Farfisa is a manufacturer of electronics based in Osimo, Italy. The Farfisa brand name is associated with a series of compact electronic organs and a series of multi-timbral synthesizers. Today, the Farfisa brand produces intercom systems with the company Aci Farfisa, which makes and distributes systems for video intercoms, access control, video surveillance, home automation; the Bontempi group owns the keyboard division Farfisa brand name. At the height of its production, Farfisa operated three factories to produce instruments in Camerano in the Marche region of Italy. Farfisa made radios and other electronic items; the Farfisa brand name is an acronym for "FAbbriche Riunite di FISArmoniche", which translates to "united factories of accordions". Farfisa began manufacturing electric organs in 1964. Distribution in the U. S. was handled by the Chicago Musical Instrument Company, which owned Gibson, the instruments were known as CMI organs when introduced there. Unlike combo organs such as the Vox Continental, Farfisa organs have integrated legs, which can be folded up and stored inside its base.
The first models produced were the Compact series of organs between 1964 and 1968. The line of FAST organs was launched at the 1968 NAMM show, production of the Professional series appeared around the same time. Production of combo organs ended in the late 1970s. One of the first rock organists to play and spotlight the Farfisa was Domingo Samudio, known as "Sam the Sham", who with his group The Pharaohs had their first hit "Wooly Bully" in the summer of 1965. In 1966, a Farfisa was prominently heard in "Double Shot" recorded by the South Carolina-based group The Swingin' Medallions. Spooner Oldham, the house organist of Alabama recording studio Muscle Shoals Sound Studio, can be heard playing the Farfisa on numerous southern soul recordings from the 1960s, notably "When a Man Loves a Woman" by Percy Sledge, among many others; the 1967 release of "Second Best" by The Household Sponge features a Farfisa Compact, played by Geoff Wright. Richard Wright's use of the Farfisa Compact Duo was integral to the sound of Pink Floyd's early albums, such as The Piper at the Gates of Dawn and Ummagumma.
By 1970, he had started to use a Hammond Organ onstage and alternated between that and the Farfisa, depending on the song. The Farfisa was last used on "Time" from Dark Side of the Moon, but Wright reintroduced it to his keyboard setup on David Gilmour's 2006 tour, featured notably on the Pink Floyd song "Echoes". Sly Stone from Sly and the Family Stone played a Farfisa Professional, as seen at their 1969 Woodstock Festival performance. Hugh Banton from Van der Graaf Generator used the Farfisa Professional, applying his knowledge of electronics and contacts as a former BBC engineer to customise it with a variety of additional effects pedals, including distortion and phasing; the Professional is the only organ used on The Aerosol Grey Machine and The Least We Can Do Is Wave to Each Other, after which he started using Hammonds. It was retired after the group's 1972 split. John Paul Jones of Led Zeppelin used a Farfisa on "Dancing Days" from Houses of the Holy, as well as using a VIP-255 or a Professional model on stage.
Another famous recording is the 1970 A Tribute to Jack Johnson by Miles Davis, where Herbie Hancock plays spontaneous licks on a broken Farfisa. Composer Philip Glass began using Farfisa organs with his ensemble in the late 1960s. With the advent of synthesizers, organs such as the classic Farfisa seemed to be headed for obsolescence, but time proved otherwise. In the late 1970s, with older models becoming cheaper, numerous punk rock and New Wave bands, such as Blondie, The B-52s, Squeeze, Human Switchboard, XTC, Elvis Costello & the Attractions, Talking Heads embraced Farfisas as substitutes for more sophisticated keyboards and synthesizers, their classic sound, in turn, became a staple on multitimbral instruments, first synthesized sampled from the originals. Numerous songs by the Industrial group Cabaret Voltaire have been known to use Farfisa drum machines and Organs. "Crocodile Rock" by Elton John features a Farfisa organ, played by John in a honky-tonk rhythm with carnival-style riffs.
The introduction of the Farfisa into West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s played an important role in evolution of Highlife and Afro-rock. This can be heard in the work of seminal acts like K. Monomono; the Farfisa sound is today used to impart a stereotypical 1960s-retro essence to music. It was a key ingredient to the sound of bands such as Inspiral Carpets and has appeared on many albums by contemporary artists; the Farfisa brand name, continues to appear on contemporary MIDI keyboards. The Italian keyboardist/artist Joey Mauro used various Farfisas to create sound in his Italo disco songs. One of Farfisa's most distinctive and expensive organs was the Farfisa Pergamon, which debuted in 1981. Due to its weight of over 200 kilograms, the Pergamon didn't have a portable version; the Post-rock group Stereolab used various Farfisa organs extensively throughout their career. They were used by Candida Doyle of the Sheffield group Pulp. A Farfisa was used on Mike Watt's "Against the 70's", played by former Nirvana bassist, Krist Novoselic.
The rock group Green Day used a Farfisa organ on the song "Misery" from the album Warning, played by their bassist Mike Dirnt. The Compact series had four models. On the Compact Duo dual manual organs and volume were regulated by controls on the F/AR combination preamp, rever
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Sara Lee (musician)
Sara Lee is an English bassist and singer-songwriter, who came to prominence replacing Dave Allen on bass guitar in post-punk band Gang of Four, which she was a member of from 1980 to 1983. She was a member of Robert Fripp's short-lived band The League of Gentlemen and is notable for work with B-52s, Ani DiFranco and Indigo Girls. Lee confirmed in an interview on Rundgrenradio.com. Born in the West Midlands of England, Lee's entire family was musical. Both parents were music teachers, her sister a cellist, her brother a trombone player. Music formed an important part of her childhood, she played tympani and double bass in school and local orchestras as a teenager, until the day she discovered the electric bass guitar. After playing with a couple of local bands, she moved to London and worked as a secretary at Polydor Records. Here she was discovered by King Crimson leader Robert Fripp, encouraged to stay at a show to see "a girl who works in the office. Fripp invited her to join The League of Gentlemen.
Lee went on to work with Robyn Hitchcock on his album Groovy Decay and recorded two albums with famed political punk band Gang of Four in England, moved to the United States. Lee became a sought-after session and recording artist, playing with the Thompson Twins before she crossed paths with The B-52's during the recording of their Cosmic Thing album, can be seen in the "Love Shack" and the "Roam" videos. Following a stint on the Cosmic tour, Sara formed The Raging Hormones with B-52 session drummer Charley Drayton, she started a seven-year run with the Indigo Girls, contributing "sterling performances". In 1996 and 1997 she accompanied singer-songwriter Ani DiFranco on tours of Europe and North America, as documented on the double-live album Living in Clip. Lee has played with many other artists, including Joan Osborne, Ryuichi Sakamoto and Fiona Apple, is a close friend of David Bowie bassist Gail Ann Dorsey. Lee re-joined the B-52's as a touring member in 1999. On 12 September 2000 she released her debut solo album Make It Beautiful on Difranco's Righteous Babe records.
Lee recorded instrumental tracks, which were sent to musicians with whom she had worked to provide lyrics, including Ani DiFranco, Emily Saliers of the Indigo Girls, Pal Shazar, Barbara Gogan of The Passions and Kristen Hall. She replaced Rachel Haden for the final dates of Todd Rundgren's 2009 Arena tour. Lee was a judge for the fifth annual Independent Music Awards to support independent artists' careers. Rundgren Radio online audio interview with Sara Lee from 11/18/09 Archive of Lee's former website Basiclee.com on Archive.org
A synthesizer or synthesiser is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that may be converted to sound. Synthesizers may imitate traditional musical instruments such as piano, vocals, or natural sounds such as ocean waves, they are played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are called sound modules, are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Synthesizers were first used in pop music in the 1960s. In the late 1970s, synths were used in progressive rock and disco.
In the 1980s, the invention of the inexpensive Yamaha DX7 synth made digital synthesizers available. 1980s pop and dance music made heavy use of synthesizers. In the 2010s, synthesizers are used in many genres, such as pop, hip hop, metal and dance. Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer; the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments. One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the Musical Telegraph, was invented in 1876 by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray, he accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit, invented a basic single-note oscillator. This instrument used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, consisting of a vibrating diaphragm in a magnetic field, to make the oscillator audible.
This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy and electric buzzers that generated fixed timbre sound. Though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill was granted his first patent for an electronic musical instrument, which by 1901 he had developed into the Telharmonium capable of additive synthesis. Cahill's business was unsuccessful for various reasons, but similar and more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs including the Hammond organ, invented in 1935. In 1906, American engineer Lee de Forest invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion whose amplification of weak audio signals contributed to advances in sound recording and film, the invention of early electronic musical instruments including the theremin, the ondes martenot, the trautonium. Most of these early instruments used heterodyne circuits to produce audio frequencies, were limited in their synthesis capabilities.
The ondes martenot and trautonium were continuously developed for several decades developing qualities similar to synthesizers. In the 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, similar graphical sound and tonewheel systems were developed around the world. In 1938, USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics. Although his idea of reconstructing a sound from its visible image was simple, the instrument was not realized until 20 years in 1958, as Murzin was, "an engineer who worked in areas unrelated to music". In the 1930s and 1940s, the basic elements required for the modern analog subtractive synthesizers — electronic oscillators, audio filters, envelope controllers, various effects units — had appeared and were utilized in several electronic instruments; the earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in the United States. The Warbo Formant Orgel developed by Harald Bode in Germany in 1937, was a four-voice key-assignment keyboard with two formant filters and a dynamic envelope controller.
The Hammond Novachord released in 1939, was an electronic keyboard that used twelve sets of top-octave oscillators with octave dividers to generate sound, with vibrato, a resonator filter bank and a dynamic envelope controller. During the three years that Hammond manufactured this model, 1,069 units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II. Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers. In the 1940s and 1950s, before the popularization of electronic organs and the introductions of combo organs, manufacturers developed various portable monophonic electronic instruments with small keyboards; these small instruments consisted of an electronic oscillator, vibrato effect, passive filters. Most were designed for conventional ensembles, rather than as experimental instruments for electronic music studios, but contributed to the evolution of modern synthesizers; these instruments include the Solovox, Multimonica and Clavioline.
In the late 1940s, Canadian inventor and composer, Hugh Le Caine invented the Electronic Sackbut, a voltage-controlled electronic musical instrument that provided the earliest real-time control of three aspects of sound —corresponding to today's touch-sensitive keyboard and modulation controllers. The controllers were impl
Dance Club Songs
The Dance Club Songs chart is a weekly chart published by Billboard in the United States. It is a national survey of the songs which are the most popular in nightclubs across the country and is compiled from reports from a national sample of disc jockeys, it was launched as the Disco Action Top 30 chart on August 28, 1976, became the first chart by Billboard to document the popularity of dance music. Since its inception, several artists garnered multiple achievements. In January 2017, Billboard proclaimed Madonna as the most successful artist in the history of the chart, ranking her first in their list of the 100 top all time dance artists and Janet Jackson being the second most successful dance club artist of all-time. Katy Perry holds the record for having eighteen consecutive number-one songs. Perry's third studio album, Teenage Dream, became the first album in the history of the chart to produce at least seven number-one songs between 2010–12, a record it held until Rihanna's eighth studio album Anti produced seven chart toppers through 2016-17.
Rihanna is the only artist to have achieved five number-one songs in a calendar year. The first number-one song on the Dance Club Songs chart for the issue dated August 28, 1976, was "You Should Be Dancing" by the Bee Gees; the current number-one song on the Dance Club Songs chart for the issue dated April 13, 2019, is "The Boss 2019" by Diana Ross. Dance Club Songs has undergone several incarnations since its inception in 1974. A top-ten list of tracks that garnered the largest audience response in New York City discothèques, the chart began on October 26, 1974 under the title Disco Action; the chart went on to feature playlists from various cities around the country from week to week. Billboard continued to run regional and city-specific charts throughout 1975 and 1976 until the issue dated August 28, 1976, when a thirty-position National Disco Action Top 30 premiered; this expanded to forty positions in 1979 the chart expanded to sixty positions eighty, reached 100 positions from 1979 until 1981, when it was reduced to eighty again.
During the first half of the 1980s the chart maintained eighty slots until March 16, 1985 when the Disco charts were splintered and renamed. Two charts appeared: Hot Dance/Disco, which ranked club play, Hot Dance Music/Maxi-Singles Sales, which ranked 12-inch single sales. Only Hot Dance Club Songs still exists today. In 2003 Billboard introduced the Hot Dance Airplay chart, based on radio airplay of six dance music stations and top 40 mix shows electronically monitored by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems; these stations are a part of the electronically monitored panel that encompasses the Hot 100. On January 26, 2013, Billboard added a new chart, Dance/Electronic Songs, which tracks the 50 most popular Dance and Electronic singles and tracks based on digital single sales, radio airplay, club play as reported on the component Dance/Electronic Digital Songs, Dance/Electronic Streaming Songs, Dance Club Songs charts. Radio airplay is not limited to that counted on the Dance/Mix Show Airplay chart.
Although the disco chart began reporting popular songs in New York City nightclubs, Billboard soon expanded coverage to feature multiple charts each week which highlighted playlists in various cities such as San Francisco, San Diego, Los Angeles, Phoenix and Houston. During this time, Billboard rival publication Record World was the first to compile a dance chart which incorporated club play on a national level. Noted Billboard statistician Joel Whitburn has since "adopted" Record Worlds chart data from the weeks between March 29, 1975 and August 21, 1976 into Billboards club play history. For the sake of continuity, Record Worlds national chart is incorporated into both Whitburn's Dance/Disco publication as well as the 1975 and 1976 number-ones lists. With the issue dated August 28, 1976, Billboard premiered its own national chart and their data is used from this date forward. For the full list of all 100 All Time Top Dance Club Artists, click here. 19th week — "Wordy Rappinghood"/"Genius of Love" by Tom Tom Club 19th week — "Walking on a Dream" by Empire of the Sun 17th week — "Losing It" by Fisher 16th week — "The Look of Love" by ABC 16th week — "Most Precious Love" by Blaze presents U.
D. A. U. F. L. Featuring Barbara Tucker 16th week — "Where Have You Been" by Rihanna 16th week — "Right Now" by Rihanna featuring David GuettaSources: Thriller by Michael Jackson "The Boss" — Diana Ross, The Braxtons, Kristine W, again Diana Ross. Enrique Iglesias, Dave Audé and Pitbull are tied with 14 number-ones on the chart, the most among male artists. Iglesias, however, is the only male vocalist to accomplish this feat, while Audé is the only producer to achieve this milestone, as his singles feature a different vocalist. Rihanna is the first artist to earn 4 number-ones on the chart in a year and is the first act to earn 5 number-ones in a year as well. Three acts have attained thirteen number-one songs: Deborah Cox, Whitney Houston, Yoko Ono. Kylie Minogue became the first act to have two songs in the top three on March 5, 2011, her song "Better than Today" was number-one while "Higher", a song by Taio Cruz on which Minogue features, was number three. On July 28, 2016, Rihanna became the secon