The government had tried to control this development but had failed and over a quarter of a million people lived here. Other immigrants had taken over fine town houses, vacated by Royalists who had fled the country during the Commonwealth, converting them into tenements with different families in every room; these properties became rat-infested slums. Administration of the City of London was organised by the Lord Mayor and common councillors, but not all of the inhabited area comprising London was part of the City.
Both inside the City and outside its boundaries there were Liberties, which were areas of varying sizes, granted rights to self-government. Many had been associated with religious institutions, when these were abolished in the Dissolution of the Monasteries, their historic rights were transferred along with their property to new owners; the walled City was surrounded by a ring of Liberties which had come under its authority, contemporarily called'the City and Liberties', but these were surrounded by further suburbs with varying administrations. Westminster was an independent town with its own liberties, although it was joined to London by urban development; the Tower of London was an independent liberty. Areas north of the river not part of one of these administrations came under the authority of the county of Middlesex, south of the river under Surrey. At that time, bubonic plague was a much feared disease but its cause was not understood; the credulous blamed emanations from the earth, "pestilential effluviums", unusual weather, sickness in livestock, abnormal behaviour of animals or an increase in the numbers of moles, mice or flies.
It was not until 1894 that the identification by Alexandre Yersin of its causal agent Yersinia pestis was made and the transmission of the bacterium by rat fleas became known. Although the Great Plague in London had long been believed to be bubonic plague caused by Yersinia pestis, this was only definitively confirmed by DNA analysis in 2016; the third pandemic of the plague started in 1855 in China and killed about 15 million people in India. In 1894, the plague hit Hong Kong, a major trade port between China and US. In order to judge the severity of an epidemic, it is first necessary to know how big the population was in which it occurred. There was no official census of the population to provide this figure, the best contemporary count comes from the work of John Graunt, one of the earliest Fellows of the Royal Society and one of the first demographers, bringing a scientific approach to the collection of statistics. In 1662, he estimated that 384
La peste (TV series)
La peste is a Spanish historical drama television series created by Alberto Rodríguez and Rafael Cobos for Movistar+. It tells a crime story set in the 16th century Seville during an outbreak of the bubonic plague; the series premiered on 12 January 2018 on Movistar+'s VOD service and on #0. Before it first aired, on 30 September 2017, it was announced that it had been renewed for a second season; the second season will be shot in Almería, from 15 October 2018 to 19 October. "During an outbreak of the bubonic plague in the magnificent Seville of 1597, Mateo, a former soldier, honouring his word to find and extract a dead friend’s son from the city. Mateo had been forced to flee the city to save his life, having been sentenced to death by the Inquisition for printing forbidden books. Before he can complete his task, Mateo is arrested by the Inquisitor’s bailiffs, who promise to pardon his life in exchange for solving a series of crimes of diabolic overtones being committed in Seville." La peste on IMDb La peste on Filmaffinity
Third plague pandemic
Third Pandemic is the designation of a major bubonic plague pandemic that began in Yunnan province in China in 1855. This episode of bubonic plague spread to all inhabited continents, more than 12 million people died in India and China, with about 10 million killed in India alone. According to the World Health Organization, the pandemic was considered active until 1960, when worldwide casualties dropped to 200 per year; the name refers to this pandemic being the third major bubonic plague outbreak to affect European society. The first was the Plague of Justinian, which ravaged the Byzantine Empire and surrounding areas in 541 and 542; the second was the Black Death, which killed at least one third of Europe's population in a series of expanding waves of infection from 1346 to 1353. Casualty patterns indicate that waves of this late-19th-century/early-20th-century pandemic may have been from two different sources; the first was bubonic and was carried around the world through ocean-going trade, through transporting infected persons and cargoes harboring fleas.
The second, more virulent strain, was pneumonic in character with a strong person-to-person contagion. This strain was confined to Asia, in particular Manchuria and Mongolia; the bubonic plague was endemic in populations of infected ground rodents in central Asia, was a known cause of death among migrant and established human populations in that region for centuries. An influx of new people due to political conflicts and global trade led to the distribution of this disease throughout the world. A natural reservoir or nidus for plague is located in western Yunnan and is an ongoing health risk today; the third pandemic of plague originated in this area after a rapid influx of Han Chinese to exploit the demand for minerals copper, in the latter half of the eighteenth century. By 1850, the population had exploded to over 7 million people. Increasing transportation throughout the region brought people in contact with plague-infected fleas, the primary vector between the yellow-breasted rat and humans.
People brought the fleas and rats back into growing urban areas, where small outbreaks sometimes reached epidemic proportions. The plague spread further after disputes between Han Chinese and Hui Muslim miners in the early 1850s erupted into a violent uprising known as the Panthay rebellion, which led to further displacements; the outbreak of the plague helped recruit people into the Taiping Rebellion. In the latter half of the nineteenth century the plague began to appear in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces, Hainan Island, the Pearl River delta including Canton and Hong Kong. While William McNeil and others thought that the plague was brought from the interior to the coastal regions by troops returning from battles against the Muslim rebels, Benedict suggests that the evidence favors the growing and lucrative opium trade that began after about 1840. In the city of Canton, beginning in March 1894, the disease killed 60,000 people in a few weeks. Daily water-traffic with the nearby city of Hong Kong spread the plague.
Within two months, after 100,000 deaths, the death rates dropped below epidemic rates, although the disease continued to be endemic in Hong Kong until 1929. The plague, brought from Hong Kong to British India, killed about 10 million in India,it also killed another 12.5 million in the British colony India in the next following thirty years. All cases were bubonic, with only a small percentage changing to pneumonic plague; the disease was seen in port cities, beginning with Bombay, but emerged in Pune and Karachi. By 1899, the outbreak spread to rural areas in many regions of India. Overall, the impact of plague epidemics was greatest in western and northern India—in the provinces designated as Bombay and the United Provinces—while eastern and southern India were not as badly affected; the colonial government's measures to control the disease included quarantine, isolation camps, travel restrictions and the exclusion of India's traditional medical practices. Restrictions on the populations of the coastal cities were established by Special Plague Committees with overreaching powers, enforced by the British military.
Indians found these measures culturally intrusive and, in general and tyrannical. Government strategies of plague control underwent significant changes during 1898–1899. By that time, it was apparent that the use of force in enforcing plague regulations was proving counter-productive and, now that the plague had spread to rural areas, enforcement in larger geographic areas would be impossible. At this time, British health officials began to press for widespread vaccination using Waldemar Haffkine’s plague vaccine, although the government stressed that inoculation was not compulsory. British authorities authorized the inclusion of practitioners of indigenous systems of medicine into plague prevention programs. Repressive government actions to control the plague led the Pune nationalists to criticise the government publicly. On 22 June 1897, the Chapekar brothers, young Pune Hindus and killed Walter Charles Rand, an Indian Civil Services officer acting as Pune Special Plague Committee chairman, his military escort, Lieutenant Ayerst.
The action of the Chapekars was seen as terrorism. The government found the nationalist press guilty of incitement. Independence activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak was charged with sedition for his writings as editor of the Kesari newspaper, he was sentenced to eighteen months rigorous imprisonment. Public reaction to the health measures enacted by the British Indian stat