Neckarbischofsheim is a town in the district of Rhein-Neckar-Kreis, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 8 km northeast of Sinsheim, 24 km southeast of Heidelberg. 1949–1974: Albert Kumpf 1974–1990: Günter Burkhardt 1990–2004: Rolf Geinert 2004–2012: Hans-Joachim Vogt since 2012: Tanja Grether Karl Mayer and poet Louis Mayer, landscape painter Axel Schock and author
Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is surrounded by Heilbronn County and, with 123,000 residents, it is the sixth-largest city in the state; the city on the Neckar is the seat of Heilbronn County. Heilbronn is the economic center of the Heilbronn-Franken region that includes most of northeast Baden-Württemberg. Furthermore, Heilbronn is known for its wine industry and is nicknamed Käthchenstadt, after Heinrich von Kleist's Das Käthchen von Heilbronn. Heilbronn is located in the northern corner of the Neckar basin at the bottom of the Wartberg, it occupies both banks of the Neckar, the highest spot inside city limits is the Schweinsberg with a height of 372 meters. Heilbronn is surrounded by vineyards. Heilbronn and its surroundings are located in the northern part of the larger Stuttgart metropolitan area; the city is the economic center of the Heilbronn-Franken region and is one of fourteen such cities in the Baden-Württemberg master plan of 2002. It serves Abstatt, Bad Rappenau, Bad Wimpfen, Brackenheim, Eberstatt, Eppingen, Gemmingen, Güglingen, Ittlingen, Lauffen am Neckar, Leingarten, Löwenstein, Neckarwestheim, Obersulm, Schwaigern, Talheim, Weinsberg, Wüstenrot, Zaberfeld as a regional economic centre.
Heilbronn shares a border with the following cities and towns, all part of Heilbronn County and listed here clockwise from the North: Bad Wimpfen, Erlenbach, Lehrensteinsfeld, Flein, Lauffen am Neckar, Leingarten, Schwaigern and Bad Rappenau. The city is divided into nine boroughs: The oldest traces of humans in and around Heilbronn date back to the Old Stone Age; the fertile Neckar floodplains in the Heilbronn basin aided early settlement by farmers and ranchers. The city limits of present-day Heilbronn contain. On, but still before AD, the Celts mined here for salt from brine. Under Roman Emperor Domitian the Romans pushed east away from the Rhine and the outer boundary of the Roman Empire was set at the Neckar-Odenwald Limes. A castle in today's borough of Böckingen was part of that limes, nearby numerous Roman villas and plantations were built. Around AD 150, the Neckar-Odenwald Limes became obsolete when the boundary of the Roman Empire was moved 30 km to the east, where it was subsequently fortified with the construction of the Upper Germanic Limes complete with parapet and trenches.
Around 260, the Romans surrendered the limes, the Alamanni became rulers of the Neckar basin. Between the 4th and 7th centuries, the area became part of the Frankish Empire, the first settlement was built in the general vicinity of the present center of town. In 741 Heilbronn is first mentioned in an official document of the Diocese of Würzburg as villa Helibrunna, in 841, King Louis the German set up court here for a period of time; the name Heilbrunna hints to a well, located not far from the basilica. In 1050 a significant settlement of Jews is noted in official documents, the Codex of the monastery in Hirsau documented Heilbronn's right to hold market days and mint coins, mentioning its harbor and vineyards as well; the name of the city became a widespread Jewish surname in many varieties, see Heilprin and Halperin. In 1225 Heilbronn was incorporated into the Hohenstaufen Empire as oppidum Heilecbrunnen. Oppidum signified a city fortified by parapet and trenches. During the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights obtained ownership of a large area south of Heilbronn which would remain owned by that order until German Mediatisation in 1805.
Starting in 1268, the order built the Deutschhof there as one of its residences. The church building of the order, located on the premises was modified and expanded several times: First in 1350 it was expanded it was remodeled in 1719, in 1977, it was consecrated as a cathedral. After the demise of the Staufen dynasty, King Rudolf I returned city status to Heilbronn in 1281 and installed a regal advocate to rule the city. In addition to the advocate he put a council in place, headed up by a mayor. Around 1300, the first city hall was erected in the market place and the Kilianskirche was expanded; the Neckar privilege gave the city the right to modify the flow of the river in 1333, which meant it now had the right to construct dams and mills. Because of the infrastructure thus created, during the 14th century Heilbronn grew attractive to merchants and craftspeople, who now demanded the right to determine their own fate. In 1371 Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, issued a new charter to the city. Now Heilbronn needed as such was an Imperial Free City.
Craftspeople and merchants were now represented in its council and the villages of Böckingen, Flein and Neckargartach became part of Heilbronn's territory. As an Imperial Free City Heilbronn was threatened by the ambitious House of Württemberg. A relationship with the Holy Roman Emperor and a treaty with the Electorate of the Palatinate in effect from 1417 to 1622 strengthened Heilbronn's position and kept the House of Württemberg at bay; the political stability enjoyed by the city during the 15th century enabled it to expand, many of its historic structures, such as the Kilianskirche, trace their origins to that era. Götz von Berlichingen spent three years in "kn
Hirschberg an der Bergstraße
Hirschberg an der Bergstraße is a town in the Rhein-Neckar district of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Hirschberg is situated on the Bergstraße on the western rim of the Odenwald, it lies between Weinheim to Schriesheim to the south. Hirschberg consists of two boroughs: Leutershausen Großsachsen
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
Rhineland-Palatinate is a state of Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate is located in western Germany covering an area of 19,846 km2 and a population of 4.05 million inhabitants, the seventh-most populous German state. Mainz is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Trier and Worms. Rhineland-Palatinate is surrounded by the states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, it borders three foreign countries: France and Belgium. Rhineland-Palatinate was established in 1946 after World War II from territory of the separate regions of the Free State of Prussia, People's State of Hesse, Bavaria, by the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, shared the country's only border with the Saar Protectorate until it was returned to German control in 1957. Rhineland-Palatinate has since developed its own identity built on its natural and cultural heritage, including the extensive Palatinate winegrowing region, its picturesque landscapes, many castles and palaces.
The state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded shortly after the Second World War on 30 August 1946. It was formed from the southern part of the Prussian Rhine Province, from Rhenish Hesse, from the western part of Nassau and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate minus the county of Saarpfalz; the Joint German-Luxembourg Sovereign Region is the only unincorporated area of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. This condominium is formed by the rivers Moselle and Our, where they run along the border between Luxembourg and Rhineland-Palatinate or the Saarland; the present state of Rhineland-Palatinate formed part of the French Zone of Occupation after the Second World War. It comprised the former Bavarian Palatinate, the Regierungsbezirke of Koblenz and Trier of the old Prussian Rhine Province, those parts of the Province of Rhenish Hesse west of the River Rhine and belonging to the People's State of Hesse, parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, the former Oldenburg region around Birkenfeld. On 10 July 1945, the occupation authority on the soil of the present-day Rhineland-Palatinate transferred from the Americans to the French.
To begin with, the French divided the region provisionally into two "upper presidiums", Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau and Hesse-Palatinate. The formation of the state was ordained on 30 August 1946, the last state in the Western Zone of Occupation to be established, by Regulation No. 57 of the French military government under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig. It was called Rhenish-Palatinate; the provisional French government at that time wanted to leave the option open of annexing further areas west of the Rhine after the Saarland was turned into a protectorate. When the Americans and British, had led the way with the establishment of German federal states, the French came under increasing pressure and followed their example by setting up the states of Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Rhineland-Palatinate. However, the French military government forbade the Saarland joining Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz was named as the state capital in the regulation. However, war damage and destruction meant that Mainz did not have enough administrative buildings, so the headquarters of the state government and parliament was provisionally established in Koblenz.
On 22 November 1946, the constituent meeting of the Advisory State Assembly took place there, a draft constitution was drawn up. Local elections had been held. Wilhelm Boden was nominated on 2 December as the minister president of the new state by the French military government. Adolf Süsterhenn submitted a draft constitution to the Advisory State Assembly, passed after several rounds of negotiation on 25 April 1947 in a final vote with the absolute majority of the CDU voting for and the SPD and KPD voting against it. One of the reasons for this was that the draft constitution made provision for separate schools based on Christian denomination. On 18 May 1947, the Constitution for Rhineland-Palatinate was adopted by 53% of the electorate in a referendum. While the Catholic north and west of the new state adopted the constitution by a majority, it was rejected by the majority in Rhenish Hesse and the Palatinate. On the same date, the first elections took place for the state parliament, the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The inaugural assembly of parliament took place on 4 June 1947 in the large city hall at Koblenz. Wilhelm Boden was elected the first minister-president of Rhineland-Palatinate. Just one month Peter Altmeier succeeded him; the constitutional bodies, the Government, the Parliament and the Constitutional Court, established their provisional sea
Helmstadt-Bargen is a town in the district of Rhein-Neckar in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. The town has 2 concert venues. Of the three places that have been offered as home of Dr. Faust, Helmstadt is the one mentioned in contemporary sources; the one other place given for Faust in contemporary sources is Heidelberg, but Mutianus Rufus in October 1513 mentions both Heidelberg and Helmstadt meaning Heidelberg to identify the general region. Contemporary sources therefore are consistent with Helmstadt being Faust´s home
Dielheim is a municipality in the Rhein-Neckar district of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Dielheim lies on the western edge of the upper Rhine valley; the Leimbach flows East to West through the center of Dielheim and its boroughs Horrenberg and Balzfeld. The Leimbach rises in Balzfeld. Dielheim includes the following boroughs in order of the number of residents: Dielheim Horrenberg Balzfeld Unterhof Oberhof Clockwise from the north around Dielheim are the following communities: Mauer Meckesheim Sinsheim Mühlhausen Rauenberg WieslochThe nearest cities are: Wiesloch 4 km Sinsheim 15 km Heidelberg 20 km Dielheim was first mentioned in the Lorsch codex in 767. Next to Diedelsheim and Schluchtern, Dielheim is one of the three oldest communities in the Kraichgau; the area was settled by the Romans, so one can assume the village was founded in the 6th century. The name used in the Lorsch Codex, may be the result of a reading or writing error made in the 12th century; the letters u and v were confused, so one can assume the name was divvelenheim.
The geminate vv stands for w, not used at that time. Therefore, we theorize. After going through many changes, the spelling we see today, first appears in the 17th century; the rulers of town can first be identified after late in the 13th century. By 1272 the prince-bishops of Speyer had won half of Dielheim. Prince-bishop Adolf, in desperate need of money, pawned his half of Dielheim to Conz Mönch of Rosenberg in 1380. Conz Mönch took the other half of the village in the following years, thereby putting Dielheim in the possession of a noble for the first time. Conz Mönch, to ensure his control of the area, had a simple castle built on the Teufelskopf; this castle was more like a fortified farm than a proper castle. The isolated fortification could not be maintained for long and was described as abandoned. Less than 200 years the castle appears as a place name. After multiple changes in ownership and having been pawned many times, Dielheim came as a whole into the ownership of the prince-bishops of Speyer in 1512.
The administrative seat of Dielheim for the prince-bishop was in Rotenberg. In the German Peasants' War in 1525, many farmers from Dielheim fought on the side of the so-called Mob of Malsch against the oppression of the rule of the prince-bishops. After the defeat of the revolt, the village had to suffer harsh penalties. In the Thirty Years' War, Dielheim was completely destroyed by the troops of the Electorate of the Palatinate of the Rhine, the Holy Roman Empire, Sweden; the region recovered only from the loss of people and buildings. Hardly had the essentials of the village been rebuilt when the War of the Palatinian Succession broke out. In 1689 the French general Mélac reduced Dielheim to ashes. For this reason no building from the time of this catastrophe remains today. From the middle of the 18th century the population of the region boomed; the overpopulation of the region led to property being split into smaller pieces due to inheritance. The fields were divided into smaller plots that could no longer support or feed the people on the land.
Hundreds attempted to find their fortune by emigrating to Hungary, Romania, Algeria, South America and above all, the United States of America. In the end, emigration was not enough to ensure that everyone remaining in Dielheim had work and enough to eat; the tobacco industry took advantage of this situation in 1850. The oversupply of labor and the low cost of that labor in the rural parts of Baden helped the cigar industry to boom. For about 100 years many people of Dielham made their living in the numerous cigar factories of the village, after which the tobacco industry went into rapid decline. From about 800 jobs only 10 remained. Workers had to take on new unfamiliar jobs; this changed Dielheim in the 1960a to a commuter town. Only the creation of Dielheim's industrial and commercial district led to the creation of its own companies, so that workers could once again find jobs in town. Today's Dielheim is known as a wine-growing region with 77 hectares of surrounding grape fields. Dielheimer Teufelskopf is known by wine lovers throughout Germany.
In 1972 Horrenberg joined the municipality of Dielheim. Horrenberg lies on a road between Speyer, Bad Wimpfen, Nuremberg, in use since Roman times; this road, named an imperial highway in 1433, was one of the most important thoroughfares in Germany up until the late Middle Ages. In medieval documents, the road is referred to as the Kaiserstraße, the emperor's highway, because over the centuries many high ranking personalities used the imperial highway; the Roman general Julian, the king of the Huns Attila, king Conrad III, king Philipp of Swabia, emperor Frederick II, king Henry VII all sojourned past the place where Horrenberg stands today. A valuable glass fragment from the 11th or 12th century found at castle Horrenberg indicates the passing of royal parties; this kind of purple-red and white glass has otherwise only been found at St. Denis in Paris, in Italian Pavia, in Birka near Stockholm. Around the year 1220, the reigning lord of the region erected a fortified tower in order to protect the imperial highway at the toll station in Horrenberg.
For the location of the fort, they chose a hill next to the highway which loomed a swampy low-lying section of the Leimbach. Ho