A partisan is a type of polearm, used in Europe in the Middle Ages. It consisted of a spearhead mounted on a long shaft wooden, with protrusions on the sides which aided in parrying sword thrusts. Like the halberd, it became obsolete with the arrival of practical firearms, although it stayed in use for many years as a ceremonial weapon. In profile, the head of a partisan may look similar to that of a ranseur, spontoon, ox tongue, or spetum. By the character Marcellus, in William Shakespeare's play Hamlet the partisan gets brief mention in Act I, Scene 1, Marcellus: Shall I strike at it with my partisan
A fauchard is a type of polearm weapon, used in medieval Europe from the 11th through the 17th centuries. In use fauchards became ornamental and ceremonial, growing in size until some examples were too heavy to carry, let alone use; the design consisted of a curved blade atop a long pole, although in some portrayals, it is shown on a shorter pole. The blade bore a moderate to strong curve along its length; the cutting edge was only unlike the guisarme or bill. The fauchard was developed from the war scythe with the cutting edge turned opposite, convex instead of concave, so that the weapon was good for both thrusting and slashing attacks. Pole arms developed from few early tools and the spear, thus naming of early forms, is difficult. Fauchard, as a name, may have been used to describe various arms; the sovnya may have been a localized term for the same medieval weapon. In historical text, the terms glaive and fauchard are used to describe the same weapons. Over time, the form evolved and elements from other pole-arms were included in the fauchard, such as prongs to parry weapons and hook armor, complicating naming further.
Some historians ignore the other entirely. The form of contemporary Asian pole arms has led to speculation that one could have influenced the other as regional trade brought the cultures together. From the Dictionnaire Encyclopédique Larousse: Fauchard: A large iron "hand weapon" with the form of a bill, the back, opposite to the longest curve, is straight or concave, while the cutting edge is convex; the fauchard differs from the guisarme by the direction of its edge and its point projected in the rear, of the war scythe by the dimension and the nature of the curves. The old fauchards carry on their backs horizontal bumps or hooks directed from top to bottom and used to pull people by the projections of their armor; the length of the shaft varied that of the iron 1 to 2 feet. The fauchard is a weapon of a foot soldier, in use from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century, it is difficult to make the exact departure between the recent fauchards, which until the eighteenth century remained in use as a weapon of ramparts, the war scythes, couteau de breche, etc.
The fauchard was described in the Poem of the Combat of the Thirty: "Huceton of Clamanban fought with a fauchart / Which was cutting on one side, hooked on the other side"
A sovnya is a traditional polearm used in Russia. Similar to the glaive, the sovnya had a curved, single-edged blade mounted on the end of a long pole; this was a popular weapon with late-medieval Muscovite cavalry and retained use until the mid-17th century. Timeline of Russian innovation Viskovatov, Aleksandr. "II. Вооружение временных войск". Историческое описание одежды и вооружения российских войск. 1. Moscow: Kuchkovo Pole
A glaive is a European polearm, consisting of a single-edged blade on the end of a pole. It is similar to the Japanese naginata, the Chinese guandao and pudao, Russian sovnya and Siberian palma; the blade is around 45 centimetres long, on the end of a pole 2 metres long, the blade is affixed in a socket-shaft configuration similar to an axe head, rather than having a tang like a sword or naginata. Glaive blades were created with a small hook on the reverse side to better catch riders; such blades are called glaive-guisarmes. According to the 1599 treatise Paradoxes of Defence by the English gentleman George Silver, the glaive is used in the same general manner as the quarterstaff, half pike, halberd, voulge, or partisan. Silver rated this class of polearms above all other individual hand-to-hand combat weapons; the Maciejowski Bible depicts an example of a two-handed glaive used on horseback. The contemporary term for this weapon may have been faussart, used for a variety of single-edged weapons seen as related to the scythe.
It has been argued that the glaive had its origin in Wales, that it remained a national weapon until the end of the XVth Century. Grose mentions a warrant issued to Nicholas Spicer, dated the first year of Richard III's reign, 1483 for enrolling of smiths for "the making of two hundred Welsh glaives" – twenty shillings and sixpence being the charge for thirty glaives with their staves, made at Abergavenny and Llanllowel; the word "glaive" has been given to several different types of weapons. The word "glaive" originated from French. All etymologists derive it from either the Latin or Celtic word for sword. All the earliest attestations in both French and English refer to spears, it is attested in this meaning in English from the 14th century to the 16th. In the 15th century, it acquired. Around the same time it began being used as a poetic word for sword; the term "glaive" is used in the science fiction/fantasy film Krull to refer to a thrown weapon, similar to the chakram or hunga munga, which can return to the thrower, much like a boomerang).
"Glaive" has been used to describe this fictional type of weapon in films, video games and other fantasy media since. Champagne saucers are colloquially termed glaives; the name refers to the traditional wine glass being'glaived', resulting in a shorter than normal glass
The corseque is a type of European pole weapon, characterised by a three-lobe blade on a 1.8 to 2.5-metre shaft. The head features two shorter and stronger lateral blades; the Corseque is said to have originated in Corsica, from. It would have evolved from the spetum in the Middle Ages, it was popular in Europe in the 17th centuries. Surviving examples have a variety of head forms, but there are two main variants, one with the side blades branching from the neck of the central blade at 45 degrees, the other with hooked blades curving back towards the haft; the corseque is associated with the rawcon and runka. Another possible association is with the "three-grayned staff" listed as being in the armoury of Henry VIII in 1547. Another modern term used for ornate-bladed corseques is the chauve-souris
The dagger-axe or ge is a type of pole weapon, in use from the Shang dynasty until the Han dynasty in China. It consists of a dagger-shaped blade, mounted by its tang to a perpendicular wooden shaft; the earliest dagger-axe blades were made of stone. Versions used bronze. Jade versions were made for ceremonial use. There is a variant type with a divided two-part head, consisting of the usual straight blade and a scythe-like blade; the dagger-axe was the first weapon in Chinese history, not a dual-use tool for hunting or agriculture. Lacking a point for thrusting, the dagger-axe was used in the open where there was enough room to swing its long shaft, its appearance on the Chinese battlefield predated the use of chariots and the dominance of packed infantry formations. During the Zhou dynasty, the ji or Chinese halberd became more common on the battlefield; the ji was developed from the dagger-axe by adding a spear head to the top of the shaft, thereby enabling the weapon to be used with a thrusting motion as well as a swinging motion.
Versions of the ji, starting in the Spring and Autumn period, combined the dagger-axe blade and spear head into a single piece. By the Han dynasty, the more versatile ji had replaced the dagger-axe as a standard infantry weapon; the ji itself was replaced by the spear as the primary polearm of the Chinese military. By the Warring States period, large masses of infantry fighting in close ranks using the spear or ji had displaced the small groups of aristocrats on foot or mounted in chariots who had dominated the battlefield. Many excavated dagger-axes are ceremonial jade weapons found in the tombs of aristocrats; these examples are found within the coffins themselves meant to serve as emblems of authority and power, or in some other ritualistic capacity. Sometimes they are found in a pit dug beneath a coffin, with a victim, sacrificed to guard the tomb, where they are intended to keep the spirit-guard armed. Only the head of a dagger-axe is found, with the shaft absent due to either decomposition or mechanical removal.
Although the jade examples do not appear to have been intended for use in actual combat, their morphology imitates that of the battle-ready bronze version, including a sharp central ridge which reinforces the blade. Some dagger-axe artifacts are small and curved, could have been intended for use as pendants. Ji Bec de corbin Bill Lorge, Peter A. Chinese Martial Arts: From Antiquity to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-87881-4 Dagger-axe with hook, fragment - Freer and Sackler Galleries, Smithsonian Institution
The Lucerne hammer is a type of polearm, popular in Switzerland during the 15th to 17th centuries. It was a combination of the bec de corbin with the blunt war hammer; the name comes from a discovery of many of these weapons in Switzerland. The "hammer" was a three- to four-pronged head mounted atop a 2m-long polearm stick, it bore a long spike on its reverse, an longer spike extending from the top. It proved effective at puncturing or smashing armor, much like a man catcher was used for dismounting riders. Spotlight: The Medieval Poleaxe, by Alexi Goranov