Lighthouse of la Serena
The Monumental Lighthouse of La Serena is a Chilean lighthouse located at the Avenida del Mar of La Serena. The structure is one of the most representative of the city and one of the most popular tourist attractions in the area, it was built between 1950 and 1951 at the request of President Gabriel González Videla during the development of his Plan Serena. The construction was designed by Ramiro Pérez Arce and directed by University of Chile civil engineer Jorge Tanks Larenas. In April 1953 it was handed over to the authorities, led by mayor Ernesto Aguirre Valín, the provincial mayor Roberto Flores Alvarez and president González Videla. In October 24, 1953 the structure was inaugurated by mayor Juan Cortés Alcayaga of the Municipality of La Serena, the lighting system was removed afterwards, leaving it as notable point of reference in charts and publications. On November 7, 1985, the Commander in Chief of the Navy, Admiral José Toribio Merino presented the lighthouse as a tourist attraction for the city to the mayor Eugenio Rodríguez Munizaga.
The May 12, 1986, the Chilean Navy handed the Lighthouse to the Municipality, taking charge of its maintenance. On June 9, 2010, the building was registered on the National Heritage List. List of lighthouses and lightvessels in Chile List of National Monuments of Chile
Sewell is an uninhabited Chilean mining town located on the slopes of the Andes in the commune of Machalí in Cachapoal Province, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region, at an altitude of between 2,000 and 2,250 metres. The town was founded in 1906 by the Braden Copper Company to extract copper from the El Teniente mine, it was named after Barton Sewell. During the Great Depression, the Braden Copper Company became a subsidiary of Kennecott Copper Company. In 1917 the foundry or smelter was moved from Sewell to which soon developed a town around it. Male workers lived in shared housing called colectivos. Family housing was added. Playgrounds, shops, a movie theatre followed. Pedestrians walked down vertical staircases. There were unpaved horizontal streets, no cars. On the west facing side of Cerro Negro a camp for foreign personnel developed. Ore was taken down the mountainside to Graneros; the narrow gauge railway that connected Sewell to the nearby town of Rancagua began in 1906 and was completed in 1911.
Total distance covered was 45 miles with an elevation change of 5,000 feet. By 1915 Sewell had a fire department and a social club; the buildings and homes were made out of timber, painted bright colors such as yellow and blue. At its peak in 1960, it had more than 16,000 inhabitants. By 1918 the town housed more than 12,000 people. Sewell is known as the "City of Staircases"; the town was built on terrain too steep for wheeled vehicles, around a large central staircase rising from the railway station called the Escalara Central. All supplies had to be brought into the city via a narrow gauge railroad. Pueblo Hundido contained the living quarters while below the ore body was El Establecimiento contained the concentrator, hydroelectric plant, a tramway. On 8 Aug. 1944, 102 people died in an avalanche. In June 1945, a fire which killed 355 workers through smoke inhalation; this led to the development of more safety regulations. Additional, ever-present threats to the city included earthquakes and explosions.
In 1967 the Kennecott Copper Company relinquished its sole ownership of the site with the purchase by the Chilean government of a 51% stake in the company. At this time, most people were moved to Rancagua and the Copper Highway was built for commuting purposes. In 1971 the mine was nationalised by the Allende government, in 1977, after over seven decades of active life, having supported the construction and exploitation of the largest underground mine in the world, the state-owned CODELCO started moving families out of Sewell into the valley, the demolition of buildings began. Demolition was halted at the end of the 1980s, in 1998 the Chilean Government declared Sewell a National Monument. UNESCO designated it a World Heritage Site in 2006. During the 1980s the remaining buildings were remodeled to house contractors. There are 50 restored buildings remaining and a history museum is housed in one of the structures. CODELCO uses several buildings for offices, but only the basic facilities required for mining remain.
It is not possible to access the area with private vehicles and only tour operators in Santiago and Rancagua are allowed to visit the site. In 1999 Chile’s College of Architects declared Sewell one of Chile’s 10 most important urban works. There have been 9 books written about life at Sewell. Rancagua Chilean nationalization of copper List of towns in Chile Snow in Sewelll, Chile Memories of Living in Sewelll, Chile Panoramas of Sewell Historical Photos of Sewell - El Teniente Sewell known as El Teniente, Chile Official Site
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Coquimbo is a port city and capital of the Elqui Province, located on the Pan-American Highway, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. Coquimbo is situated in a valley 10 km south of La Serena, with which it forms Greater La Serena with more than 400,000 inhabitants; the commune spans an area around the harbor of 1,429.3 km2. The average temperature in the city lies around 14 °C, precipitation is low; the natural harbour in Coquimbo was taken over by Pedro de Valdivia from Spain in 1550. The gold and copper industry in the region led to the city's importance as a port around 1840 and many Europeans from England settled in Coquimbo. In 1879 it was recognised as a town. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Coquimbo had 163,036 inhabitants. Of these, 154,316 lived in 8,720 in rural areas; the population grew by 32.8 % between the 2002 censuses. As a commune, Coquimbo is a fourth-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years.
The 2012-2016 alcalde is Cristian Galleguillos Vega. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Coquimbo is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Pedro Velásquez and Matías Walker as part of the 8th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Gonzalo Uriarte and Jorge Pizarro Soto as part of the 4th senatorial constituency. The city is shipping center, it is growing registering a 32.8% growth rate from 1992 to 2002. Tourism has started to develop, it is an access point for beach towns such as Guanaqueros and Tongoy. The port is still important for shipping fruit and copper from mines in the region. Wine is produced in the area; the city has a football team called Coquimbo Unido which plays in the Chilean Primera División B. Their home games are played at the Francisco Sánchez Rumoroso Municipal Stadium, which has a capacity of 17,750 seats, they are nicknamed "Los Piratas", because of the tradition of pirates that arrived to the coasts of Coquimbo. Their biggest rival is Club de Deportes La Serena.
Coquimbo is twinned with: Elbląg, Poland Asteroid 55737 Coquimbo Julio Alberto Mercado Illanes Municipality of Coquimbo Travel Coquimbo Photo of Coquimbo Arriendo a Turistas Arriendos en Coquimbo Official website
Churches of Chiloé
The Churches of Chiloé in Chile's Chiloé Archipelago are a unique architectural phenomenon in the Americas, one of the most prominent styles of Chilota architecture. Unlike classical Spanish colonial architecture, the churches of Chiloé are made in native timber with extensive use of wood shingles; the churches were built from materials to resist the Chiloé Archipelago's humid and rainy oceanic climate. Built in the 18th and 19th centuries when Chiloé Archipelago was still a part of the Spanish Crown possessions, the churches represent the fusion of Spanish Jesuit culture and local native population's skill and traditions; the Churches of Chiloé were designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2000. The University of Chile, Fundación Cultural Iglesias de Chiloé and other institutions have led efforts to preserve these historic structures and to publicize them for their unique qualities; the sixteen churches registered as part of the World Heritage Site are concentrated in the central eastern zone of the archipelago.
History of Chiloé World Heritage Evaluation: Churches of Chiloé Chile Nuestro Tourism - Chiloé and its Churches
La Serena, Chile
La Serena is a city and commune in northern Chile, capital of the Coquimbo Region. Founded in 1544, it is the country's second oldest city after the national capital, located 471 km to the north, it has a communal population of 198,164 area, the country's fourth largest conurbation, which includes nearby Coquimbo with an area of 1,892.80 square kilometres. It is one of the fastest-growing areas of Chile, witnessing a population increase of 32.6% between 1992 and 2002. The city is an important tourist destination during the summer, where people go to visit the beaches, it is in the headquarters of the University of La Serena and is home to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of La Serena, one of five Catholic Archdioceses of the Catholic Church in Chile. The sector is located where the city was inhabited by the pre-Hispanic village called Viluma or Vilumanque. La Serena was first founded on the orders of Spanish Pedro de Valdivia in order to provide a sea link to maintain permanent contact between Santiago and Lima in the Viceroyalty of Peru.
For this he would need a place for his troops to eat. The village was first founded by captain Juan Bohón with the name "Villanueva de La Serena". Although the exact date is disputed, probable dates include 15 November or 30 December 1543 and 4 September 1544. Many historians say that it was founded in 1544. Five years from the night of 11 January 1549 until the following day, an uprising of local Indians destroyed and burned the village, killing nearly every Spaniard. Pedro de Valdivia gave order to Captain Francisco de Aguirre to found the city the same year on 26 August under the name of San Bartolomé de La Serena, in the same place where today the Plaza de Armas stands. A few years on 4 May 1552, King Carlos I of Spain by royal decree gave it the title of city. During the 17th century, the city suffered continuous attacks from pirates, including Francis Drake who opened the Pacific route to pirates in 1578. Bartholomew Sharp, who burned and looted in 1680, Edward Davis, who set fire to the convent of Santo Domingo 1686, caused great fear among the population, forcing the defense of the city in 1700.
In addition to attacks from pirates, the city experienced an total destruction resulting from the earthquake of 8 July 1730. During the Revolution of 1859, a rebellion against the conservative government, the city was taken by forces led by Pedro Leon Gallo. Gallo's forces were defeated at the Battle of Cerro Grande by an army from Santiago, which occupied the city. Between 1948 and 1952, president Gabriel González Videla prepared the "Plan Serena", a project in which the city was renewed with investments and urban redevelopment that would imprint a single seal on the country, it began to take hold in the role of services, to rescue and to develop its own architectural style known as Colonial Revival. The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of La Serena; the Cathedral, built from the same stone, dates from the 19th century. It must be said that although it lacks the same historical value as the older churches, this is a stone building in a country prone to seismic activity, has survived various earthquakes.
Indeed, during centuries of existence, there is no visible damage. All of these churches, along with others of minor importance, provide a unique urban landscape, an image for the city, giving it the nickname "The City of Churches." Its traditional architecture consists of a series of housing and public buildings, of late 19th-century vintage style, built with wood from the US state of Oregon brought to Chile as counterweight in vessels sailing to the nearby port of Coquimbo to load copper and other minerals for transport back to the US. This Oregon pine and the use of adobe create the genuine image of the city. There is a number of remarkable and valuable small churches built of sedimentary stone quarried 5 km to the north of the Elqui River, having a characteristic color and texture formed by myriad small shells; these churches are all 350 years old and have undergone restoration to varying degrees, bringing them back to their original form. San Francisco, San Agustín, Santo Domingo are the names of a few of them.
In 1920, he began to take shape a new economic boom in the mining of iron, attracting capital and human contingent, resulting in a further change in the urban structure. The city has its own architectural style, differentiated from other cities, preserving old buildings in colonial style, with many important National Monuments, mixing it with modern buildings but each one in turn follows the regulatory framework in the construction of these structures which should each have features to maintain the colonial style of the city. In the center of the city until 2008, is still not possible to identify buildings over 8 stories high for a municipal status, however towards the coastal area of the Avenida del Mar, one begins to see a great real estate boom, distinguished by observing high-rise buildings, ranging from La Serena running south and along the coast to the neighboring city of Coquimbo. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, La Serena had 160,148 inhabitants. Of these, 147,815 lived in 12,333 in rural areas.
The population grew by 32.6 % between the 2002 censuses. 155,815 persons live in the city proper of La Serena. In 2002, the INE estimated the population would increase to 205,120 by 2008 and 244,070 by 2012. A few of the m
Spanish Colonial architecture
Spanish Colonial architecture represents Spanish colonial influence on New World and East Indies' cities and towns, it is still being seen in the architecture as well as in the city planning aspects of conserved present-day cities. These two visible aspects of the city are complementary; the 16th century Laws of the Indies included provisions for the layout of new colonial settlements in the Americas and elsewhere. To achieve the desired effect of inspiring awe among the Indigenous peoples of the Americas-Indians as well as creating a legible and militarily manageable landscape, the early colonizers used and placed the new architecture within planned townscapes and mission compounds; the new churches and mission stations, for example, aimed for maximum effect in terms of their imposition and domination of the surrounding buildings or countryside. In order for that to be achievable, they had to be strategically located – at the center of a town square or at a higher point in the landscape; these elements are common and can be found in every city and town in Spain.
The Spanish Colonial style of architecture dominated in the early Spanish colonies of North and South America, were somewhat visible in its other colonies. It is sometimes marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain. Mexico, as the center of New Spain—and the richest province of Spain's colonial empire—has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style. With twenty-nine sites, Mexico has more sites on the UNESCO World Heritage list than any other country in the Americas, many of them boasting some of the richest Spanish Colonial architecture; some of the most famous cities in Mexico built in the Colonial style are Puebla, Querétaro and Morelia. The historic center of Mexico City is a mixture of architectural styles from the 16th century to the present; the Metropolitan Cathedral – built from 1563 to 1813 in a variety of styles including the Renaissance and Neo Classical. The rich interior is Baroque.
Other examples are the Palacio Nacional, the beautifully restored 18th-century Palacio de Iturbide, the 16th-century Casa de los Azulejos – clad with 18th-century blue-and-white talavera tiles, many more churches, cathedrals and palaces of the elite. During the late 17th century to 1750, one of Mexico's most popular architectural styles was Mexican Churrigueresque; these buildings were built in an ultra-Baroque, fantastically extravagant and visually frenetic style. Antigua Guatemala in Guatemala is known for its well preserved Spanish colonial style architecture; the city of Antigua is famous for its well-preserved Spanish Mudéjar-influenced Baroque architecture as well as a number of spectacular ruins of colonial churches dating from the 16th century. It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the Ciudad Colonial of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, founded in 1498, is the oldest city in the New World and a prime example of this architectural style. The port of Cartagena, founded in 1533 and Santa Ana de Coro, founded in 1527, are two more UNESCO World Heritage Sites preserving some of the best Spanish colonial architecture in the Caribbean."
San Juan was founded by the Spaniards in 1521, where Spanish colonial architecture can be found like the Historic Hotel El Convento. Old San Juan with its walled city and buildings are good examples, in excellent condition. According to UNESCO, Ecuador has the largest, best-preserved, least-altered historic centre in Latin America, despite several earthquakes, it was the first city, inscribed onto the UNESCO World Heritage List, along with Kraków, Poland in 1978. The historic district of this city is the sole largest and best preserved area of Spanish Colonial architecture in the world; the idea of laying out a city in a grid pattern is not unique to the Spanish. In fact, it never started out with the Spanish colonizers, it has been traced back to some ancient civilizations the ancient cities of the Aztec and Maya, Ancient Greeks. The idea was spread by the Roman conquest of European empires and its ideas were adopted by other civilizations, it was popularized at different paces and in different levels throughout the Renaissance—the French took to building grid-like villages and the English, under King Edward I did as well.
Some argue, that Spain was not part of this movement to order towns as grids. Despite its clear military advantage, despite the knowledge of city planning, the New World settlements of the Spanish grew amorphously for some three to four decades before they turned to grids and city plans as ways of organizing space. In contrast to the orders given much on how the city should be laid out, Ferdinand II did not give specific instructions for how to build the new settlements in the Caribbeans. To Nicolas De Ovando, he said the following in 1501: As it is necessary in the island of Española to make settlements and from here it is not possible to give precise instructions, investigate the possible sites, in conformity with the quality of the land and sites as well as with the present population outside present settlements establish settlements in the numbers and in the places that seem proper to you. In 1513 the monarchs wrote out a set of guidelines that ordained the conduct of Spaniards in the New World as well as that of the Indians that they found there.
With regards to city planning, these ordinances had details on the preferred location of a new town and its location relative to the sea and rivers. It detailed the shape and measurements of