Pwllheli is a community and the main market town of the Llŷn Peninsula in Gwynedd, north-western Wales. It had a population of 4,076 in 2011 of whom 81 %, are Welsh speaking. Pwllheli is the place, it is the birthplace of the Welsh poet Sir Albert Evans-Jones. The town's name means salt water basin; the town was given its charter as a borough by Edward, the Black Prince, in 1355, a market is still held each Wednesday in the centre of the town on'Y Maes'. The town grew around the shipbuilding and fishing industries, the granite quarry at Gimlet Rock. During the 1890s, the town was developed by a Cardiff businessman; this work included the Promenade and houses at West End. A tramway was built linking the town to Llanbedrog; the trams ran until 1927 when the section of track between Carreg-y-Defaid and Tyddyn-Caled was damaged by a storm. Andrews ran the Cardiff Road section in 1928, offered to sell the tramway to Pwllheli Corporation at the end of the season, but they did not take up his offer, he sold the assets, the Corporation removed the tracks during the winter of 1928/29.
For many years a holiday camp run by Butlins operated a few miles from Pwllheli at Pen-y-chain. During the Second World War it became a naval camp, HMS Glendower, it operated a hospital for wounded servicemen at Brynberyl on the Pwllheli to Caernarfon road two miles out of town. After the war, Butlins re-established the holiday camp; the camp, now renamed Hafan y Môr, is now run by the Haven group. Pwllheli is the main town of the Llŷn Peninsula, has a range of shops and other services; as a local railhead with a market every Wednesday, the town is a gathering point for the population of the whole peninsula. Ysgol Cymerau, primary school Ysgol Glan y Môr, secondary school Ysgol Glan y Môr was formed by the merger in 1969 of the former Pwllheli Grammar School at Penrallt and the Frondeg Secondary Modern School in Upper Ala Road, to form a comprehensive school based at two separate sites in the town; the junior pupils were located at the Penrallt site and the senior pupils at a new complex in Cardiff Road.
This new school was subsequently expanded to accommodate all pupils under the Ysgol Glan y Môr name. The Penrallt site was redeveloped as the Pwllheli campus of Coleg Meirion-Dwyfor; the façade of the main building of the old grammar school was retained and incorporated into the design of the current college buildings. Thus the'old school' is seen from the town square as it has been since the former Pwllheli County School moved to Penrallt in the early 20th century. Coleg Meirion-Dwyfor Pwllheli railway station is the terminus of the Cambrian Coast Railway running to Machynlleth with services continuing to Shrewsbury and Birmingham; the station is served by Transport for Wales. The rail link to Caernarfon via the Carnarvonshire Railway was axed under the Beeching cuts and closed in December 1964. Pwllheli is connected to the wider road network by the A497 to Porthmadog and the A499 to Caernarfon. From there, major roads lead away from Gwynedd to the rest of Wales. Bus services in the town are operated by Arriva Buses Wales and Nefyn Coaches and serve most of the town as well as the rest of the wider Llŷn Peninsula area.
Clynnog & Trefor run services to Caernarfon where connections can be made to Bangor and the wider North Wales area. Pwllheli bus station is situated in the town centre. Plas Bodegroes a Michelin starred restaurant Two Blue Flag beaches Penarth Fawr a 15th-century house Marina Hafan y Môr, a former Butlins holiday camp now operated by Haven Pwllheli Market Clwb Golff Pwllheli - a par 69 links and parkland golf course Pwllheli Sailing Club - hosts national and international events Neuadd Dwyfor - theatre and cinema located in Penlan StreetPwllheli has a section of the Wales Coast Path along its shoreline. Pwllheli hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1925 and 1955, as well as an unofficial National Eisteddfod event in 1875. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, 80% of the population speak Welsh, with the highest percentage of Welsh speakers in the 10-14 age bracket, 94%. Pwllheli is home to association football team Pwllheli F. C. rugby union team Pwllheli RFC and Running Club Llŷn Striders.
Pwllheli is a hub for water sports, due in part to a large and modern marina, Pwllheli Sailing Club, Plas Heli - the Welsh National Sailing Academy. The town has South Beach and Glan don. South Beach stretches from Gimlet Rock, across the Promenade and West End, towards Penrhos and Llanbedrog. Glan don Beach is located on the eastern side of the river mouth and runs for 3 miles from behind the marina workshops and out towards Penychain; the town has a popular golf club, located on the beautiful Llŷn coastline. Official Website for Pwllheli Memories of Butlin's at Pwllheli www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Pwllheli and surrounding area list of ships built at Pwllheli at Rhiw.com
The Llŷn Peninsula extends 30 miles into the Irish Sea from north west Wales, south west of the Isle of Anglesey. It is part of the historic county of Caernarfonshire, historic region and local authority area of Gwynedd. Much of the eastern part of the peninsula, around Criccieth, may be regarded as part of Eifionydd rather than Llŷn, although the boundary is somewhat vague; the area of Llŷn is about 400 km2, its population is at least 20,000. The peninsula was travelled by pilgrims en route to Bardsey Island, its relative isolation has helped to conserve the Welsh language and culture, for which the locality is now famous; this perceived remoteness from urban life has lent the area an unspoilt image which has made Llŷn a popular destination for both tourists and holiday home owners. Holiday homes remain a bone of contention among locals, many of whom are priced out of the housing market by incomers. From the 1970s to the 1990s, a shadowy group known as Meibion Glyndŵr claimed responsibility for several hundred arson attacks on holiday homes using incendiary devices, some of which took place in Llŷn.
The Llyn Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers c. 62 square miles. The name Llŷn is sometimes spelled Lleyn, although this spelling is now less common and is considered to be an anglicisation; the name is thought to be of Irish origin, to have the same root – Laigin in Irish – as the word Leinster and which occurs in Porth Dinllaen on the north coast. Following the death of Owain Whitetooth, king of Gwynedd, Owain's son Saint Einion seems to have ruled Llŷn as a kingdom separate from his brother Cuneglas' kingdom in Rhos, he is credited with having sponsored Saint Cadfan's monastery on Bardsey Island, which became a major centre of pilgrimage during medieval times. There are numerous wells throughout the peninsula. Many have holy connotations and they were important stops for pilgrims heading to the island; the most rural parts are characterised by small houses and individual farms, resembling parts of south west Ireland. There are small compact villages, built of traditional materials; the only large-scale industrial activities were quarrying and mining, which have now ceased.
The granite quarries of northern Llŷn have left a legacy of inclines and export docks, were the reason for the growth of villages such as Llithfaen and Trefor. Copper and lead were mined around Llanengan, while 196,770 long tons of manganese were produced at Y Rhiw between 1894 and 1945; the Penrhyn Dû mines have been extensively mined since the seventeenth century around Abersoch. Shipbuilding was important at Nefyn, Aberdaron and Llanaelhaearn, although the industry collapsed after the introduction of steel ships from 1880. Nefyn was an important herring port, most coastal communities fished for crab and lobster. Farming was simple and organic, but underwent major changes after the Second World War as machines came into widespread use. Land was drained and fields expanded and reseeded. From the 1950s onwards, extensive use was made of artificial fertilizers and pesticides, leading to drastic changes in the appearance of the landscape. Tourism developed after the railway to Pwllheli was built in 1867.
The town expanded with several large houses and hotels constructed, a tramway was built linking the town to Llanbedrog. After the Second World War, Butlins established a holiday camp at Penychain, which attracted visitors from the industrial cities of North West England and the West Midlands; as car ownership increased, the tourist industry spread to the countryside and to coastal villages such as Aberdaron, Abersoch and Nefyn, where many families supplemented their income by letting out rooms and houses. Pwllheli was the administrative centre of Llŷn for over 700 years, it was a royal maerdref of the Kingdom of Gwynedd, became a free borough following the English conquest. In the 18th and 19th centuries over 400 ships were built there. Llŷn is an extensive plateau dominated by mountains; the largest of these is Yr Eifl, although Garn Boduan, Garn Fadrun and Mynydd Rhiw are distinctive. Large stretches of the northern coast consist of steep cliffs and rugged rocks with offshore islands and stacks, while there are more extensive sandy beaches on the southern coast, such as Porth Neigwl and Castellmarch Beach.
North of Abersoch a series of sand dunes have developed. The landscape is divided into a patchwork of fields, with the traditional field boundaries, stone walls and cloddiau, a prominent feature; the geology of Llŷn is complex: the majority is formed from volcanic rocks of the Ordovician period. Rocks of Cambrian origin occur south of Abersoch. Numerous granite intrusions and outcrops of rhyolite form prominent hills such as Yr Eifl, whilst gabbro is found at the west end of Porth Neigwl; the western part of the peninsula is formed from Precambrian rocks, the majority of which are considered to form a part of the Monian Complex and thus to be related to the rocks of Anglesey. Numerous faults cut the area and a major shear zone - the Llyn Shear Zone - runs northeast to southwest through the Monian rocks. In 1984 there was an earthquake beneath the peninsula, which measured 5.4 on the Richter Scale and was felt in many parts of Ireland and western Britain. The area was overrun by Irish Sea ice during the ice ages and this has left a legacy of boulder clay and of meltwater channels.
Llŷn is notable for its large number of protected sites, including a national nature reserve at Cors Ge
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830; the style was revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial Revival architecture and in the early 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture. In the United States the term "Georgian" is used to describe all buildings from the period, regardless of style; the Georgian style is variable, but marked by symmetry and proportion based on the classical architecture of Greece and Rome, as revived in Renaissance architecture. Ornament is normally in the classical tradition, but restrained, sometimes completely absent on the exterior; the period brought the vocabulary of classical architecture to smaller and more modest buildings than had been the case before, replacing English vernacular architecture for all new middle-class homes and public buildings by the end of the period.
Georgian architecture is characterized by its balance. Regularity, as with ashlar stonework, was approved, imbuing symmetry and adherence to classical rules: the lack of symmetry, where Georgian additions were added to earlier structures remaining visible, was felt as a flaw, at least before Nash began to introduce it in a variety of styles. Regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning; until the start of the Gothic Revival in the early 19th century, Georgian designs lay within the Classical orders of architecture and employed a decorative vocabulary derived from ancient Rome or Greece. In towns, which expanded during the period, landowners turned into property developers, rows of identical terraced houses became the norm; the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an enormous amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world, the standards of construction were high.
Where they have not been demolished, large numbers of Georgian buildings have survived two centuries or more, they still form large parts of the core of cities such as London, Dublin, Newcastle upon Tyne and Bristol. The period saw the growth of a trained architectural profession; this contrasted with earlier styles, which were disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system. But most buildings were still designed by builders and landlords together, the wide spread of Georgian architecture, the Georgian styles of design more came from dissemination through pattern books and inexpensive suites of engravings. Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny had editions in America as well as Britain. A similar phenomenon can be seen in the commonality of housing designs in Canada and the United States from the 19th century down to the 1950s, using pattern books drawn up by professional architects that were distributed by lumber companies and hardware stores to contractors and homebuilders.
From the mid-18th century, Georgian styles were assimilated into an architectural vernacular that became part and parcel of the training of every architect, builder, carpenter and plasterer, from Edinburgh to Maryland. Georgian succeeded the English Baroque of Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh, Thomas Archer, William Talman, Nicholas Hawksmoor; the architect James Gibbs was a transitional figure, his earlier buildings are Baroque, reflecting the time he spent in Rome in the early 18th century, but he adjusted his style after 1720. Major architects to promote the change in direction from baroque were Colen Campbell, author of the influential book Vitruvius Britannicus. Other prominent architects of the early Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, John Wood, the Elder; the European Grand Tour became common for wealthy patrons in the period, Italian influence remained dominant, though at the start of the period Hanover Square, Westminster and occupied by Whig supporters of the new dynasty, seems to have deliberately adopted German stylistic elements in their honour vertical bands connecting the windows.
The styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture—and its whimsical alternatives and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking world's equivalent of European Rococo. From the mid-1760s a range of Neoclassical modes were fashionable, associated with the British architects Robert Adam, James Gibbs, Sir William Chambers, James Wyatt, George Dance the Younger, Henry Holland and Sir John Soane. John Nash was one of the
Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French tyre company Michelin for more than a century. The term refers to the annually published Michelin Red Guide, the oldest European hotel and restaurant reference guide, which awards up to three Michelin stars for excellence to a select few establishments; the acquisition or loss of a star can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin publishes a series of general guides to cities and countries, the Green Guides. In 1900, there were fewer than 3,000 cars on the roads of France. To increase the demand for cars and, car tires, car tire manufacturers and brothers Édouard and André Michelin published a guide for French motorists in 1900, the Michelin Guide. Nearly 35,000 copies of this first, free edition of the guide were distributed. Four years in 1904, the brothers published a guide to Belgium similar to the Michelin Guide. Michelin subsequently introduced guides for Tunisia. In 1909, an English-language version of the guide to France was published.
During World War I, publication of the guide was suspended. After the war, revised editions of the guide continued to be given away until 1920, it is said that André Michelin, whilst visiting a tire merchant, noticed copies of the guide being used to prop up a workbench. Based on the principle that "man only respects what he pays for", Michelin decided to charge a price for the guide, about 750 francs or $2.15 in 1922. They made several changes, notably listing restaurants by specific categories, adding hotel listings, removing advertisements in the guide. Recognizing the growing popularity of the restaurant section of the guide, the brothers recruited a team of inspectors to visit and review restaurants, who were always anonymous. Following the usage of the Murray's and Baedeker guides, the guide began to award stars for fine dining establishments in 1926. There was only a single star awarded. In 1931, the hierarchy of zero, one and three stars was introduced. In 1936, the criteria for the starred rankings were published:: "A good restaurant in its category": "Excellent cooking, worth a detour": "Exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey".
In 1931 the cover of the guide was changed from blue to red, has remained so in all subsequent editions. During World War II, publication was again suspended, but in 1944, at the request of the Allied Forces, the 1939 guide to France was specially reprinted for military use. Publication of the annual guide resumed on 16 May 1945, a week after VE Day. In the early post-war years the lingering effects of wartime shortages led Michelin to impose an upper limit of two stars; the first Michelin Guide to Italy was published in 1956. It awarded no stars in the first edition. In 1974, the first guide to Britain since 1931 was published. Twenty-five stars were awarded. In 2005, Michelin published its first American guide, covering 500 restaurants in the five boroughs of New York City and 50 hotels in Manhattan. In 2007, a Tokyo Michelin Guide was launched. In the same year, the guide introduced Étoile. In 2008, a Hong Kong and Macau volume was added; as of 2013, the guide is published in 14 editions covering 23 countries.
In 2008, the German restaurateur Juliane Caspar was appointed editor-in-chief of the French edition of the guide. She had been responsible for the Michelin guides to Germany and Austria, she became first non-French national to occupy the French position. The German newspaper Die Welt commented on the appointment, "In view of the fact German cuisine is regarded as a lethal weapon in most parts of France, this decision is like Mercedes announcing that its new director of product development is a Martian." Red Guides have listed many more restaurants than rival guides, relying on an extensive system of symbols to describe each one in as little as two lines. Reviews of starred restaurants include two to three culinary specialties. Short summaries were added in 2002/2003 to enhance descriptions of many establishments; these summaries are written in the language of the country for which the guide is published but the symbols are the same throughout all editions. Michelin reviewers are anonymous. Many of the company's top executives have never met an inspector.
The inspectors write reports that are distilled, in annual "stars meetings" at the guide's various national offices, into the r