The term skiff is used for a number of unrelated styles of small boat. Traditionally, these are coastal craft or rivercrafts used for leisure, as a utility craft and for fishing, have a one-person or small crew. Sailing skiffs have developed into high performance competitive classes. Many of today's skiff classes are based in Australia and New Zealand in the form of 12 ft, 13 ft, 16 ft and 18 ft skiffs; the 29er, 49er, SKUD and Musto Skiff are all considered to developed from the skiff concept, all of which are sailed internationally. The term skiff is used for a racing shell called single scull for competitive rowing, rowed by one rower with two oars; as opposed to sweep boats, where the rowers only have one oar each - coxless pair, coxless four etc. Of course a lone rower must have two oars to row, so sweep oar does not exist for the skiff/single scull; the word is related to ship and has a complicated etymology: "skiff" comes from the Middle English skif, which derives from the Old French esquif, which in turn derives from the Old Italian schifo, itself of Germanic origin.
"Ship" comes from the Old English "scip". Danish “skib” and Swedish “skepp”; the term has been used for a number of styles of craft round the United Kingdom small river and sea going craft. They varied from double ended rowing boats to small sailing boats; the poet John Milton refers to a'night foundered skiff' in Paradise Lost as early as 1670. There are references to skiffs on the River Thames as early as 1824 at Oxford. In August 1815, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley was taken on an expedition by skiff from Old Windsor to Lechlade by Charles Clairmont and Thomas Love Peacock, he subsequently settled at Marlow where he rowed his skiff through the locks. Shelley drowned sailing in a skiff off the coast of Italy, it was used in the Lady of the Lake by Sir Walter Scott. The Thames skiff became formalised as a specific design in the early part of the 19th century, it is a round-bottom clinker-built rowing boat, still common on the River Thames and other rivers in England. Rowing skiffs became popular in Victorian Britain and a skiff journey up the River Thames features in Three Men in a Boat by Jerome K. Jerome, These skiffs could carry a sail and could be used for camping.
Although general usage has declined, skiffs are still used for racing. During the year, skiffing regattas are held in various riverside towns in England—the major event being the Skiff Championships Regatta at Henley. Akin to the skiff is the Yoal or Yole, a clinker built boat used for fishing in the Orkney and Shetland Islands; the boat itself is a version of the Norwegian Oselvar, similar to a skiff in appearance, while the word is cognate with Yawl. The French Yole is a leisure craft similar to the Thames Skiff and is translated as "Skiff", while the French Skiff translates to a Single scull. In Dutch and German, "Skiff" means a single scull, while Czech Skif refers to sculling boats in general. Regattas take place across Northern Ireland with one of the largest being held in Portadown but smaller events take place throughout the year across County Down. In American usage, the term is used to apply to small sea-going fishing boats, it is referred to in literature in Moby-Dick by Herman Melville and The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway.
The skiff could be powered by sails as well as oars. One usage of skiff is to refer to a small flat-bottomed open boat with a pointed bow and a flat stern developed as an inexpensive and easy to build boat for use by inshore fishermen. Designed to be powered by rowing, their form has evolved so that they are efficiently powered by outboard motors; the design is still in common use today for both pleasure craft. They can be made of wood or other materials. There is a similar style of craft in Central America and Mexico called a panga; the term skiff has been applied to motorized boats of small size and construction used as sea-going vessels for piracy or drug-smuggling. The skiff with a sail has developed into specific sailing boats bearing the name "skiff". In Sydney, the term was used for a number of racing classes; these were heavily crewed and canvassed boats that were short for the canvas and crew carried and were developed from working boats of the time. This style of boat is still active in the form of 18 foot classes.
The skiff classes developed to become much lighter and faster with smaller rigs and smaller crews. 12ft Skiff, 13 ft Skiff, 16ft Skiff, 18ft Skiff classes are raced in that form. With two crew on the 12 and 13 footer and three on the 16 and 18 these are still crewed boats for their size. Modern developments began with the introduction of carbon fibre reinforced composite hulls, allowing for a significant reduction in weight, an increase in rigidity. Following this, the use of carbon in masts and rigging allowed for more sail area, better gust response. Moulded sails are being tested in both 12 ft and 16 ft skiffs, with most modern Australian 18 ft Skiffs utilising the new technology; because the modern 18s have such a high profile, the term skiff is used internationally to refer to other high-performance sailing dinghy classes featuring asymmetrical spinnaker and trapeze which have been influenced by modern skiffs. Examples include: Cherub Skiff, International 14, 29er, 49er; these boats tend to be less crewed in relation to their length than the traditional Australian Skiff Classes.
The term is used for some
A floatplane is a type of seaplane, with one or more slender pontoons mounted under the fuselage to provide buoyancy. By contrast, a flying boat uses its fuselage for buoyancy. Either type of seaplane may have landing gear suitable for land, making the vehicle an amphibious aircraft. British usage is to call "floatplanes" "seaplanes" rather than use the term "seaplane" to refer to both floatplanes and flying boats. Since World War II and the advent of helicopters, advanced aircraft carriers and land-based aircraft, military seaplanes have stopped being used. This, coupled with the increased availability of civilian airstrips, have reduced the number of flying boats being built. However, numerous modern civilian aircraft have floatplane variants, most of these are offered as third-party modifications under a supplemental type certificate, although there are several aircraft manufacturers that build floatplanes from scratch; these floatplanes have found their niche as one type of bush plane, for light duty transportation to lakes and other remote areas, as well as to small/hilly islands without proper airstrips.
They may operate on a charter basis, provide scheduled service, or be operated by residents of the area for private, personal use. Float planes have been derived from land-based aircraft, with fixed floats mounted under the fuselage instead of retractable undercarriage. Float planes offer several advantages since the fuselage is not in contact with water, which simplifies production by not having to incorporate the compromises necessary for water tightness, general impact strength and the hydroplaning characteristics needed for the aircraft to leave the water. Attaching floats to a landplane allows for much larger production volumes to pay for the development and production of the small number of aircraft operated from the water. Additionally, on all but the largest seaplanes, floatplane wings offer more clearance over obstacles, such as docks, reducing the difficulty in loading while on the water. A typical single engine flying boat is unable to bring the hull alongside a dock for loading while most floatplanes are able to do so.
Floats impose extra drag and weight, rendering floatplanes slower and less manoeuvrable during flight, with a slower rate of climb, relative to aircraft equipped with wheeled landing gear. Air races devoted to floatplanes attracted a lot of attention during the 1920s and 1930s, most notably in the form of the Schneider Trophy, not least because water takeoffs permitted longer takeoff runs which allowed greater optimization for high speed compared to contemporary airfields. There are two basic configurations for the floats on floatplanes: "single float" designs, in which a single large float is mounted directly underneath the fuselage, with smaller stabilizing floats underneath the wingtips, on planes like the Nakajima A6M2-N and; some early twin float designs had additional wingtip stabilizing floats. The main advantage of the single float design is its capability for landings in rough water: a long central float is directly attached to the fuselage, this being the strongest part of the aircraft structure, while the smaller floats under the outer wings provide the aircraft with lateral stability.
By comparison, dual floats restrict handling to waves as little as one foot in height. However, twin float designs facilitate mooring and boarding, – in the case of torpedo bombers – leave the belly free to carry a torpedo. Amphibious aircraft List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft RAPT system "Why Seaplanes Fly With Bullet Speed", December 1931, Popular Science excellent article on the different design features of the floats on floatplanes "Will a Lake Be Your Postwar Landing Field?" Popular Science, February 1945, pp. 134–135
A chine in boating refers to a sharp change in angle in the cross section of a hull. A hull without chines has a curving cross section; the term hard chine indicates an angle with little rounding, where a soft chine would be more rounded, but still involve the meeting of distinct planes. Chine log construction is a method of building hard chine boat hulls. Hard chines are common in plywood hulls, while soft chines are found on fiberglass hulls; the oldest type of engineered boats are dugout canoes. These designs had rounded bottoms, which made best use of the round shape of the logs. Traditional planked hulls in most cultures are built by placing wooden planks oriented parallel to the waterflow and attached to bent wooden frames; this produced a rounded hull with a sharp bottom edge to form the keel. Planked boats were built in this manner for most of history; the first hulls to start incorporating hard chines were shallow draft cargo carrying vessels used on rivers and in canals. Once sufficiently powerful marine motors had been developed to allow powerboats to plane, it was found that the flat underside of a chined boat provided maximum hydrodynamic lift and speed.
The scow in particular, in the form of the scow schooner, was the first significant example of a hard chine sailing vessel. While sailing scows had a poor safety reputation, due more to their typical cheap construction and tendency to founder in storms; as long as it sailed in the protected inland and coastal waters it was designed to operate in, the sailing scow was an efficient and cost effective solution to transporting goods from inland sources to the coast. A good example of this is the gundalow. Working in the same inland waters as the sailing scows was the river steamboat. River steamboats were built using the same hard chined construction methods of the sailing scows, with a flat bottom, hard chine, nearly vertical sides; the punt is one of the simplest hard chine small boats. Consisting of a single plank for each side, with a square bow and stern, the punt was in essence a tiny scow; the simplest type of chine construction is the single chine "V" shape, with two flat panels joined at the keel.
This type of hull is among the simplest to build, but they lack stability on a narrow "V" and may lack freeboard on a wide "V". Single chine hulls are only seen on multihull sailboats, which use two deep "V" shaped hulls connected by akas to provide mutual stability; the two chine hull, with a flat bottom and nearly vertical sides, was the first hard chine design to achieve widespread use. This design provides far more stability than the single chine hull, with minimum draft and a large cargo capacity; these characteristics make the two chine hull popular for punts and scows. The three chine hull is the most common hard chine hull. Having a shallow "V" in the bottom and near-vertical panels above that, it approximates the shape of traditional rounded hull boats well; this hull is common in fiberglass designs where employing chines offers no advantage in construction. Designs with higher numbers of chines just called multichine hulls, are common. By increasing the number of chines, the hull can closely approximate a round bottomed hull.
Kayaks, in particular, are composed of many chines, required for the complex shapes needed to provide good performance under various conditions. It is possible to refer to the different hulls by the numbers of the flat panels that make up the boat, thus A is a two-panel boat, B is a three-panel boat, C is a four-panel boat and D is an eight-panel boat. Plank hulls use wooden supports placed along the chines called chine logs to provide strength where the chines joined. Beams are attached to the chine log to support planks running parallel to the chine, while cross-planked sections such as a typical scow bottom may be attached directly to the chine log; this method of construction originated with the sailing scow and continues to be used today in home built boats. Chine log construction works best for hulls where the sides join a flat bottom at a right angle, but it can be used for other angles as well with an appropriately angled chine log. Builders of small boats such as punts, where the plank thickness is large compared to the size of the hull, can dispense with the chine log and nail intersecting planks directly into one another.
A chined hull built out of plywood will be designed to keep most of the lengthwise joints between the plywood sheets at the chines, thus making the building process easier. While chine logs can be used for plywood boats, another common technique replaces the chine logs with a fiberglass and epoxy fillet joint that provides both connection and stiffness to the joint. Strake Smooth curve hull
Dinghy sailing is the activity of sailing small boats by using five essential controls: the sails the foils the trim side-to-side balance of the dinghy by hiking or movement of the crew in windy weather the choice of route When racing, the above skills need to be refined and additional skills and techniques learned, such as the application of the "racing rules of sailing", boat handling skills when starting and when rounding marks, knowledge of tactics and strategy. Racing tactics include positioning your boat at different angles. To improve speed when racing, sailors should position themselves at the windward direction in order to get "clean air". Shared challenges and the variability of the weather and sea can make dinghy sailing and racing a fascinating and rewarding recreational sport: physically, in terms of personal relationships with other crew members and organizers; the RYA, regulating authority for sail training in the UK and Europe, states that, "With a reliance on nature and the elements, sailing... is about adventure, exploration and fun."
There has always been a need for small tender boats for transporting goods and personnel to and from anchored sailing ships. Together with other smaller work craft such as fishing and light cargo, small inshore craft have always been in evidence. Charles II of England had a private sailing boat presented to him when he returned from exile to England in the 17th century, he sailed for recreation and competition. In 1887 Thomas Middleton, a Dublin solicitor, considered that yacht racing was becoming an excessively expensive activity, with boats becoming eclipsed by better designs each year, he proposed the'One Model' principle. He wanted yacht racing to be an exercise of skill with all boats being built to the same design, he assembled a group of potential owners who agreed to call the boat'The Water Wag'. The Water Wag Club still prospers in Dún Laoghaire harbour, with racing each Wednesday evening during the Summer season. Towards the end of the 19th century people began to use these small boats for sport and recreational sailing, utilising the opportunities for leisure afforded by the industrial revolution.
Larger used sailing boats had developed separately, have resulted in the yachts of today. There has been some crossover, in that the sloop sail plan was adopted as standard and most convenient by early dinghy designers; the development of the sailing dinghy was helped in the early 20th century by Uffa Fox, an English boat designer and sailing enthusiast. He developed and contributed to many dinghy classes that are still with us nearly a century later: the Albacore, International 14, National 12, Jet 14, Flying Fifteen and Scorpion, he introduced the major advance of hull shapes that can plane, which can therefore reach beyond the usual speed limits for small sailing boats. In effect, a boat, planing is skimming along the surface, with the bow of the boat not in the water; this results in less friction because of reduced waterline length, reduced displacement, reduced'wetted area'. The driving force provided by the sails has to overcome less resistance, therefore speed increases dramatically. In 1928 Uffa Fox introduced planing to the English dinghy racing world in his International 14 boat, the Avenger.
He gained two second places and three third places out of 57 race starts that year. Note: Graham Anderson in his 1999 book Fast Light Boats, a Century of Kiwi Innovation argues that planing centreboard sailing boats were introduced into New Zealand in the early 20th century – well before Uffa Fox popularised the concept. Another advance in dinghy sailing was introduced in the 1930s, when the technique of trapezing was introduced; this involves using the crew to provide more leverage to keep the sails vertical and the boat balanced. As a result, the boat is easier to keep upright, the sails can deliver maximum power most of the time. While trapezing can be helpful and increase speed, it can be dangerous if the crew is not wearing a quick-release harness or is inexperienced; the quick-release harness allows the crew to unstrap themselves so as to not get forced under the boat if it were to capsize. Trapezing during a race first appeared in 1934, on the Amazon A Class Rater Vagabond 14 foot international sailed by Peter Scott, John Winter.
The owner of the boat, Beecher Moore, of Thames Sailing Club, had worked on developing the technique, in discussion with Uffa Fox. Vagabond was spectacularly successful in that race, winning by four minutes; the innovative technique was banned, received little development until it was reintroduced on the Osprey and Fiveohfive Class in 1954 by John Westell and the Flying Dutchman class in the early 1960s. During the Second World War plywood had become a major building material for aircraft. After the war, plywood was adapted for building sailing dinghies. Two primary methods of construction were adopted: stitch and glue and timber-framed construction. Jack Holt designed many dinghies to be built by home handymen using these construction techniques; the Mirror Dinghy was predominantly built using stitch and glue, while the Enterprise and He
A proa seen as prau and prahu, or prow, is a type of multihull sailboat. It is a vessel consisting of two unequal length parallel hulls, it is sailed so that one hull is kept to windward, the other to leeward, so that it needs to "shunt" to reverse direction when tacking. The English term proa refers to the South Pacific proa as described in the journals of the British ship HMS Centurion; the perahu traditional outrigger boat is most numerous in the various islands of Indonesia and the Philippines. These differ from the South Pacific vessels. Traditional proas superficially resemble outrigger canoes, but have a buoyant lee hull and a denser, ballasted hull to windward for stability. To Americans, the boats of the Marianas Islands are arguably the most recognizable version; the modern proa exists in a wide variety of forms, from the traditional archetype still common in areas described, to high-technology interpretations designed for breaking speed-sailing records. The word proa comes from perahu, the word for "boat" in Malay, which are similar to the Micronesian language group.
Found in many configurations and forms, the proa was developed as a sailing vessel in Micronesia. Variations may be found as distant as Sri Lanka, as far back as the first century; such vessels go by many names, "perahu" is a generic umbrella term for any boat smaller than a ship. However, until at least to the 17th century, perahu refers to large ships, until replaced by kapal some time after, whereas the smaller boat is called sampan; the "proa" was first documented by the Spanish Magellan expedition to the Philippines circa 1519 CE. The word entered the English language around 1742.. The first illustrations known to Europeans appeared around the middle 19th century in Europe, ushering in a period of interest in the design. Working from the drawings and descriptions of explorers, western builders took liberties with the traditional designs, merging their interpretation of native designs with Western boat building methods, thus this Western "proa" diverged radically from the traditional "proa" to the point that the only shared feature was the windward/leeward hull arrangement.
Various native names of the various components of the proa have entered the jargon of sailing. The main hull of the proa is known as the vaka, the outrigger as the ama, the outrigger supports as the akas; the terms vaka and aka have been adopted in Western sailing to describe the analogous parts in trimarans. The defining feature of the proa is" when it changes tacks; the same hull is kept windward for ballast. The main hull, or vaka, is longer than the windward hull, or ama. Crossbeams called. Traditional proa hulls are markedly asymmetrical along their length, curved in such a way as to produce lift to counteract the lateral forces of the wind. Modern proa hulls are symmetrical, use leeboards for lateral resistance. A number of other vessels use a similar layout with uneven hulls and a shunting sail, but are culturally and distinct from the Western interpreted-invented proa. Examples of these are the Melanesian tepukei; the Micronesian proa is found in a variety of sizes, from the small, canoe-like kor-kor to the medium-sized tipnol, to the tremendous walap, which can be up to 100 feet long.
A model proa, called a riwuit, is raced by children. Proas sailed; the traditional sail used on the proa was the crab-claw sail, which generates far more lift than the more common triangular sloop rig used on small boats when reaching. The sloop rig only begins to show an advantage with small angles of attack, such as encountered when close-hauled; this is the result of the higher aspect ratio of the sloop. When sailing in a strong wind, the crew of the proa act as ballast, providing a force to counteract the torque of the wind acting on the sail; the weight of the crew can provide considerable torque as they move out along the akas towards the ama. A skilled crew can balance the proa. Flying the ama reduces the drag of the proa; the proa gets its great potential for speed by combining the long, narrow shape of the vaka with the large amount of torque that the crew can apply on the amas. The Proa darted like a shooting star Lord Byron, "The Island", 1823Vessels that have a bow at either end are found scattered throughout history, with the earliest mention being in Pliny the Elder's Natural History.
He describes double-ended vessels being used to transport cargo across the strait at Taprobane, or what is now the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka, where the double-ended nature of the vessels allowed them to ferry cargo back and forth without turning around. Square rigged sailing proas are still in use in Sri Lanka as fishing boats, called Oru; the written history of the Micronesian proa began when it was recorded after encounter by European explorers in the Micronesian islands. The earliest written accounts were by Antonio Pigafetta, an Italian, a passenger on Ferdinand Magellan's 1519–1522 circumnavigation. Pigafetta's account of the stop at 146 E, 12 N, describes th
Yacht racing is a form of sport involving sailing yachts and larger sailboats, as distinguished from dinghy racing. It is composed of multiple yachts, in direct competition, racing around a course marked by buoys or other fixed navigational devices or racing longer distances across open water from point-to-point, it can involve a series of races when buoy multiple legs when point-to-point racing. Yachting, that is, recreational boating, is old, as exemplified in the ancient poem Catullus 4: "Yacht" is referred to as deriving from either Norwegian, Middle Low German or from the Dutch word jacht, which means "a swift light vessel of war, commerce or pleasure; the sporting element in the word lies in the derivation of jaght from the root jaghen, which means to hunt, chase or pursue…."The formal racing of boats is believed to have started with sailboats in the Netherlands some time in the 17th century. Soon, in England, custom-built racing "yachts" began to emerge and the Royal Yacht Squadron was established in 1815.
In 1661 John Evelyn recorded a competition between Katherine and Anne, two large royal sailing vessels both of English design, "…the wager 100-1. One of the vessels was owned, sometimes steered, by Charles II, the King of England; the king lost. In 1782 the Cumberland Fleet, a class of sailing vessel known for its ability to sail close to the wind, were painted racing up the Thames River with spectators viewing from a bridge. Much like today, this obsession with sailing close to the wind with speed and efficiency fueled the racing community. In the nineteenth century most yacht races were started by allotting starting positions to the competitors. Buoys were laid in a straight line, to which the competitors attached their yachts by means of spring ropes; the yachts were required to keep all the sails forward of the main mast on deck until the starting signal was given. The Yacht Racing Association was founded in 1875 by Prince Batthyany-Strattman, Captain J. W. Hughes, Mr. Dixon Kemp; the Y. R. A. wrote standardised yacht racing rules.
Bringing yacht racing to the forefront of public life, the America's Cup was first raced in 1851 between the New York Yacht Club and the Royal Yacht Squadron. Not ruled or regulated by measurement criteria as today, it is the second-place finisher was Aurora, "and but for the fact that time allowance had been waived for the race she would have been the winner by a handsome margin." Subsequently, the Cup races were conducted every 3–4 years, based on a challenge issued by one club to the current Cup holder, which till 1983 was the NYYC. As at 2017, the La Ciotat Based Yacht Partridge 1885 is documented as being the world's oldest, still operational classic racing yacht; as yacht racing became more prevalent, yacht design more diverse, it was necessary to establish systems of measurements and time allowances due to the differences in boat design. Longer yachts are inherently faster than shorter ones. Larger yachts were handicapped; as a result, both ratings and “one-design” competition were developed.
Ratings systems rely upon some formulaic analysis of very specific yacht-design parameters such as length, sail area and hull shape. During the 1920s and through the 1970s the Cruising Club of America established a formula by which most racing/cruising boats were designed during that period. After its descendant, the mathematically complex International Offshore Rule of the 1970s, contributed to much decreased seaworthiness, the simpler Performance Handicap Racing Fleet system was adopted; the PHRF uses only proven performance characteristics theoretical sailing speed, as a means to allow dissimilar yachts—typically crewed by friends and families at clubs rather than by professional crews—to race together. Most popular family-oriented cruising sailboats will have a rating filed with a local chapter of the PHRF; the most prevalent handicap rating systems today are the ORC, ORR, IRC, the PHRF. Many countries organise their own handicap systems which do not take into account the size, weight, or sail area of the yacht, but performance is measured on the basis of previous race results.
The Irish E. C. H. O. System is such a handicap system. One-design racing was invented by Thomas Middleton in 1886 in Killiney Bay close to Dublin City, Republic of Ireland. Middleton was concerned that winning a yacht race was more reliant on having an expensive new yacht, than it was on the skill of the yachtsman. One design yacht racing is conducted with classes of similar boats, all built—often via mass-production—to the same design, with the same sail area and rig, the same number of crew, so that crew ability and tactical expertise are more to decide a race than boat type, or age, or weather. Popular racing boats such as The Water Wag, the J/22 and J/24, the Etchells, the Star and New York 30 of Nathanael Herreshoff are examples of one-design boats. In general, modern yacht-racing contests are conducted according to the Racing Rules of Sailing, first established in 1928. Though complex, the RRS are intended simply ensure fairness and safety; the Rules are updated every four years by the body now known as World Sailing.
The major races of today can be classified as offshore, around the world, inshore racing all adhering to one set of rule
The Albacore is a 4.57 m two-person planing dinghy, for competitive racing and lake and near-inshore day sailing. Hulls are made of fibreglass; the basic shape was developed in 1954 from an Uffa Fox design. Recent boats retain the same classic dimensions, use modern materials and modern control systems, making it ideal for the graduated college racer, as well as those with less experience. A deep airfoil section centerboard and rudder make the Albacore manoeuvrable; the Albacore's rig uses swept spreaders supporting a tapered mast, a powerful vang, adjustable jib halyard and other sail controls to depower in high winds. This adjustability enables light crews and heavy crews to race head-to-head in all but the most extreme conditions, it does not have a trapeze or spinnaker, hence avoids the difficult handling of sport boats. The powerful rig and driven hull give excellent performance over a wide range of wind and wave conditions; the 2011 International Champion described the Albacore as a boat, simple to get into at first, but one that will challenge the tuning and tactical skills of a sailor for the rest of their life.
Recent champions have been "graduates" of college sailing teams. The first Albacore was built by Clive Dave Lowe, who adapted Uffa Fox's design, they were both junior members of the Locks Sailing club in England in the 1950s. They crewed in a variety of boats including Lowe's National 12, but they were keen amateur boat builders. Dollery wanted a boat to race, they wanted to start with a ready made hull. Lowe's father and Uffa Fox had discussed and agreed to build a non-standard Flying 25 with significant changes made. So they assumed that the same agreement could be applied to a Swordfish sailing dinghy designed by Fox. A Swordfish hull was obtained from Fairey Marine via a local boat builder, they modified the hull cutting a slot and fitting a keel box. Several members of the Locks Sailing club were interested in this project and formed a committee with Fairey Marine, resulting in the'committee modified Swordfish'; this was renamed the'Albacore'. The committee agreed that this boat be allocated Albacore number 1.
The Locks Sailing club soon had a fleet of about 20 Albacores that raced against one another. In 1958 the National Albacore championships were held under the burgee of the Locks Sailing Club, in Langstone Harbour with a fleet of 46 boats. About 8,200 Albacores have been built; the class is raced in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Albacores are used for adult and youth sail training, for leisure sailing; the Albacore was ranked 16th most popular one-design sailboat in North America in 2010 by Sailing Anarchy, 38th most popular in the UK from 2001 to 2011 by Yachts and Yachting. There is a large concentration of Albacores in Toronto, Canada where the Friday night club series sees an average of 45 boats and peaks of over 60 boats on the start line every Friday during the summer sailing season. Older Albacores are found in vacation areas such as Ontario Cottage country; the Albacore class offers an active racing program, attracting experienced sailors as well as new enthusiasts. With local club racing, regional regattas, international championships, the class provides racing opportunities for every level of experience and interest.
In addition, Albacores compete with other boats in a mixed fleet by means of the Portsmouth Yardstick handicap scheme. Its Portsmouth number is 1062 and its D-PN is 90.3. The Class has a biannual International Championship with the venue alternating between the three key countries where the class is sailed; the earliest such event was in 1971, was won by Canadians Jack Langmaid and Nancy Langmaid in a Fairey Marine Albacore. The 2005 International Championship was held in Lyme Regis in Dorset, UK; the 2007 championship was held at the West River Sailing Club in Galesville, USA. The 2009 championship was held in Largs, Scotland, UK and was won by US sailors Barney Harris and David Byron; the 2011 International Championship was held in Toronto and was again won by Harris and Byron. The 2013 International Championship was held in Abersoch, UK and once again was won by Harris and Byron; the 2015 championships was held in Sarasota, USA and won by Canadians sailors George Carter and Almir Tavares. The 2017 Albacore Internationals will be hosted by the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy in the UK August 5–11, 2017.
Two manufacturers of Albacores produced boats in 2011 to 2013: Ovington Boats in the UK and Hapco Marine in the USA. The boats were delivered to UK, Canadian and US destinations. Notable earlier manufacturers include Ontario Yachts, Woof, Kingsfield Marine, Fairey Marine, Grampian Marine, McGruer&Clarke, JD Young, Lockley, Lockley-Newport, Whitby Boat Works; the hull weight of an Albacore is 109 kg. Therefore, the Albacore can be road-trailered, with 2 Albacores behind a typical family car. With appropriate road-trailer design, the boat can be unloaded using only 2 people; the Albacore is used as a first boat for those who are just learning to sail, as a competitive racer for more advanced sailors. Regatta results show that this class of boat is sailed by husband/wife and parent/child combinations, that some of the all-women teams are the most competitive in the class. All Albacores made are considered identical for the purpose of racing, can race together without a handicap. However, many details and materials be improved or modified at the choice of the individual owner or manufacturer, provided that the basic dimensions and materials meet the class specification.