SRI International is an American nonprofit scientific research institute and organization headquartered in Menlo Park, California. The trustees of Stanford University established SRI in 1946 as a center of innovation to support economic development in the region; the organization was founded as the Stanford Research Institute. SRI formally separated from Stanford University in 1970 and became known as SRI International in 1977. SRI performs client-sponsored research and development for government agencies, commercial businesses, private foundations, it licenses its technologies, forms strategic partnerships, sells products, creates spin-off companies. SRI's annual revenue in 2014 was $540 million. SRI's headquarters are located near the Stanford University campus. William A. Jeffrey has served as SRI's president and CEO since September 2014. SRI employs about 2,100 people. Sarnoff Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of SRI since 1988, was integrated into SRI in January 2011. SRI's focus areas include biomedical sciences and materials, computing and space systems, economic development and learning, energy and environmental technology and national defense, as well as sensing and devices.
SRI has received more than 4,000 patent applications worldwide. In the 1920s, Stanford University professor Robert E. Swain proposed creating a research institute in the Western United States. Herbert Hoover a trustee of Stanford University, was an early proponent of an institute, but became less involved with the project after he was elected president of the United States; the development of the institute was delayed by the Great Depression in the 1930s and World War II in the 1940s, with three separate attempts leading to its formation in 1946. In August 1945, Maurice Nelles, Morlan A. Visel, Ernest L. Black of Lockheed made the first attempt to create the institute with the formation of the "Pacific Research Foundation" in Los Angeles. A second attempt was made by Henry T. Heald president of the Illinois Institute of Technology. In 1945, Heald wrote a report recommending a research institute on the West Coast and a close association with Stanford University with an initial grant of $500,000.
A third attempt was made by Stanford University's dean of engineering. Terman's proposal followed Heald's, but focused on faculty and student research more than contract research; the trustees of Stanford University voted to create the organization in 1946. It was structured so that its goals were aligned with the charter of the university—to advance scientific knowledge and to benefit the public at large, not just the students of Stanford University; the trustees were named as the corporation's general members, elected SRI's directors. Research chemist William F. Talbot became the first director of the institute. Stanford University president Donald Tresidder instructed Talbot to avoid work that would conflict with the interests of the university federal contracts that might attract political pressure; the drive to find work and the lack of support from Stanford faculty caused the new research institute to violate this directive six months through the pursuit of a contract with the Office of Naval Research.
This and other issues, including frustration with Tresidder's micromanagement of the new organization, caused Talbot to offer his resignation, which Tresidder accepted. Talbot was replaced by Jesse Hobson, who had led the Armour Research Foundation, but the pursuit of contract work remained. SRI's first research project investigated whether the guayule plant could be used as a source of natural rubber. During World War II, rubber was imported into the U. S. and was subject to strict rationing. From 1942 to 1946, the United States Department of Agriculture supported a project to create a domestic source of natural rubber. Once the war ended, the United States Congress cut funding for the program. SRI's first economic study was for the United States Air Force. In 1947, the Air Force wanted to determine the expansion potential of the U. S. aircraft industry. In 1948, SRI began research and consultation with Chevron Corporation to develop an artificial substitute for tallow and coconut oil in soap production.
Procter & Gamble used the substance as the basis for Tide laundry detergent. The institute performed much of the early research on air pollution and the formation of ozone in the lower atmosphere. SRI sponsored the First National Air Pollution Symposium in Pasadena, California, in November 1949. Experts gave presentations on pollution research, exchanged ideas and techniques, stimulated interest in the field; the event was attended by 400 scientists, business executives, civic leaders from the U. S. SRI co-sponsored subsequent events on the subject. In April 1953, Walt and Roy Disney hired SRI to consult on their proposal for establishing an amusement park in Burbank, California. SRI provided information on location, attendance patterns, economic feasibility. SRI selected a larger site in Anaheim, prepared reports about operation, provided on-site administrative support for Disneyland and acted in an advisory role as the park expanded. In 1955, SRI was c
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Gerald Jay Sussman
Gerald Jay Sussman is the Panasonic Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He received his S. B. and Ph. D. degrees in mathematics from MIT in 1968 and 1973 respectively. He has been involved in artificial intelligence research at MIT since 1964, his research has centered on understanding the problem-solving strategies used by scientists and engineers, with the goals of automating parts of the process and formalizing it to provide more effective methods of science and engineering education. Sussman has worked in computer languages, in computer architecture and in VLSI design. Sussman attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as an undergraduate and received his S. B. in mathematics in 1968. He continued his studies at MIT and obtained a Ph. D. in 1973 in mathematics, under the supervision of Seymour Papert and Marvin Minsky. His doctoral thesis was titled "A Computational Model of Skill Acquisition" focusing on artificial intelligence and machine learning, using a computational performance model called "HACKER."
Sussman is a coauthor of the introductory computer science textbook Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs. It was used at MIT for several decades, has been translated into several languages. Sussman's contributions to artificial intelligence include problem solving by debugging almost-right plans, propagation of constraints applied to electrical circuit analysis and synthesis, dependency-based explanation and dependency-based backtracking, various language structures for expressing problem-solving strategies. Sussman and his former student, Guy L. Steele Jr. invented the Scheme programming language in 1975. Sussman saw that artificial intelligence ideas can be applied to computer-aided design. Sussman developed, with his graduate students, sophisticated computer-aided design tools for VLSI. Steele made the first Scheme chips in 1978; these ideas and the AI-based CAD technology to support them were further developed in the Scheme chips of 1979 and 1981. The technique and experience developed were used to design other special-purpose computers.
Sussman was the principal designer of the Digital Orrery, a machine designed to do high-precision integrations for orbital mechanics experiments. The Orrery was designed and built by a few people in a few months, using AI-based simulation and compilation tools. Using the Digital Orrery, Sussman has worked with Jack Wisdom to discover numerical evidence for chaotic motions in the outer planets; the Digital Orrery is now retired at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. Sussman was the lead designer of the Supercomputer Toolkit, another multiprocessor computer optimized for evolving systems of ordinary differential equations; the Supercomputer Toolkit was used by Sussman and Wisdom to confirm and extend the discoveries made with the Digital Orrery to include the entire planetary system. Sussman has pioneered the use of computational descriptions to communicate methodological ideas in teaching subjects in Electrical Circuits and in Signals and Systems. Over the past decade Sussman and Wisdom have developed a subject that uses computational techniques to communicate a deeper understanding of advanced classical mechanics.
In Computer Science: Reflections on the Field, Reflections from the Field, he writes "...computational algorithms are used to express the methods used in the analysis of dynamical phenomena. Expressing the methods in a computer language forces them to be unambiguous and computationally effective. Students are expected to extend them and to write new ones; the task of formulating a method as a computer-executable program and debugging that program is a powerful exercise in the learning process. Once formalized procedurally, a mathematical idea becomes a tool that can be used directly to compute results." Sussman and Wisdom, with Meinhard Mayer, have produced a textbook and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics, to capture these new ideas. Sussman and Abelson have been a part of the Free Software Movement, including releasing MIT/GNU Scheme as free software and serving on the Board of Directors of the Free Software Foundation. For his contributions to computer-science education, Sussman received the ACM's Karl Karlstrom Outstanding Educator Award in 1990, the Amar G. Bose award for teaching in 1991.
Sussman, Hal Abelson, Richard Stallman are the only founding directors still active on the board of directors of the Free Software Foundation. Sussman is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, he is a bonded locksmith, a life member of the American Watchmakers-Clockmakers Institute, a member of the Massachusetts Watchmakers-Clockmakers Association, a member of the Amateur Telescope Makers of Boston, a member of the American Radio Relay League. Gerald Sussman is married to Julie Sussman. Julie is an MIT graduate and has studied many languages including French, German, Japanese, Swedish, Dutch and Serbo-Croatian, she has written a book on everyday Chinese characters.
Marvin Minsky Seymour Papert Terry Winograd MDL programming language Sussman anomaly Video of "Flexible Systems The Power of Generic Operations" talk for LispNYC, January 2016 Video clip of Sussman speaking a
In computer science, artificial intelligence, sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving"; as machines become capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. A quip in Tesler's Theorem says "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance, optical character recognition is excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities classified as AI include understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems, autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks and military simulations.
Artificial intelligence can be classified into three different types of systems: analytical, human-inspired, humanized artificial intelligence. Analytical AI has only characteristics consistent with cognitive intelligence. Human-inspired AI has elements from emotional intelligence. Humanized AI shows characteristics of all types of competencies, is able to be self-conscious and is self-aware in interactions with others. Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding, followed by new approaches and renewed funding. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that fail to communicate with each other; these sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals, the use of particular tools, or deep philosophical differences. Subfields have been based on social factors; the traditional problems of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, learning, natural language processing and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, methods based on statistics and economics; the AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, psychology, linguistics and many other fields. The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence "can be so described that a machine can be made to simulate it"; this raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence which are issues that have been explored by myth and philosophy since antiquity. Some people consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated. Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a risk of mass unemployment. In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, theoretical understanding.
Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, have been common in fiction, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or Karel Čapek's R. U. R.. These characters and their fates raised many of the same issues now discussed in the ethics of artificial intelligence; the study of mechanical or "formal" reasoning began with philosophers and mathematicians in antiquity. The study of mathematical logic led directly to Alan Turing's theory of computation, which suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction; this insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the Church–Turing thesis. Along with concurrent discoveries in neurobiology, information theory and cybernetics, this led researchers to consider the possibility of building an electronic brain. Turing proposed that "if a human could not distinguish between responses from a machine and a human, the machine could be considered "intelligent".
The first work, now recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts' 1943 formal design for Turing-complete "artificial neurons". The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth College in 1956. Attendees Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel became the founders and leaders of AI research, they and their students produced programs that the press described as "astonishing": computers were learning checkers strategies (and by 1959 were playing better than the average human
Sir Michael James Lighthill, was a British applied mathematician, known for his pioneering work in the field of aeroacoustics. Lighthill was educated at Winchester College, graduated with a BA from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1943, he specialised in fluid dynamics, worked at the National Physical Laboratory at Trinity. Between 1946 and 1959 he was Beyer Professor of Applied Mathematics at the University of Manchester. Lighthill moved from Manchester to become director of the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough. There he worked on the development of television and communications satellites, on the development of manned spacecraft; this latter work was used in the development of the Concorde supersonic airliner. In 1955, together with G. B. Whitham, Lighthill set out the first comprehensive theory of kinematic waves, with a multitude of applications, prime among them fluid flow and traffic flow. Lighthill's early work included two dimensional aerofoil theory, supersonic flow around solids of revolution.
In addition to the dynamics of gas at high speeds he studied shock and blast waves and introduced the squirmer model. He is credited with founding the subject of aeroacoustics, a subject vital to the reduction of noise in jet engines. Lighthill's eighth power law states that the acoustic power radiated by a jet engine is proportional to the eighth power of the jet speed, he founded non-linear acoustics, showed that the same non-linear differential equations could model both flood waves in rivers and traffic flow in highways. In 1964 he became the Royal Society's resident professor at Imperial College London, before returning to Trinity College, five years as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, a chair he held until 1979, when he was succeeded by Stephen Hawking. Lighthill became Provost of University College London – a post he held until 1989. Lighthill founded the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications in 1964, alongside Professor Sir Bryan Thwaites. In 1968, he was awarded an Honorary Degree by the University of Bath.
In 1972 he was invited to deliver the MacMillan Memorial Lecture to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. He chose the subject "Aquatic Animal Locomotion". In the early 1970s in reaction to significant internal discord within that field, the Science Research Council, as it was known, asked Lighthill to compile a review of academic research in Artificial Intelligence. Lighthill's report, published in 1973 and became known as the "Lighthill report," was critical of basic research in foundational areas such as robotics and language processing, "formed the basis for the decision by the British government to end support for AI research in all but two universities", starting what is sometimes referred to as the "AI winter". In 1982, Lighthill and Dr Alan Tayler were jointly awarded the first Gold Medal of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications in recognition of their "outstanding contributions to mathematics and its applications over a period of years". In 1983 Lighthill was awarded the Ludwig-Prandtl-Ring from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt for "outstanding contribution in the field of aerospace engineering".
His hobby was open-water swimming. He died in the water in 1998 when the mitral valve in his heart ruptured while he was swimming round the island of Sark, a feat which he had accomplished many times before. Lighthill, M. J.. "On sound generated aerodynamically. I. General theory". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 211: 564–587. Bibcode:1952RSPSA.211..564L. Doi:10.1098/rspa.1952.0060. Lighthill, M. J.. "On sound generated aerodynamically. II. Turbulence as a source of sound". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 222: 1–32. Bibcode:1954RSPSA.222....1L. Doi:10.1098/rspa.1954.0049. Lighthill, M. J.. Introduction to Fourier Analysis. Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09128-2. Lighthill, M. J.. Introduction to Fourier analysis and generalised functions. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-05556-7. Lighthill, M. J.. Higher approximations in aerodynamics theory. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-07976-9. Lighthill, M. J.. An informal introduction to theoretical fluid mechanics.
Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-853630-7. Lighthill, M. J.. Mathematical Biofluiddynamics. CBMS-NSF Regional Conference Series in Applied Mathematics. Society for Industrial Mathematics. ISBN 978-0-89871-014-4. Lighthill, M. J.. Waves in fluids. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-01045-0. Lighthill, M. J.. Hussaini, M. Yousuff, ed. Collected papers of Sir James Lighthill. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509222-6. Lighthill method in differential equations James Lighthill House
In logic and proof theory, natural deduction is a kind of proof calculus in which logical reasoning is expressed by inference rules related to the "natural" way of reasoning. This contrasts with Hilbert-style systems, which instead use axioms as much as possible to express the logical laws of deductive reasoning. Natural deduction grew out of a context of dissatisfaction with the axiomatizations of deductive reasoning common to the systems of Hilbert and Russell; such axiomatizations were most famously used by Russell and Whitehead in their mathematical treatise Principia Mathematica. Spurred on by a series of seminars in Poland in 1926 by Łukasiewicz that advocated a more natural treatment of logic, Jaśkowski made the earliest attempts at defining a more natural deduction, first in 1929 using a diagrammatic notation, updating his proposal in a sequence of papers in 1934 and 1935, his proposals led to different notations such as Fitch-style calculus or Suppes' method of which e.g. Lemmon gave a variant called system L.
Natural deduction in its modern form was independently proposed by the German mathematician Gerhard Gentzen in 1934, in a dissertation delivered to the faculty of mathematical sciences of the University of Göttingen. The term natural deduction was coined in that paper: Ich wollte nun zunächst einmal einen Formalismus aufstellen, der dem wirklichen Schließen möglichst nahe kommt. So ergab sich ein "Kalkül des natürlichen Schließens". Gentzen was motivated by a desire to establish the consistency of number theory, he was unable to prove the main result required for the consistency result, the cut elimination theorem—the Hauptsatz—directly for natural deduction. For this reason he introduced his alternative system, the sequent calculus, for which he proved the Hauptsatz both for classical and intuitionistic logic. In a series of seminars in 1961 and 1962 Prawitz gave a comprehensive summary of natural deduction calculi, transported much of Gentzen's work with sequent calculi into the natural deduction framework.
His 1965 monograph Natural deduction: a proof-theoretical study was to become a reference work on natural deduction, included applications for modal and second-order logic. In natural deduction, a proposition is deduced from a collection of premises by applying inference rules repeatedly; the system presented in this article is a minor variation of Gentzen's or Prawitz's formulation, but with a closer adherence to Martin-Löf's description of logical judgments and connectives. A judgment is something, knowable, that is, an object of knowledge, it is evident. Thus "it is raining" is a judgment, evident for the one who knows that it is raining. In mathematical logic however, evidence is not as directly observable, but rather deduced from more basic evident judgments; the process of deduction is. The most important judgments in logic are of the form "A is true"; the letter A stands for any expression representing a proposition. Many other judgments have been studied. To start with, we shall concern ourselves with the simplest two judgments "A is a proposition" and "A is true", abbreviated as "A prop" and "A true" respectively.
The judgment "A prop" defines the structure of valid proofs of A, which in turn defines the structure of propositions. For this reason, the inference rules for this judgment are sometimes known as formation rules. To illustrate, if we have two propositions A and B we form the compound proposition A and B, written symbolically as " A ∧ B ". We can write this in the form of an inference rule: A prop B prop prop ∧ F where the parentheses are omitted to make the inference rule more succinct: A prop B prop A ∧ B prop ∧ F This inference rule is schematic: A and B can be instantiated with any expression; the general form of an inference rule is: J 1 J 2 ⋯ J n J name where each J i is a judgment and the inference rule is named "name". The judgments above the line are known as premises, those below the line are conclusions. Other common logical propositions are disjunction ( A
John McCarthy (computer scientist)
John McCarthy was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist. McCarthy was one of the founders of the discipline of artificial intelligence, he coined the term "artificial intelligence", developed the Lisp programming language family influenced the design of the ALGOL programming language, popularized timesharing, was influential in the early development of AI. McCarthy spent most his career at Stanford University, he received many accolades and honors, such as the 1971 Turing Award for his contributions to the topic of AI, the United States National Medal of Science, the Kyoto Prize. John McCarthy was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on September 4, 1927, to an Irish immigrant father and a Lithuanian Jewish immigrant mother, John Patrick and Ida Glatt McCarthy; the family was obliged to relocate during the Great Depression, until McCarthy's father found work as an organizer for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers in Los Angeles, California. His father came from the fishing village of Cromane in Ireland.
His mother died in 1957. McCarthy was exceptionally intelligent, graduated from Belmont High School two years early. McCarthy was accepted into Caltech in 1944. McCarthy showed an early aptitude for mathematics; as a result, he was able to skip the first two years of mathematics at Caltech. McCarthy was suspended from Caltech for failure to attend physical education courses, he served in the US Army and was readmitted, receiving a B. S. in mathematics in 1948. It was at Caltech. McCarthy completed graduate studies at Caltech before moving to Princeton University, he received a Ph. D. in mathematics from the institution in 1951 as a student of Solomon Lefschetz. After short-term appointments at Princeton and Stanford University, McCarthy became an assistant professor at Dartmouth in 1955. A year McCarthy moved to MIT as a research fellow in the autumn of 1956. In 1962, McCarthy became a full professor at Stanford, where he remained until his retirement in 2000. By the end of his early days at MIT he was affectionately referred to as "Uncle John" by his students.
McCarthy championed mathematical logic for artificial intelligence. John McCarthy is one of the "founding fathers" of artificial intelligence, together with Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell, Herbert A. Simon. McCarthy coined the term "artificial intelligence" in 1955, organized the famous Dartmouth conference in Summer 1956; this conference started AI as a field. In 1958, he proposed the advice taker, which inspired work on question-answering and logic programming. John McCarthy invented Lisp in the late 1950s. Based on the lambda calculus, Lisp soon became the programming language of choice for AI applications after its publication in 1960. In 1958, McCarthy served on an ACM Ad hoc Committee on Languages that became part of the committee that designed ALGOL 60. In August 1959 he proposed the use of recursion and conditional expressions, which became part of ALGOL. Around 1959, he invented so-called "garbage collection" methods to solve problems in Lisp, he helped to motivate the creation of Project MAC at MIT.
At Stanford University, he helped establish the Stanford AI Laboratory, for many years a friendly rival to Project MAC. In 1961, he was the first to suggest publicly the idea of utility computing, in a speech given to celebrate MIT's centennial: that computer time-sharing technology might result in a future in which computing power and specific applications could be sold through the utility business model; this idea of a computer or information utility was popular during the late 1960s, but faded by the mid-1990s. However, since 2000, the idea has resurfaced in new forms. In 1966, McCarthy and his team at Stanford wrote a computer program used to play a series of chess games with counterparts in the Soviet Union. From 1978 to 1986, McCarthy developed the circumscription method of non-monotonic reasoning. McCarthy is credited with developing an early form of time-sharing, his colleague Lester Earnest told the Los Angeles Times: "The Internet would not have happened nearly as soon as it did except for the fact that John initiated the development of time-sharing systems.
We keep inventing new names for time-sharing. It came to be called servers... Now we call; that is still just time-sharing. John started it."In 1982 he seems to have originated the idea of the "space fountain", a type of tower extending into space and kept vertical by the outward force of a stream of pellets propelled from Earth along a sort of conveyor belt which returns the pellets to Earth. McCarthy commented on world affairs on the Usenet forums; some of his ideas can be found in his sustainability Web page, "aimed at showing that human material progress is desirable and sustainable". McCarthy was a serious book reader, an optimist, a staunch supporter of free speech, his best Usenet interaction is visible in rec.arts.books archives. And John attended SF Bay Area dinners in Palo Alto of r.a.b. Readers called rab-fests. John went on to defend free speech criticism involving European ethnic jokes at Stanford. McCarthy saw the importance of mathematics and mathematics education, his Usenet.sig for years was, "He who refuses to do arithmetic is doo