In terrestrial animals, plantigrade locomotion means walking with the toes and metatarsals flat on the ground. It is one of three forms of locomotion adopted by terrestrial mammals; the other options are digitigrade, walking on the toes with the heel and wrist permanently raised, unguligrade, walking on the nail or nails of the toes with the heel/wrist and the digits permanently raised. The leg of a plantigrade mammal includes the bones of lower leg; the leg of a digitigrade mammal includes the metatarsals/metacarpals, the bones that in a human compose the arch of the foot and the palm of the hand. The leg of an unguligrade mammal includes the phalanges, the finger and toe bones. Among extinct animals, most early mammals such as pantodonts were plantigrade. A plantigrade foot is the primitive condition for mammals. Among archosaurs, the pterosaurs were plantigrade, walking on the whole of the hind foot and the fingers of the hand-wing. Plantigrade mammal species include: primates Carnivora: Procyonidae: raccoons Musteloidea: wolverines, skunks bears red pandas Barbourofelis rodents: mice, rats lagomorphs: rabbits hedgehogs hyraxes Marsupialia: kangaroos The primary advantages of a plantigrade foot are stability and weight-bearing ability.
The primary disadvantage of a plantigrade foot is speed. With more bones and joints in the foot, the leg is both shorter and heavier at the far end, which makes it difficult to move rapidly. In humans and other great apes, another possible advantage of a plantigrade foot is that it may enhance fighting performance. Plantigrade foot occurs in humans in static postures of standing and sitting, it should occur in gait. Hypertonicity, clonus, limited range of motion, abnormal flexion neural pattern, a plantar flexor muscle contracture, as well as some forms of footwear such as high heeled shoes, may contribute to an individual only standing and/or walking on his or her toes; this would be evident by the observable heel rise
A double album is a collection of two LP records or Compact Discs bought as a single unit. This allows a performance longer than the standard running time of the medium to be presented as a single package; until the mid-1960s, double albums were rare and not considered significant. The first popular example was Bob Dylan's Blonde on Blonde, released in 1966, soon followed by The Mothers of Invention's debut album Freak Out!. The Beatles' White Album, released in 1968, showed a wide variety of musical styles that the group thought would be difficult to cram onto a single LP. μ-ziq - Bluff Limbo - 2×CD - studio The 1975 - The 1975 - 2×LP - studio Aphrodite's Child - 666 2×LP - studio Above This - Alloquy & Terrene - 2xLP - studio Acid Mothers Temple & the Melting Paraiso U. F. O. - Do Whatever You Want, Don't Do Whatever You Don't!! - 2xCD compilation Aera - Mechelwind Ryan Adams and The Cardinals - Cold Roses - 2×CD - studio Afroman - Afroholic... The Even Better Times - 2×CD - studio Christina Aguilera - Back to Basics - 2×CD - studio Air Liquide - The Increased Difficulty of Concentration - 2×CD - studio The Allman Brothers Band - At Fillmore East - 2×LP - live Bernard Allison - Live at the Jazzhaus The Allman Brothers Band - Eat a Peach - 2×LP - live/studio The Allman Brothers Band - Beginnings - 2×LP, 1×CD - compilation The Allman Brothers Band - Wipe The Windows, Check The Oil, Dollar Gas - 2×LP - live Almunia - Pulsar - 2×LP - studio Alquin - 3 Originals - 2×CD reissue Alquin - The Marks sessions: Expanded edition - 2×CD - reissue Amanaz - Africa - 2×LP.
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The Haddingjar refers on the one hand to legends about two brothers by this name, on the other hand to related legends based on the Hasdingi, the royal dynasty of the Vandals. The accounts vary greatly, it has been suggested that they were two Proto-Germanic legendary heroes by the name *Hazdingōz, meaning the "longhairs", that they were identical to the Alci mentioned by Tacitus. According to Tacitus, the Alci were worshiped as gods by priests in female clothing: and the Nahanarvali. Among these last is shown a grove of immemorial sanctity. A priest in female attire has the charge of it, but the deities are described in Roman language as Pollux. Such, are the attributes of the divinity, the name being Alcis, they have no images, or, any vestige of foreign superstition, but it is as brothers and as youths that the deities are worshipped. Cassius Dio mentioned c. 170 the Astingoi as a noble clan among the Vandals, the Asdingi reappear, in the 6th century in Jordanes' work as the royal dynasty of the Vandals.
The root appears in Old Icelandic as haddr meaning "woman's hair", the motivation for the name Haddingjar/Astingoi/Asdingi was that men from Germanic royal dynasties sported long hair as a mark of dignity. In the Middle High German heroic lays, there are two brothers named Hartunge, who appear in the Scandinavian Þiðrekssaga as Hertnið and Hartnið. In Middle High German works, they appear as Ortnīt and Hirðir. In the Hervarar saga, Gesta Danorum, Orvar-Odd's saga and Lay of Hyndla, there are two Haddingjar among the twelve sons of the berserker Arngrim. Oddly, in Orvar-Odd's saga, after his friend Orvar-Odd had killed these two Haddingjar, Hjalmar mentions in his death song two Haddingjar among his friends back in Sigtuna. In Hversu Noregr byggðist, there is a Hadding Raumsson, the king of Haddingdalen in Norway, he is succeeded by a grandson by the same name. After his great-grandson Högni, there is a succession of three more generations named Hadding, making six Haddingjar in the same line.
The prose section following Helgakviða Hundingsbana II, there is a Helgi Haddingjaskati referring to a now lost poem named Káruljóð, named after Helgi's beloved, the Valkyrie Kára. This poem survives in an altered form as Hrómundar saga Gripssonar, where Helgi fights in the service of two Swedish kings by the name Haldingr. In the oldest one of the Gudrun lays, the Guðrúnarkviða II, Gudrun says that the potion of oblivion that her mother had given her contained several runes, among them the "unshorn corn ear of Haddingland" a magic Vandal rune. In Kálfsvísa, in Snorri Sturluson's Skáldskaparmál, it is said that the king of the Haddingjar rode a horse named Skævað. In Gesta Danorum there is a Haddingus about, he is a memory of the Hasdingi, the royal clan of the Vandals. The original name of the Norwegian valley Hallingdal was Haddingjadalr. Local legends state that Hadding was a king of this valley, that it was named after him. After him, his sons, the two Haddings, fought over control of the valley.
One of them was killed, was buried in a mound in Gol, still known for sightings of huldufolk. Ohlmarks, Åke.. Fornnordiskt lexikon. Tiden. ISBN 91-550-2511-0 The article Hadding in Nordisk familjebok