30 Boxes is a calendaring web application. The website was founded on August 1, 2005; the website supports drag-and-drop capabilities, one-click editing, plain-language event adding, as well as unique features aimed towards social networkers. Calendars can contain feeds from Twitter, Blogger, MySpace, WordPress and Upcoming.org, which generates a social timeline listing all of a user's recent online activity. Users can import and export data as ics or csv files, or as an RSS feed; the website includes a plain-language event adding feature, which allows users to type phrases such as “Drinks with Richard, tomorrow, 7-9pm, Flute and Whistle”. The website translates the phrase into an event, determining the location, time and description. Users can add buddies and share calendars with them. 30 Boxes features a simple webtop, which summarizes to-do items. Users can add applets to the page, such as Google search, Yahoo! Mail, Google Calendar, a competing online calendar service. 30 Boxes offers a mobile version of their calendar.
Barry Collins of The Sunday Times appreciated the website's plain-language event adding feature, but did not appreciate that he was unable to see more than one month of events at a time. Collins was unhappy that the website was not capable of warning him when he had two events scheduled at the same time. In a list of the best web-based calendar software for small businesses, Forbes ranked 30 Boxes second, after Google Calendar, they described 30 Boxes like “buying a new car with manual transmission and lots of extras—you don't just want to drive it, you want to fool around with it to see what it can do”. Official website
X Window System
The X Window System is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on Unix-like operating systems. X provides the basic framework for a GUI environment: drawing and moving windows on the display device and interacting with a mouse and keyboard. X does not mandate the user interface – this is handled by individual programs; as such, the visual styling of X-based environments varies greatly. X originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1984; the X protocol has been version 11 since September 1987. The X. Org Foundation leads the X project, with the current reference implementation, X. Org Server, available as free and open source software under the MIT License and similar permissive licenses. X is an architecture-independent system for remote graphical user interfaces and input device capabilities; each person using a networked terminal has the ability to interact with the display with any type of user input device. In its standard distribution it is a complete, albeit simple and interface solution which delivers a standard toolkit and protocol stack for building graphical user interfaces on most Unix-like operating systems and OpenVMS, has been ported to many other contemporary general purpose operating systems.
X provides the basic framework, or primitives, for building such GUI environments: drawing and moving windows on the display and interacting with a mouse, keyboard or touchscreen. X does not mandate the user interface. Programs may use X's graphical abilities with no user interface; as such, the visual styling of X-based environments varies greatly. Unlike most earlier display protocols, X was designed to be used over network connections rather than on an integral or attached display device. X features network transparency, which means an X program running on a computer somewhere on a network can display its user interface on an X server running on some other computer on the network; the X server is the provider of graphics resources and keyboard/mouse events to X clients, meaning that the X server is running on the computer in front of a human user, while the X client applications run anywhere on the network and communicate with the user's computer to request the rendering of graphics content and receive events from input devices including keyboards and mice.
The fact that the term "server" is applied to the software in front of the user is surprising to users accustomed to their programs being clients to services on remote computers. Here, rather than a remote database being the resource for a local app, the user's graphic display and input devices become resources made available by the local X server to both local and remotely hosted X client programs who need to share the user's graphics and input devices to communicate with the user. X's network protocol is based on X command primitives; this approach allows both 2D and 3D operations by an X client application which might be running on a different computer to still be accelerated on the X server's display. For example, in classic OpenGL, display lists containing large numbers of objects could be constructed and stored in the X server by a remote X client program, each rendered by sending a single glCallList across the network. X provides no native support for audio. X uses a client–server model: an X server communicates with various client programs.
The server sends back user input. The server may function as: an application displaying to a window of another display system a system program controlling the video output of a PC a dedicated piece of hardwareThis client–server terminology – the user's terminal being the server and the applications being the clients – confuses new X users, because the terms appear reversed, but X takes the perspective of the application, rather than that of the end-user: X provides display and I/O services to applications, so it is a server. The communication protocol between server and client operates network-transparently: the client and server may run on the same machine or on different ones with different architectures and operating systems. A client and server can communicate securely over the Internet by tunneling the connection over an encrypted network session. An X client itself may emulate an X server by providing display services to other clients; this is known as "X nesting". Open-source clients such as Xnest and Xephyr support such X nesting.
To use an X client application on a remote machine, the user may do the following: on the local machine, open a terminal window use ssh with the X forwarding argument to connect to the remote machine request local display/input service The remote X client application will make a connection to the user's local X server, providing display and input to the user. Alternatively, the local machine may run a small program that connects to the remote machine and starts the client application. Practical examples of remote clients include: administering a remote machine graphically using a client application to join with large numbers of other terminal users in collaborative workgroups running a computationally intensive simulation on a remote machine and displaying the results on
A shell script is a computer program designed to be run by the Unix shell, a command-line interpreter. The various dialects of shell scripts are considered to be scripting languages. Typical operations performed by shell scripts include file manipulation, program execution, printing text. A script which sets up the environment, runs the program, does any necessary cleanup, etc. is called a wrapper. The term is used more to mean the automated mode of running an operating system shell; the typical Unix/Linux/POSIX-compliant installation includes the KornShell in several possible versions such as ksh88, Korn Shell'93 and others. The oldest shell still in common use is the Bourne shell; the C and Tcl shells have syntax quite similar to that of said programming languages, the Korn shells and Bash are developments of the Bourne shell, based on the ALGOL language with elements of a number of others added as well. On the other hand, the various shells plus tools like awk, grep, BASIC, Lisp, C and so forth contributed to the Perl programming language.
Other shells available on a machine or available for download and/or purchase include Almquist shell, PowerShell, Z shell, the Tenex C Shell, a Perl-like shell. Related programs such as shells based on Python, Ruby, C, Perl, Rexx &c in various forms are widely available. Another somewhat common shell is osh, whose manual page states it "is an enhanced, backward-compatible port of the standard command interpreter from Sixth Edition UNIX."Windows-Unix interoperability software such as the MKS Toolkit, Cygwin, UWIN, Interix and others make the above shells and Unix programming available on Windows systems, providing functionality all the way down to signals and other inter-process communication, system calls and APIs. The Hamilton C shell is a Windows shell, similar to the Unix C Shell. Microsoft distributes Windows Services for UNIX for use with its NT-based operating systems in particular, which have a POSIX environmental subsystem. A shell script can provide a convenient variation of a system command where special environment settings, command options, or post-processing apply automatically, but in a way that allows the new script to still act as a normal Unix command.
One example would be to create a version of ls, the command to list files, giving it a shorter command name of l, which would be saved in a user's bin directory as /home/username/bin/l, a default set of command options pre-supplied. Here, the first line indicates which interpreter should execute the rest of the script, the second line makes a listing with options for file format indicators, all files, a size in blocks; the LC_COLLATE=C sets the default collation order to not fold upper and lower case together, not intermix dotfiles with normal filenames as a side effect of ignoring punctuation in the names, the "$@" causes any parameters given to l to pass through as parameters to ls, so that all of the normal options and other syntax known to ls can still be used. The user could simply use l for the most used short listing. Another example of a shell script that could be used as a shortcut would be to print a list of all the files and directories within a given directory. In this case, the shell script would start with its normal starting line of #!/bin/sh.
Following this, the script executes the command clear which clears the terminal of all text before going to the next line. The following line provides the main function of the script; the ls -al command lists the files and directories that are in the directory from which the script is being run. The ls command attributes could be changed to reflect the needs of the user. Note: If an implementation does not have the clear command, try using the clr command instead. Shell scripts allow several commands that would be entered manually at a command-line interface to be executed automatically, without having to wait for a user to trigger each stage of the sequence. For example, in a directory with three C source code files, rather than manually running the four commands required to build the final program from them, one could instead create a C shell script, here named build and kept in the directory with them, which would compile them automatically: The script would allow a user to save the file being edited, pause the editor, just run./build to create the updated program, test it, return to the editor.
Since the 1980s or so, scripts of this type have been replaced with utilities like make which are specialized for building programs. Simple batch jobs are not unusual for isolated tasks, but using shell loops and variables provides much more flexibility to users. A Bash script to convert JPEG images to PNG images, where the image names are provided on the command-line—possibly via wildcards—instead of each being listed within the script, can be created with this file saved in a file like /home/username/bin/jpg2png The jpg2png command can be run on an entire directory full of JPEG images with just /home/username/
MobileMe is a subscription-based collection of online services and software offered by Apple Inc. All services were transitioned and replaced by iCloud and the service ceased as of June 30, 2012, with transfers to iCloud available until July 31, 2012. Afterwards, all data was deleted, the email addresses of accounts not transferred to iCloud were marked as unused. Launched on January 5, 2000, as iTools, a free collection of Internet-based services for users of Mac OS 9, Apple relaunched it as. Mac on July 17, 2002, when it became a paid subscription service designed for users of Mac OS X. Apple relaunched the service again as MobileMe on July 9, 2008 at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference 2008, now targeting Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, iPhone, iPod Touch users. On February 24, 2011, Apple discontinued offering MobileMe at its retail stores, with MobileMe retail boxes removed from resellers as well. Additionally, Apple stopped accepting new subscriptions for MobileMe. On June 6, 2011, Apple announced that a new free service called iCloud would replace MobileMe sometime in the fall.
At the iPhone 4S special event on October 4, 2011, Apple announced it would launch iCloud on October 12, 2011, to replace MobileMe for new users, with current users having access until June 30, 2012. MobileMe was shut down on June 30, 2012, with user data available for retrieval until July 31, 2012, when the site closed completely. ITools and. Mac were designed to provide Internet services for Mac owners. All members of iTools and. Mac received a @mac.com email address. However, with the release of the iPhone 3G in 2008, the renamed service, MobileMe, began providing Internet services for OS X, iOS, Windows. Members of MobileMe were given a @me.com email address, were no longer restricted to OS X software such as Mail and iCal, they could access personal data from any computer connected to the Internet using the web interface at me.com or a number of supported applications, including Microsoft Outlook, as long as the user used version 2003 or later. Apple support for MobileMe was available via telephone.
MobileMe allowed users to track the location of their iOS devices via the web portal at me.com. A user could see the device's approximate location on a map, display a message and/or play a sound on the device, change the password on the device, remotely erase its contents. An app was released by Apple which allowed users to locate their iPhone from another device running iOS 4; the feature was first announced on June 10, 2009 and was included in iOS 3.0 as a feature for MobileMe users. Find My iPhone was made free of charge with the release of iOS 4.2.1 software update on November 22, 2010 for devices introduced in 2010. MobileMe had two different plans; the Individual plan included 200 GB of monthly data transfer. The Family Pack plan included 40 GB of storage split among one 20 GB individual and four 5 GB sub-accounts, each sub-account having its own email address, online storage, being able to use all the MobileMe features. Family members had a Shared folder in their iDisk with which they could share access to data among themselves.
Both the primary account and sub-accounts had read/write access to this folder and were limited to the free space available in the primary user's iDisk. Individual plan was priced at $99, Family Pack—at $149. Members could buy additional storage in 20 GB or 40 GB allocations, sub-account storage could not be upgraded. In a family account, the amount of storage is designated per account. Notes were synced via the MobileMe service, however were unable to be edited online. To Do lists were viewable and editable through the MobileMe website, but were not viewable or editable on an iPhone. With the announcement of iOS 4 the sync for Notes over IMAP was implemented. MobileMe maintained a synchronized address calendar feature using Push functions; when a user made a change to a contact or event on one device, it was automatically synced to the MobileMe servers and, by extension, all the user's other devices. Supported devices included the iPhone, Address Book and iCal on OS X, or Microsoft Outlook 2003 or on Microsoft Windows.
Subscription calendars in iCal on a Mac computer were not viewable on the online MobileMe service. Conversely, on the iPhone "Birthdays" from Contacts on the iPhone were not viewable on the Calendar app, but subscription calendars were available to view in Calendar by adding them through Settings>Mail, Calendar>Add Account. MobileMe had a public video gallery feature. Photos and videos could be uploaded in the web browser at me.com, synced by iPhoto or Aperture on OS X, or uploaded from the iPhone and iPod Touch. Users could upload movies from within applications available on the Mac, including iPhoto and iMovie. MobileMe provided the user with an email address, u
Ecco Pro was a personal information manager software based on an outliner, supporting folders similar to spreadsheet columns that allow filtering and sorting of information based upon user defined criteria. The software was produced by Arabesque Software in 1993 purchased by NetManage, discontinued in 1997; the product offers three primary types of views — phone book views, calendar views, notepad views. Central to the program's design is an outlining structure and the ability to manipulate information regardless of in which view it was entered. Multiple notepad and phonebook views can be opened, each item seen in each view can be a collapsible outline, with each line assignable to folders/categories which can themselves be their own views, text field, pulldown menu, calendar date, or phonebook entry. ECCO Professional was introduced by Arabesque Software in 1993, as a Personal Information Manager with a database backend; this version supports calendar and contact data, as well as to-do lists, allows integration with other software via import and export capability, Dynamic Data Exchange, Object Linking and Embedding.
A feature called "Shooter" puts a cut and paste tool at the top of the screen facilitating copy of data to and from ECCO. The user interface is based on a "universal outliner" and folders, which allow the user to build a variety of views organizing related information of mixed types. Data is stored as discrete objects, can be dragged as dynamic links to multiple folders creating cross references. Ecco version 1.x supports shared folders and outlines for network access to data, but does not support windows workgroups. Ram based, the program was considered fast and easy on laptop batteries, but a heavy consumer of system resources. ECCO version 2.0, released in 1994, added support for workgroups, including group scheduling via email systems compliant with MAPI or VIM protocols, Microsoft Schedule Plus, sharing of contacts and outlines, as well as file synchronization and reconciliation via intranet connections or email. In 1995 PC Magazine praised ECCO as a workgroup tool for scheduling and task management and noted its ability to handle free form data, but considered version 2.0 a "poor choice as a contact manager" which requires customization to match features of contemporary products, lacks structured and complex search queries, good reporting and correspondence functions.
ECCO version 3.0 was released in the summer of 1995 with an updated user interface based on a ring binder. Other additions include an Internet launch tool equipped with an address book containing links to over 2,000 sites. Internet support for the Shooter tool allows the user to push a URL and title for a web page back to ECCO. Searching improved with a query tool based on forms and support for boolean filters. ECCO Pro version 4.0 added 32 bit support and OLE 2.0. as well as integration with NetManage's Chameleon and Z-Mail. Version 4.01 has support for Palm Pilot. Ecco Pro was developed by Pete Polash, who had sold an early Macintosh based presentation program to Aldus and Bob Perez, a Harvard-trained lawyer hired by Apple as a programmer and Evangelist in the 1980s, it was first released in 1993 by Inc. based in Bellevue, Washington. PC Magazine awarded ECCO Pro their Editor’s Choice award in 1996 and 1997Development by NetManage ceased in 1997 after the July 1997 release of version 4.01. Andrew Brown wrote in The Guardian: "So what happened to the paragon of a program?
The market killed it. First it was sold to Netmanage. Netmanage panicked when Microsoft Outlook came along as a "free" part of the Office suite, killed development on the program." NetManage chief executive officer Zvi Alon noted that'As soon as Microsoft decided to give away Outlook with Office, we started getting phone calls questioning the value of Ecco Pro'. Though the source code for Ecco Pro is not open source, development of plugin extensions to the software continues. According to Scott Rosenberg, a programmer using the handle "slangmgh" developed an extension to Ecco Pro posted to ecco_pro users group on Yahoo which includes fixes and upgrades to the program, may incorporate the Lua scripting language; the EccoPro to Android Synchronization Software MyPhoneExplorer able to synchronize Contacts, Calendar and Ecco Outlines to Android Phones and Tablets was released on July 9, 2013. Dohmann, Friedhelm. "History about the efforts to keep EccoPro alive". CreativeServices.us. Archived from the original on 8 November 2015.
Retrieved 26 November 2015. Dohmann, Friedhelm. "World Wide EccoPro Users as of 06/05/2015". CreativeServices.us. Archived from the original on 16 July 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015. Ecco Pro user group
A computer program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer. A computer requires programs to function. A computer program is written by a computer programmer in a programming language. From the program in its human-readable form of source code, a compiler can derive machine code—a form consisting of instructions that the computer can directly execute. Alternatively, a computer program may be executed with the aid of an interpreter. A collection of computer programs and related data are referred to as software. Computer programs may be categorized along functional lines, such as application software and system software; the underlying method used for some calculation or manipulation is known as an algorithm. The earliest programmable machines preceded the invention of the digital computer. In 1801, Joseph-Marie Jacquard devised a loom that would weave a pattern by following a series of perforated cards. Patterns could be repeated by arranging the cards.
In 1837, Charles Babbage was inspired by Jacquard's loom to attempt to build the Analytical Engine. The names of the components of the calculating device were borrowed from the textile industry. In the textile industry, yarn was brought from the store to be milled; the device would have had a "store"—memory to hold 1,000 numbers of 40 decimal digits each. Numbers from the "store" would have been transferred to the "mill", for processing, and a "thread" being the execution of programmed instructions by the device. It was programmed using two sets of perforated cards—one to direct the operation and the other for the input variables. However, after more than 17,000 pounds of the British government's money, the thousands of cogged wheels and gears never worked together. During a nine-month period in 1842–43, Ada Lovelace translated the memoir of Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea; the memoir covered the Analytical Engine. The translation contained Note G which detailed a method for calculating Bernoulli numbers using the Analytical Engine.
This note is recognized by some historians as the world's first written computer program. In 1936, Alan Turing introduced the Universal Turing machine—a theoretical device that can model every computation that can be performed on a Turing complete computing machine, it is a finite-state machine. The machine can move the tape forth, changing its contents as it performs an algorithm; the machine starts in the initial state, goes through a sequence of steps, halts when it encounters the halt state. This machine is considered by some to be the origin of the stored-program computer—used by John von Neumann for the "Electronic Computing Instrument" that now bears the von Neumann architecture name; the Z3 computer, invented by Konrad Zuse in Germany, was a programmable computer. A digital computer uses electricity as the calculating component; the Z3 contained 2,400 relays to create the circuits. The circuits provided a floating-point, nine-instruction computer. Programming the Z3 was through a specially designed keyboard and punched tape.
The Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer was a Turing complete, general-purpose computer that used 17,468 vacuum tubes to create the circuits. At its core, it was a series of Pascalines wired together, its 40 units weighed 30 tons, occupied 1,800 square feet, consumed $650 per hour in electricity when idle. It had 20 base-10 accumulators. Programming the ENIAC took up to two months. Three function tables needed to be rolled to fixed function panels. Function tables were connected to function panels using heavy black cables; each function table had 728 rotating knobs. Programming the ENIAC involved setting some of the 3,000 switches. Debugging a program took a week; the programmers of the ENIAC were women who were known collectively as the "ENIAC girls." The ENIAC featured parallel operations. Different sets of accumulators could work on different algorithms, it used punched card machines for input and output, it was controlled with a clock signal. It ran for eight years, calculating hydrogen bomb parameters, predicting weather patterns, producing firing tables to aim artillery guns.
The Manchester Baby was a stored-program computer. Programming transitioned away from setting dials. Only three bits of memory were available to store each instruction, so it was limited to eight instructions. 32 switches were available for programming. Computers manufactured; the computer program was written on paper for reference. An instruction was represented by a configuration of on/off settings. After setting the configuration, an execute button was pressed; this process was repeated. Computer programs were manually input via paper tape or punched cards. After the medium was loaded, the starting address was set via switches and the execute button pressed. In 1961, the Burroughs B5000 was built to be programmed in the ALGOL 60 language; the hardware featured circuits to ease the compile phase. In 1964, the IBM System/360 was a line of six computers each having the same instruction set architecture; the Model 30 was the least expensive. Customers could retain the same application software; each System/360 model featured multiprogramming.
With operating system support, multiple programs could be in memory at once. When one was waiting for input/output, another could compute; each model could emulate other computers. Customers could upgrade to the System/360 and ret
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time days, weeks and years. A date is the designation of a specific day within such a system. A calendar is a physical record of such a system. A calendar can mean a list of planned events, such as a court calendar or a or chronological list of documents, such as a calendar of wills. Periods in a calendar are though not synchronised with the cycle of the sun or the moon; the most common type of pre-modern calendar was the lunisolar calendar, a lunar calendar that adds one intercalary month to remain synchronised with the solar year over the long term. The term calendar is taken from calendae, the term for the first day of the month in the Roman calendar, related to the verb calare "to call out", referring to the "calling" of the new moon when it was first seen. Latin calendarium meant "account book, register"; the Latin term was adopted in Old French as calendier and from there in Middle English as calender by the 13th century.
A calendar can be on paper or electronic device. The course of the sun and the moon are the most salient natural recurring events useful for timekeeping, thus in pre-modern societies worldwide lunation and the year were most used as time units; the Roman calendar contained remnants of a ancient pre-Etruscan 10-month solar year. The first recorded physical calendars, dependent on the development of writing in the Ancient Near East, are the Bronze Age Egyptian and Sumerian calendars. A large number of Ancient Near East calendar systems based on the Babylonian calendar date from the Iron Age, among them the calendar system of the Persian Empire, which in turn gave rise to the Zoroastrian calendar and the Hebrew calendar. A great number of Hellenic calendars developed in Classical Greece, in the Hellenistic period gave rise to both the ancient Roman calendar and to various Hindu calendars. Calendars in antiquity were lunisolar, depending on the introduction of intercalary months to align the solar and the lunar years.
This was based on observation, but there may have been early attempts to model the pattern of intercalation algorithmically, as evidenced in the fragmentary 2nd-century Coligny calendar. The Roman calendar was reformed by Julius Caesar in 45 BC; the Julian calendar was no longer dependent on the observation of the new moon but followed an algorithm of introducing a leap day every four years. This created a dissociation of the calendar month from the lunation; the Islamic calendar is based on the prohibition of intercalation by Muhammad, in Islamic tradition dated to a sermon held on 9 Dhu al-Hijjah AH 10. This resulted in an observation-based lunar calendar that shifts relative to the seasons of the solar year; the first calendar reform of the early modern era was the Gregorian calendar, introduced in 1582 based on the observation of a long-term shift between the Julian calendar and the solar year. There have been a number of modern proposals for reform of the calendar, such as the World Calendar, International Fixed Calendar, Holocene calendar, the Hanke-Henry Permanent Calendar.
Such ideas are mooted from time to time but have failed to gain traction because of the loss of continuity, massive upheaval in implementation, religious objections. A full calendar system has a different calendar date for every day, thus the week cycle is by itself not a full calendar system. The simplest calendar system just counts time periods from a reference date; this applies for Unix Time. The only possible variation is using a different reference date, in particular, one less distant in the past to make the numbers smaller. Computations in these systems are just a matter of subtraction. Other calendars have one larger units of time. Calendars that contain one level of cycles: week and weekday – this system is not common year and ordinal date within the year, e.g. the ISO 8601 ordinal date systemCalendars with two levels of cycles: year and day – most systems, including the Gregorian calendar, the Islamic calendar, the Solar Hijri calendar and the Hebrew calendar year and weekday – e.g. the ISO week dateCycles can be synchronized with periodic phenomena: Lunar calendars are synchronized to the motion of the Moon.
Solar calendars are based on perceived seasonal changes synchronized to the apparent motion of the Sun. Lunisolar calendars are based on a combination of both solar and lunar reckonings; the week cycle is an example of one, not synchronized to any external phenomenon. A calendar includes more than one type of cycle, or has both cyclic and non-cyclic elements. Most calendars incorporate more complex cycles. For example, the vast majority of them track years, months and days; the seven-day week is universal, though its use varies. It has run uninterrupted for millennia. Solar calendars assign a date to each solar day. A day may consist of the period between sunrise and sunset, with