Canton of Geneva
The Republic and Canton of Geneva is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on all sides by France. As is the case in several other Swiss cantons, this canton is referred to as a republic within the Swiss Confederation; the canton of Geneva is located in the southwestern corner of Switzerland and is considered one of the most cosmopolitan areas of the country. As a center of the Calvinist Reformation, the city of Geneva has had a great influence on the canton, which consists of the city and its hinterlands. Geneva was controlled by the Allobroges tribe until 121 BC, it was annexed to the Roman Empire in 121 BC and remained part of it until 443. In 443, Burgundians took over Geneva. In 532, the land controlled by Burgundians became part of the Frankish Empire. Geneva became a part of the Kingdom of Burgundy in 888. Geneva became a part of the Holy Roman Empire in 1032 and remained in it until the Peace of Westphalia; the Prince-Bishopric of Geneva was a Prince-Bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire from 1154, but from 1290, secular authority over the citizens was divided from the bishop's authority, at first only lower jurisdiction, the office of vidame given to François de Candie in 1314, but from 1387 the bishops granted the citizens of Geneva full communal self-government.
As from 1416, the Dukes of Savoy attempted to annex the city, both by claiming secular authority and by installing members of the Savoy dynasty as bishops, the city sought assistance in allying itself with the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Republic of Geneva was proclaimed in 1541, under John Calvin, given a constitution in 1543; the Republic of Geneva reinforced its alliance to the Protestant cantons of the Swiss Confederacy, becoming an "everlasting ally" in 1584. The French Revolution reached Geneva in 1792, in February 1794, the Republic gave itself a new, revolutionary constitution which proclaimed the equality of all citizens. After the death of Robespierre in July of the same year, there was a counter-revolution, which gained the upper hand by 1796. Robespierre's death prompted the French invasion of 1798, the annexation of Geneva which became the capital of the French département du Léman; the Napoleonic army left Geneva on December 30, 1813, on the next day the return of the Republic was proclaimed.
Geneva joined the Swiss Confederation in 1815 as the 22nd canton, having been enlarged by French and Savoyard territories at the Congress of Vienna. The area of the canton of Geneva is 282 square kilometers; the canton is surrounded on all sides by France and bordered by the Swiss canton of Vaud on the northeast. The adjoining French départements are Haute-Savoie; the current boundaries of the canton were established in 1815. There are 45 municipalities in the canton. Geneva does not have any administrative districts. There are 13 cities with a population of over 10,000 as of 2017: Genève, 200,548 residents Vernier, 35,132 residents Lancy, 31,942 residents Meyrin, 24,144 residents Carouge, 22,336 residents Onex, 18,977 residents Thônex, 14,091 residents Versoix, 13,329 residents Le Grand-Saconnex, 12,131 residents Chêne-Bougeries, 11,862 residents Veyrier, 11,540 residents Plan-les-Ouates, 10,697 residents Bernex, 10,007 residents The constitution of the canton was established in 1847 and has, since been amended several times.
The cantonal government has seven members. The legislature, the Grand Council, has 100 seats, with deputies elected for four years at a time; the last election was held on 7 October 2013. In a similar way to what happens at the Federal level, any change to the Constitution is subject to compulsory referendum. In addition, any law can be subject to a referendum if it is demanded by 7,000 persons entitled to vote, 10,000 persons may propose a new law; the Republique and Canton of Geneva has 11 seats in the National Council. On 18 October 2015, in the federal election the most popular party was The Liberals which received three seats with 20.5% of the votes. The next two most popular parties were the Social Democratic Party with 3 seats, followed by UDC/SVP with two seats, the Christian Democratic People's Party, Green Party, the Geneva Citizens' Movement each with one seat. In the federal election, a total of 106,852 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 42.9%. On 8/16 November 2015, in the federal election, Councilor Liliane Maury Pasquier, member of the Social Democratic Party, was re-elected in the second round as Conseillère des États of the canton of Geneva with a majority of 44,215 votes.
She is part of the Council of States since 2007. Councilor Robert Cramer, member of the Green Party, was re-elected in the second round with a majority of 42,075 votes, he is part of the Council of States since 2007. ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^ b" *" indicates. ^c Part of the FDP for this election ^d Combined with the SD for this election The population of the canton is 495,249. As of 2013, the population included 194,623 foreigners from 187 different nations, or about 40.1% of the total population. The population of the canton, as of December
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley was an English novelist who wrote the Gothic novel Frankenstein. She edited and promoted the works of her husband, the Romantic poet and philosopher Percy Bysshe Shelley, her father was the political philosopher William Godwin, her mother was the philosopher and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft. After Wollstonecraft's death less than a month after her daughter Mary was born, Mary was raised by Godwin, able to provide his daughter with a rich, if informal, encouraging her to adhere to his own anarchist political theories; when Mary was four, her father married a neighbour, with whom, as her stepmother, Mary came to have a troubled relationship. In 1814, Mary began a romance with one of her father's political followers, Percy Bysshe Shelley, married. Together with Mary's stepsister Claire Clairmont and Shelley left for France and travelled through Europe. Upon their return to England, Mary was pregnant with Percy's child. Over the next two years and Percy faced ostracism, constant debt, the death of their prematurely born daughter.
They married after the suicide of Percy Shelley's first wife, Harriet. In 1816, the couple famously spent a summer with Lord Byron, John William Polidori, Claire Clairmont near Geneva, where Mary conceived the idea for her novel Frankenstein; the Shelleys left Britain in 1818 for Italy, where their second and third children died before Mary Shelley gave birth to her last and only surviving child, Percy Florence Shelley. In 1822, her husband drowned. A year Mary Shelley returned to England and from on devoted herself to the upbringing of her son and a career as a professional author; the last decade of her life was dogged by illness, most caused by the brain tumour which killed her at age 53. Until the 1970s, Mary Shelley was known for her efforts to publish her husband's works and for her novel Frankenstein, which remains read and has inspired many theatrical and film adaptations. Recent scholarship has yielded a more comprehensive view of Mary Shelley's achievements. Scholars have shown increasing interest in her literary output in her novels, which include the historical novels Valperga and Perkin Warbeck, the apocalyptic novel The Last Man, her final two novels and Falkner.
Studies of her lesser-known works, such as the travel book Rambles in Germany and Italy and the biographical articles for Dionysius Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia, support the growing view that Mary Shelley remained a political radical throughout her life. Mary Shelley's works argue that cooperation and sympathy as practised by women in the family, were the ways to reform civil society; this view was a direct challenge to the individualistic Romantic ethos promoted by Percy Shelley and the Enlightenment political theories articulated by her father, William Godwin. Mary Shelley was born Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin in Somers Town, London, in 1797, she was the second child of the feminist philosopher and writer Mary Wollstonecraft, the first child of the philosopher and journalist William Godwin. Wollstonecraft died of puerperal fever shortly. Godwin was left to bring up Mary, along with her older half-sister, Fanny Imlay, Wollstonecraft's child by the American speculator Gilbert Imlay. A year after Wollstonecraft's death, Godwin published his Memoirs of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, which he intended as a sincere and compassionate tribute.
However, because the Memoirs revealed Wollstonecraft's affairs and her illegitimate child, they were seen as shocking. Mary Godwin read these memoirs and her mother's books, was brought up to cherish her mother's memory. Mary's earliest years were happy, judging from the letters of William Godwin's housekeeper and nurse, Louisa Jones, but Godwin was deeply in debt. In December 1801, he married Mary Jane Clairmont, a well-educated woman with two young children of her own—Charles and Claire. Most of Godwin's friends disliked his new wife, describing her as quarrelsome. Mary Godwin, on the other hand, came to detest her stepmother. William Godwin's 19th-century biographer Charles Kegan Paul suggested that Mrs Godwin had favoured her own children over those of Mary Wollstonecraft. Together, the Godwins started a publishing firm called M. J. Godwin, which sold children's books as well as stationery and games. However, the business did not turn a profit, Godwin was forced to borrow substantial sums to keep it going.
He continued compounding his problems. By 1809, Godwin's business was close to failure, he was "near to despair". Godwin was saved from debtor's prison by philosophical devotees such as Francis Place, who lent him further money. Though Mary Godwin received little formal education, her father tutored her in a broad range of subjects, he took the children on educational outings, they had access to his library and to the many intellectuals who visited him, including the Romantic poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge and the former vice-president of the United States Aaron Burr. Godwin admitted he was not educating the children according to Mary Wollstonecraft's philosophy as outlined in works such as A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, but Mary Godwin nonetheless received an unusual and advanced education for a girl of the time, she had a governess, a daily tuto
Geneva fusillade of 9 November 1932
On 9 November 1932, elements of the Swiss Army under Major Perret fired live rounds into a crowd of anti-fascist protesters in Plainpalais in Geneva, killing 13 and wounding 65. The shooting occurred on a background of increasing violence between far-right and far-left groups, of rising totalitarian regimes, of unemployement and economic crisis in Europe; the incident stemmed from inappropriate crowd control tactics, excitation of the antimilitarist protesters after a speech by socialist leader Léon Nicole, a series of incompetent orders, a force made up of improperly trained officers and soldiers — who had only had six weeks of military training before their deployment. How events unfolded and who bears responsibility for them is still a matter of debate. A commemorative monument was unveiled on 9 November 1982 for the 50th anniversary of the shooting on the Southern end of Plainpalais, near the place of the events. On 10 September 2008, the State Council of Geneva authorised the monument to be moved in front of the University of Geneva, on the exact spot of the shooting.
The 1930 cantonal elections had given 37 legislative seats of the Grand Conseil to the Socialist Party of Geneva, but none in the executive at the Conseil d'État. The political climate was deteriorated by a series of scandals such as that of the Bank of Geneva, which bankrupted owners of small portfolios, compromised traditional right-wing parties, led a Radical council member to resign. In December 1930, Georges "Géo" Oltramare founded the Ordre politique national, a fascist political party, whose virulent anti-Marxist stance seduced a part of the bourgeoisie in Geneva. On 24 June 1932, the OPN merged with the Union de défense économique, a political party of industry owners, creating the Union nationale; the new party promoted a fascistic programme of a strong State, economic corporatism and persecution of Marxists and Jews. It had a paramilitary structure, with fascist-style ceremonial and discipline: its members would wear a uniform and parade with music; the Party had one member at the Conseil d'État, seating alongside Democrats.
The Party held rallies attacking Léon Nicole's Socialist Party, Jacques Dicker, the whole of the worker's Unions and the left-wing parties of Geneva. Street brawls occurred between those of the Union nationale. Left-wing politics were dominated by the Socialist Party, whose leader Nicole and theoretician Dicker favoured an alliance with the Communists; the shooting revealed lines of fracture within the Socialist movement, as well as within the Workers' Unions, with a reformist wing led by Charles Rosselet and an anarchist wing led by Lucien Tronchet. Conventional right-wing forces were in danger both of being marginalised by the Union nationale, of being defeated by the Socialist Party. In the night of 5 to 6 November, a Union nationale pamphlet appeared to advertise a mock trial against Socialist leaders Nicole and Dicker, to be held on 9 November at 8:30 PM in the communal room at Plainpalais. On 6, the Socialist Party requested the meeting to be banned, which the Democratic State councilor in charge of Justice and Police, Frédéric Martin, stating: "right of reunion is a sacred freedom and we will not allow it to be compromised" On the 7th, the Socialist newspaper Le Travail called for a demonstration: "Fascist scum attempts to roam in Geneva they will find their match.
We will fight them with the weapons that they have chosen themselves." On the same day, anonymous pamphlet answered: "the infamous Nicoulaz, the Jew Dicker and their mob are preparing for civil war. They are the lackeys of the Soviets. Let us strike them down! Down with the revolutionary scum!" The next day, the Administrative Council of Geneva announced. The General Assembly of the Socialist Party decided to organise a counter-protest within the communal hall. Militants equipped with whistles and pepper to cover the sound of the fascist meeting and to blind policemen and the Union national security staff. On 9 November at 7 AM, Frédéric Martin recalled General procuror Charles Cornu, traveling in Paris, to Geneva. At 11:05, the Conseil d'État, warned by the chief of the Police that there was insufficient personnel available to prevent a riot — 241 gendarmes, 48 rural guards and 62 security agents — decided to deploy the Army. At 11:30, Martin gave, he agreed to task the III/I boot camp of Lausanne, with 610 fresh recruits and about 30 officers under Major Ernest Léderrey with the mission.
Recruits were told that "Revolution issued live ammunition. Four soldiers who refused to obey were arrested. At 17:30, under the authority of a Federal intervention, the recruits settled in the barracks of Boulevard Carl-Vogt. Late in the afternoon, the first counter-protesters — 4 000 to 5 000 overall — gathered at Plainpalais, some clashing with the gendarmes who, from 5PM, had started to bar people from entering the communal hall without an invitation from the Union nationale. Though the neigtbouring streets were cordoned off from 6:45, a few Socialists and Anarchists managed to gain access, only to be expelled. Nicole climbed on the shoulders of a militant to address the crowd. At 8:30, the Union nationale meeting started as planned, while outside the hall some of the police cordon started to breach and give way to counter-protestors. At 9:15PM, the 108-man strong first Company moved towards the communal hall upon request from Counselor Martin to reinf
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Frankenstein. Shelley started writing the story when she was 18, the first edition of the novel was published anonymously in London on 1 January 1818, when she was 20, her name first appeared on the second edition, published in 1823. Shelley travelled through Europe in 1814, journeying along the river Rhine in Germany with a stop in Gernsheim, 17 kilometres away from Frankenstein Castle, two centuries before, an alchemist was engaged in experiments, she travelled in the region of Geneva —where much of the story takes place—and the topic of galvanism and occult ideas were themes of conversation among her companions her lover and future husband, Percy Shelley. Mary and Lord Byron decided to have a competition to see who could write the best horror story. After thinking for days, Shelley dreamt about a scientist who created life and was horrified by what he had made. Frankenstein is infused with elements of the Romantic movement. At the same time, it is an early example of science fiction. Brian Aldiss has argued that it should be considered the first true science fiction story because, in contrast to previous stories with fantastical elements resembling those of science fiction, the central character "makes a deliberate decision" and "turns to modern experiments in the laboratory" to achieve fantastic results.
It has had a considerable influence in literature and popular culture and spawned a complete genre of horror stories and plays. Since the novel's publication, the name "Frankenstein" has been used to refer to the monster itself; this usage is considered erroneous, but some commentators regard it as well-established and acceptable. In the novel, Frankenstein's creation is identified by words such as "creature", "monster", "daemon", "wretch", "abortion", "fiend" and "it". Speaking to Victor Frankenstein, the monster says "I ought to be thy Adam, but I am rather the fallen angel". Frankenstein is written in the form of a frame story that starts with Captain Robert Walton writing letters to his sister, it takes place at an unspecified time in the 18th century, as the letters' dates are given as "17—". In the story following the letters by Walton, the readers find that Victor Frankenstein creates a monster that brings tragedy to his life; the novel Frankenstein is written in epistolary form, documenting a fictional correspondence between Captain Robert Walton and his sister, Margaret Walton Saville.
Walton is a failed writer and captain who sets out to explore the North Pole and expand his scientific knowledge in hopes of achieving fame. During the voyage, the crew spots a dog sled driven by a gigantic figure. A few hours the crew rescues a nearly frozen and emaciated man named Victor Frankenstein. Frankenstein has been in pursuit of the gigantic man observed by Walton's crew. Frankenstein starts to recover from his exertion; the recounted story serves as the frame for Frankenstein's narrative. Victor begins by telling of his childhood. Born in Naples, into a wealthy Genevan family and his brothers and William, all three being sons of Alphonse Frankenstein by the former Caroline Beaufort, are encouraged to seek a greater understanding of the world through chemistry; as a young boy, Victor is obsessed with studying outdated theories that focus on simulating natural wonders. When Victor is five years old, his parents adopt Elizabeth Lavenza, the orphaned daughter of an expropriated Italian nobleman, with whom Victor falls in love.
During this period, Victor's parents and Caroline, take in yet another orphan, Justine Moritz, who becomes William's nanny. Weeks before he leaves for the University of Ingolstadt in Germany, his mother dies of scarlet fever. At the university, he excels at chemistry and other sciences, soon developing a secret technique to impart life to non-living matter, he undertakes the creation of a humanoid, but due to the difficulty in replicating the minute parts of the human body, Victor makes the Creature tall, about 8 feet in height and proportionally large. Despite Victor's selecting its features as beautiful, upon animation the creature is instead hideous, with watery white eyes and yellow skin that conceals the muscles and blood vessels underneath. Repulsed by his work, Victor flees. While wandering the streets, he meets his childhood friend, Henry Clerval, takes Henry back to his apartment, fearful of Henry's reaction if he sees the monster. However, the Creature has escaped. Victor is nursed back to health by Henry.
After a four-month recovery, he receives a letter from his father notifying him of the murder of his brother William. Upon arriving in Geneva, Victor sees the Creature near the crime scene and climbing a mountain, leading him to believe his creation is responsible. Justine Moritz, William's nanny, is convicted of the crime after William's locket, which had contained a miniature portrait of Caroline, is found in her pocket. Victor is helpless to stop her from being hanged. Ravaged by grief and guilt, Victor retreats into the mountains; the Creature finds him and pl
Municipalities of the canton of Geneva
The following are the 45 municipalities of the canton of Geneva, as of 2017
Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist and translator, a key figure in Spanish-language and universal literature. His best-known books, Ficciones and El Aleph, published in the 1940s, are compilations of short stories interconnected by common themes, including dreams, philosophy, mirrors, fictional writers, mythology. Borges' works have contributed to philosophical literature and the fantasy genre, have been considered by some critics to mark the beginning of the magic realist movement in 20th century Latin American literature, his late poems converse with such cultural figures as Spinoza, Camões, Virgil. Born in a suburb of Buenos Aires, Borges moved with his family to Switzerland in 1914, where he studied at the Collège de Genève; the family travelled in Europe, including Spain. On his return to Argentina in 1921, Borges began publishing his poems and essays in surrealist literary journals, he worked as a librarian and public lecturer. In 1955, he was appointed director of the National Public Library and professor of English Literature at the University of Buenos Aires.
He became blind by the age of 55. Scholars have suggested that his progressive blindness helped him to create innovative literary symbols through imagination. By the 1960s, his work was translated and published in the United States and Europe. Borges himself was fluent in several languages. In 1961, he came to international attention when he received the first Formentor prize, which he shared with Samuel Beckett. In 1971, he won the Jerusalem Prize, his international reputation was consolidated in the 1960s, aided by his works being available in English, by the Latin American Boom and by the success of García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude. He dedicated The Conspirators, to the city of Geneva, Switzerland. Writer and essayist J. M. Coetzee said of him: "He, more than anyone, renovated the language of fiction and thus opened the way to a remarkable generation of Spanish American novelists." Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo was born into an educated middle-class family on 24 August 1899.
They were in comfortable circumstances but not wealthy enough to live in downtown Buenos Aires so the family resided in Palermo a poorer suburb. Borges's mother, Leonor Acevedo Suárez, came from a traditional Uruguayan family of criollo origin, her family had been much involved in the European settling of South America and the Argentine War of Independence, she spoke of their heroic actions. His 1929 book, Cuaderno San Martín, includes the poem "Isidoro Acevedo", commemorating his grandfather, Isidoro de Acevedo Laprida, a soldier of the Buenos Aires Army. A descendant of the Argentine lawyer and politician Francisco Narciso de Laprida, de Acevedo Laprida fought in the battles of Cepeda in 1859, Pavón in 1861, Los Corrales in 1880. De Acevedo Laprida died of pulmonary congestion in the house where his grandson Jorge Luis Borges was born. Borges's own father, Jorge Guillermo Borges Haslam was a lawyer, wrote a novel El caudillo in 1921. Borges Haslam was born in Entre Rios of Spanish and English descent, the son of Francisco Borges Lafinur, a colonel, Frances Ann Haslam, an Englishwoman.
Borges Haslam grew up speaking English at home. The family traveled to Europe. Borges Haslam wed Leonor Acevedo Suarez in 1898 and was father of the painter Norah Borges, sister of Jorge Luis Borges. At age nine, Jorge Luis Borges translated Oscar Wilde's The Happy Prince into Spanish, it was published in a local journal. Borges Haslam was a psychology teacher who harboured literary aspirations. Borges said his father "tried to become a writer and failed in the attempt", despite the 1921 opus El caudillo. Jorge Luis Borges wrote, "as most of my people had been soldiers and I knew I would never be, I felt ashamed, quite early, to be a bookish kind of person and not a man of action."Jorge Luis Borges was taught at home until the age of 11, was bilingual in Spanish and English, reading Shakespeare in the latter at the age of twelve. The family lived in a large house with an English library of over one thousand volumes. In 1914, the family moved to Geneva and spent the next decade in Europe. Borges Haslam was treated by a Geneva eye specialist, while Jorge Luis and his sister Norah attended school.
He read Thomas Carlyle in English, he began to read philosophy in German. In 1917, when he was eighteen, he met writer Maurice Abramowicz and began a literary friendship that would last for the remainder of his life, he received his baccalauréat from the Collège de Genève in 1918. The Borges family decided that, due to political unrest in Argentina, they would remain in Switzerland during the war. After World War I, the family spent three years living in various cities: Lugano, Majorca and Madrid, they remained in Europe until 1921. At that time, Borges discovered the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer and Gustav Meyrink's The Golem which became influential to his work. In Spain, Borges fell in with and became a member of the avant-garde, anti-Modernismo Ultraist literary movement, inspired by Guillaume Apollinaire and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, close to the Imagists, his first poem, "Hymn to the Sea," written in the style of Walt Whit