A city block, urban block or simply block is a central element of urban planning and urban design. A city block is the smallest area that is surrounded by streets, City blocks are the space for buildings within the street pattern of a city, and form the basic unit of a citys urban fabric. City blocks may be subdivided into any number of land lots usually in private ownership, though in some cases. City blocks are usually built-up to varying degrees and thus form the physical containers or streetwalls of public space, most cities are composed of a greater or lesser variety of sizes and shapes of urban block. This arrangement is intended to provide social interaction among people. Since the spacing of streets in grid plans varies so widely among cities, or even within cities, it is difficult to generalize about the size of a city block. However, as points, the standard square blocks of Portland and Sacramento are 264 by 264 feet,330 by 330 feet. Oblong blocks range considerably in width and length, the standard block in Manhattan is about 264 by 900 feet, and in some U. S. cities standard blocks are as wide as 660 feet.
The blocks in Edmonton, Canada are 330 by 560 feet, the blocks in central Melbourne, are 330 by 660 feet, formed by splitting the square blocks in an original grid with a narrow street down the middle. Many world cities have grown by accretion over time rather than being planned from the outset, for this reason, a regular pattern of even, square or rectangular city blocks is not so common among European cities, for example. An exception is represented by those cities that were founded as Roman military settlements, one notable example is Turin, Italy. Following the example of Philadelphia, New York City adopted the Commissioners Plan of 1811 for an extensive grid plan. In much of the United States and Canada, the addressing systems follow a block and lot number system, the concept of city block can be generalized as a superblock or sub-block. Superblocks were popular during the early and mid-20th century, arising from modernist ideas in architecture, planning in this era was based upon the distance and speed scales for the automobile and discounted the pedestrian and cyclist modes, as obsolete transportation vehicles.
Superblocks are often found in suburbs or planned cities, or are the result of urban renewal of the mid-20th century, in a residential area of a suburb, the interior of the superblock is typically served by dead-ended or looped streets. In this way, superblocks cut up the city into isolated units, expanded automobile dominance, superblocks can be found in central city areas, where they are more often associated with institutional, educational and corporate rather than residential uses. The traditional urban block diffused automobile traffic onto several narrower roads at slower speeds and this more finely connected network of narrower roads better allowed the pedestrian and cyclist realms to flourish. The superblock, at the only suitable for automobiles
Brick Expressionism is a special variant, that dominates in western and northern Germany and the Amsterdam School in the Netherlands. The term Expressionist architecture initially described the activity of the German, Austrian, subsequent redefinitions extended the term backwards to 1905 and widened it to encompass the rest of Europe. Ephemeral exhibition buildings were numerous and highly significant during this period, the major permanent extant landmark of Expressionism is Erich Mendelsohns Einstein Tower in Potsdam. A few, notably Hans Scharoun, continued to work in an expressionist idiom, in 1933, after the Nazi seizure of power in Germany, expressionist art was outlawed as degenerate. Until the 1970s scholars commonly played down the influence of the expressionists on the International style, Expressionist architecture was individualistic and in many ways eschewed aesthetic dogma, but it is still useful to develop some criteria which defines it. Though containing a variety and differentiation, many points can be found as recurring in works of Expressionist architecture.
Distortion of form for an emotional effect, subordination of realism to symbolic or stylistic expression of inner experience. An underlying effort at achieving the new and visionary, profusion of works on paper, and models, with discovery and representations of concepts more important than pragmatic finished products. Often hybrid solutions, irreducible to a single concept, themes of natural romantic phenomena, such as caves, lightning and rock formations. As such it is more mineral and elemental than florid and organic which characterized its close contemporary art nouveau, uses creative potential of artisan craftsmanship. Tendency more towards the gothic than the classical, Expressionist architecture tends more towards the romanesque and the rococo than the classical. Though a movement in Europe, expressionism is as eastern as western and it draws as much from Moorish, Islamic and Indian art and architecture as from Roman or Greek. Conception of architecture as a work of art, an influential body of the artistic community, including architects, sought a similar revolution as had occurred in Russia.
The costly and grandiose remodelling of the Grosses Schauspielhaus, was reminiscent of the imperial past, than wartime budgeting. Artistic movements that preceded expressionist architecture and continued with some overlap were the arts and crafts movement and art nouveau or in Germany, unity of designers with artisans, was a major preoccupation of the Arts and Crafts movement which extended into expressionist architecture. The frequent topic of naturalism in art nouveau, which was prevalent in romanticism, continued as well. The naturalist, Ernst Haeckel was known by Finsterlin and shared his source of inspiration in natural forms, the Futurist and constructivist architectural movements, and the dada anti-art movement were occurring concurrently to expressionism and often contained similar features. Bruno Tauts magazine, Frülicht included constructivist projects, including Vladimir Tatlins Monument to the Third International, however and constructivism emphasized mechination, and urbanism tendencies which were not to take hold in Germany until the Neue Sachlichkeit
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
Pieter Lodewijk Kramer was a Dutch architect, one of the most important architects of the Amsterdam School. From 1903 to 1911 Piet Kramer worked in the practice of Eduard Cuypers. In 1911 van der Mey received the commission to design the Scheepvaarthuis, van der Mey sought the assistance of his former colleague-architects Piet Kramer and Michel de Klerk to realize this building. The Scheepvaarthuis is considered the point of the Amsterdam School movement. Later Piet Kramer collaborated with Michel de Klerk on the well-known De Dageraad housing project in Amsterdam South, outside Amsterdam he built one of his masterpieces, the De Bijenkorf Store in The Hague. After the death of Michel de Klerk in 1923, Piet Kramer was the architect of the Amsterdam School until the end of this movement in the beginning of the 1930s. In the years of crisis of the 1930s the expensive architecture of the Amsterdam School was passé. A new architecture and town planning was in process of development in Amsterdam, in the new architecture the principle of spatial corridors between functionalistic blocks was relevant.
On the contrary, the Amsterdam School town planning was based on a structure with streets. In the second half of his life, the main job of Piet Kramer was architect for canal bridges in the municipal public works department in Amsterdam. He made the drawings for more than 500 bridges, the total number of realized Piet Kramer bridges is 220,64 of them in the Amsterdamse Bos park. Besides the bridges he designed the additional bridge houses, ironwork. The sculptural work was generally done by Hildo Krop, after the death of Piet Kramer in 1961, on the high point of the Rationalist movement, no architectural institution or museum was interested in his Expressionist work. For that reason all his drawings and models were burnt, De Dageraad, working-class Socialist housing by Piet Kramer and Michel de Klerk. The architectural contribution by Piet Kramer is shown in this article, buildings by different architects of the Amsterdam School Piet Kramer made the drawings for more than 500 bridges. The total number of realized Piet Kramer bridges is 220,64 of them in the Amsterdamse Bos park
Canals of Amsterdam
Amsterdam, capital of the Netherlands, has more than one hundred kilometers of canals, about 90 islands and 1,500 bridges. The three main canals, Herengracht and Keizersgracht, dug in the 17th century during the Dutch Golden Age, form concentric belts around the city, alongside the main canals are 1550 monumental buildings. Much of the Amsterdam canal system is the outcome of city planning. In the early part of the 17th century, with immigration rising, known as the grachtengordel, three of the canals are mostly for residential development, and a fourth, outer canal, for purposes of defense and water management. The defensive purpose of the Nassau/Stadhouderskade was served by moat and earthen dikes, with gates at transit points, construction of the north-western sector was started in 1613 and was finished around 1625. After 1664, building in the sector was started, although slowly because of an economic depression. The eastern part of the canal plan, covering the area between the Amstel river and the IJ Bay, was not implemented for a long time.
In the following centuries, the land went mostly for park, several parts of the city and of the urban area are polders, recognisable by their postfix -meer meaning lake, such as Aalsmeer, Bijlmermeer and Watergraafsmeer. The canals in Amsterdam are now used as a form of transportation around the city. Inward to outward, the canals are as follows, Singel encircled the city of Amsterdam. It served as a moat around the city from 1480 until 1585, the canal runs from the IJ Bay, near Central Station, to the Muntplein square, where it meets the Amstel river. It is now the inner-most canal in Amsterdams semicircular ring of canals, the canal should not be confused with Singelgracht canal, which became the outer limit of the city during the Dutch Golden Age in the 17th Century. Herengracht is the first of the three canals in the city centre of Amsterdam. The canal is named after the heren regeerders who governed the city in the 16th and 17th century, the most fashionable part is called the Golden Bend, with many double wide mansions, inner gardens and coach houses on Keizersgracht.
Samuel Sarphati lived at the house at number 598 and Peter the Great stayed at the house at number 527 during his visit to Amsterdam. Keizersgracht is the second and widest of the three canals in the city centre of Amsterdam, in between Herengracht and Prinsengracht. It is named after Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Prinsengracht is the fourth and the longest of the main canals in Amsterdam. It is named after the Prince of Orange, most of the canal houses along it were built during the Dutch Golden Age of the United Provinces
The Amsterdam School is a style of architecture that arose from 1910 through about 1930 in the Netherlands. The Amsterdam School movement is part of international Expressionist architecture, sometimes linked to German Brick Expressionism, the aim was to create a total architectural experience and exterior. Imbued with socialist ideals, the Amsterdam School style was applied to working-class housing estates, local institutions. For many Dutch towns Hendrik Berlage designed the new urban schemes, with regard to the architectural style, Michel de Klerk had a different vision than Berlage. In the magazine Bouwkundig Weekblad 45/1916 Michel de Klerk criticized Berlages recent buildings in the style of Dutch Traditionalism, in this context, the Stock Exchange by Berlage of 1905 can be seen as the starting point of Traditionalist architecture. From 1920 to 1930 different parallel movements developed in the Netherlands, Traditionalism Expressionism De Stijl Rationalism Constructivism The specific Brick-Cubism by Dudok, the Expressionist architecture of the Amsterdam School was the most successful style of the 1920s.
For many foreign architects, Amsterdam was the Mecca for new town extensions, but the Traditionalist movement lasted longer, until the 1950s, thanks to the so-called Delft School, represented by Martinus Grampré Molière at the Delft University of Technology. In the 1960s the Rationalist movement was dominant, in a well-known speech, the Dutch Rationalist, Willem van Tijen declared the Amsterdam School a warning example for architects. After the death of Piet Kramer in 1961, no institution or museum was interested in his Expressionist work. For that reason, all his drawings and models were burnt, the Amsterdam School had its origins in the office of architect Eduard Cuypers in Amsterdam. Although Cuypers was not an architect himself, he gave his employees plenty of opportunity to develop. The three leaders of the Amsterdam School Michel de Klerk, Johan van der Mey and Piet Kramer all worked for Cuypers until about 1910. Van der Meys major commission, the 1912 cooperative-commercial Scheepvaarthuis, is considered the point of the movement.
The most Amsterdam School buildings are found in this city, the movement and its followers played an important role in Berlages overall plans for the expansion of Amsterdam. The most important architects and virtuoso artists of the Amsterdam School were Michel de Klerk, other members included Jan Gratama, Berend Tobia Boeyinga, P. H. Endt, H. Th. Wijdeveld, J. F. Staal, C. J. Blaauw, the journal Wendingen, published between 1918 and 1931, was the magazine of the Amsterdam School movement. After De Klerk died in 1923, the style lost its importance, the De Bijenkorf Store in the Hague by Piet Kramer from 1926 is considered to be the last example of classic Amsterdam School Expressionism. The influence of the Amsterdam School continued in the Dutch East Indies, the Amsterdam School style spread beyond architecture to encompass interior design, with the result that items ranging from furniture and carpets to lamps and clocks were produced
Public housing may be a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. Social housing can be seen as a remedy to housing inequality. Some social housing organizations construct for purchase, particularly in Spain, although the common goal of public housing is to provide affordable housing, the details, definitions of poverty and other criteria for allocation vary within different contexts. The origins of municipal housing lie in the urban population increase caused by the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century. In the large cities of the period, many commentators, such as Octavia Hill and Charles Booth reported on the squalor, sickness. Henry Mayhew, visiting Bethnal Green, wrote in the The Morning Chronicle, roads were unmade, often mere alleys, houses small and without foundations and often around unpaved courts. An almost total lack of drainage and sewerage was made worse by the ponds formed by the excavation of brickearth.
Pigs and cows in back yards, noxious trades like boiling tripe, melting tallow, or preparing cats meat, and slaughter houses and lakes of putrefying night soil added to the filth. Some philanthropists began to provide housing in tenement blocks, and some factory owners built entire villages for their workers, such as Saltaire in 1853 and it was in 1885, after the report from a Royal Commission in England, that the state first took an interest. This led to the Housing of the Working Classes Act of 1885, nearly 6,000 individuals were crammed into the packed streets, where one child in four died before his or her first birthday. Arthur Morrison wrote the influential A Child of the Jago, an account of the life of a child in the slum, construction of the Boundary Estate was begun in 1890 by the Metropolitan Board of Works and completed by the recently formed London County Council in 1900. The success of this project spurred many local councils to embark on similar construction schemes in the early 20th century.
The Arts and Crafts movement and Ebenezer Howards Garden city ideas led to the leafy London County Council cottage estates such as firstly Totterdown Fields and Wormholt and Old Oak. The First World War indirectly provided a new impetus, when the physical health. In 1916, 41% of conscripts were unfit to serve, Public housing projects were tried out in some European countries and the United States in the 1930s, but only became widespread globally after the Second World War. Minha Casa Minha Vida, the Brazilian governments social housing program, was launched in March 2009 with a budget of R$36 billion to one million homes. The second stage of the program, included within the government Growth Acceleration Program was announced in March 2010 and this stage foresees the construction of a further two million homes. Of the total 3 million homes,1, all funds for Minha Casa Minha Vida properties are provided by the Brazilian public bank, Caixa Econômica Federal
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Hendrik Petrus Berlage
Hendrik Petrus Berlage was a prominent Dutch architect. He studied architecture at the Zurich Institute of Technology between 1875 and 1878 after which he traveled extensively for 3 years through Europe, in the 1880s he formed a partnership in the Netherlands with Theodore Sanders which produced a mixture of practical and utopian projects. A published author, Berlage held memberships in various architectural societies including CIAM I and this influence is visible in his design for the Amsterdam Commodities Exchange, for which he would draw on the ideas of Viollet-le-Duc. The load-bearing bare brick walls and the notion of the primacy of space, a visit Berlage made to the U. S. in 1911 greatly affected his architecture. From on the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright would be a significant influence. Lectures he gave when returned to Europe would help to disseminate Wrights thoughts in Germany, a notable overseas commission was the 1916 Holland House, built as offices for a Dutch shipping company in Bury Street in the City of London.
He received the British RIBA Royal Gold Medal in 1932, Berlage died at The Hague in 1934. In 1970, the IAU named the lunar crater Berlage after him. P, Schriften zur Architektur, Birkhäuser Basel, ISBN 3-7643-2587-9 Singelenberg, Pieter, H. P
Amsterdam-Zuid is a borough of Amsterdam, Netherlands. The borough was formed in 2010 as a merger of the former boroughs Oud-Zuid, the borough has almost 138,000 inhabitants. With 8,500 homes per square kilometer, it is one of the most densely populated boroughs of Amsterdam and it has the highest income per household of all boroughs in Amsterdam. Amsterdam-Zuid is the borough of Amsterdam situated to the south and southwest of the Singelgracht canal, the Singelgracht canal had been Amsterdams city border since the 17th century, when the Amsterdam canal belt was constructed. The taking down of the surrounding the Singelgracht, the outer canal. South of the wall, the first neighborhoods to develop were the Oude Pijp neighborhood, the neighborhood surrounding the Rijksmuseum. This area is now known as Oud Zuid. In 1917, the area was further developed southwards on the basis of Plan Zuid, berlages plan included wide streets lined with four-story apartment blocks for the middle class. The plan included public art to be installed in the new residential areas, between 1920 and 1940, the Plan Zuid neighborhoods of Nieuwe Pijp, Rivierenbuurt and Apollobuurt were constructed, with many buildings designed in Amsterdam School style.
This area is known as Nieuw Zuid. Another neighborhood built in the 1920s is the Hoofddorppleinbuurt, west of the Schinkel river and this neighborhood is part of Plan West, another urban expansion plan by Berlage which was designed for the western area of the city on the territory of the former municipality of Sloten. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Buitenveldert neighborhood and the smaller Prinses Irenebuurt became the last major developments in the southern part of the city. In 1961, the Amsterdam RAI Exhibition and Convention Centre opened, the A10 motorway, which runs through the southern borough, was constructed in 1962. In 1978, the first section of the Weesp–Leiden railway and the Amsterdam Zuid railway station opened along the part of the A10 motorway. In the 1990s and 2000s, the surrounding the railway station became the rapidly developing business district of Zuidas. Since the 2014 municipal elections, the councils have been abolished and replaced by smaller. The district committees are elected every four years, on the day as the citys central municipal council.
Each district committee elects three of its members to form an executive committee, the district committees jurisdiction is determined by the central municipal council
Michel de Klerk
Michel de Klerk was a Dutch architect. Born to a Jewish family, he was one of the architects of the movement Amsterdam School. Early in his career he worked for architects, including Eduard Cuypers. For a while, he employed the Indonesian-born Liem Bwan Tjie. Of his many outstanding designs, very few have actually been built, one of his finest completed buildings is Het Schip in the Amsterdam district of Spaarndammerbuurt. The architectural contribution by Michel de Klerk is shown in this article, suzanne S. Frank, Michel de Klerk 1884-1923 - An Architect of the Amsterdam School, UMI Research Press, Ann Arbor Mich
The Amstel is a river in the Netherlands which runs through the city of Amsterdam. The rivers name is derived from Aeme-stelle, old Dutch for water-area, the well-known bridge Magere Brug in Amsterdam crosses the river, as do the bridges Blauwbrug, Hoge Sluis and Berlagebrug. The Stopera city hall and opera house and Carré theatre are located on the banks of the river. A nationally televised concert is held on the every year on Bevrijdingsdag. The rowing races Head of the River Amstel and Heineken Roeivierkamp are held on the river annually, the river forms part of the route of the Canal Parade, Amsterdams annual floating gay pride parade. Amstel beer is named after the river, the Amstel brewery, as many other breweries, was situated close to the Amstel river because river water was used to produce the beer. The river originally began where two rivers, the Drecht and Kromme Mijdrecht, joined together, a little south of Uithoorn. After the construction of a canal, the Amstel-Drecht Kanaal, the river now begins where the Drecht and another canal, tributary rivers are the Kromme Mijdrecht and Waver.
The rivers outlet is in Amsterdam, where it meets the IJ bay, during 1936 the last part of the river was filled in, so the river now ends near Muntplein square, although it remains connected to the bay through subterranean pipes. The river contains one island, Amsteleiland, at 52°17′15″N 4°53′15″E. The only road leading to it belongs to the village of Ouderkerk aan de Amstel and it has an area of about 0.05 km². Amsterdam took its name from the river, the city developed from a small fishing village named Amstelredam, built during the 13th century alongside a dam at the mouth of the river. The town was granted city rights about 1300, the hamlet developed into the small town Amsteldam, which became Amsterdam. The area through which the river passes is known as the Amstelland, the city and municipality of Amstelveen, the municipality of Ouder-Amstel, the towns of Ouderkerk aan de Amstel and Nes aan de Amstel are all named for the river as well. Amsterdam has a street named Amstel, a square named Amstelveld, in the former Dutch colonies in North America, a town was captured from the Swedes in 1655 and renamed Nieuw-Amstel.
It is now known as New Castle, the river has been depicted by many artists, Aert van der Neer Rembrandt Willem Witsen George Hendrik Breitner Piet Mondrian Media related to Amstel at Wikimedia Commons